Allison M. Krusky, MPH, RD
Justin E. Heinze, PhD
Thomas M. Reischl, PhD
Sophie M. Aiyer, PhD
Susan Franzen, MS
Marc A. Zim...
FOCUS OF INTERVENTION
INTERVENTION
APPROACH

UNIVERSAL

HIGH RISK

INDIVIDUAL

RELATIONSHIP

COMMUNITY

Youth
Empowerment
...


6,137 Properties



Parcel Maintenance Observation Tool

3


Fear of crime



Crime



Negative health and
social impacts

4






Improved mental
health
Reduced fear of
crime
Reduced
crime

5
Residential Lawn Maintenance
• Opportunity for social
interaction
• Opportunity for
surveillance
• Territorial marking
• I...




Proximity
Similar House
Design



Opposing Side



Unique

7


Community
garden
participants
◦ Social Capital
◦ Neighborhood
Norms and Values

8


Residents
◦ Perceived as “safe areas”
◦ Connection to Nature
◦ Community Bond
◦ Empowerment

9
Produce Gardens
• Sole purpose of parcel
is to grow fruits and/or
vegetables
• Ownership
– LandBank Properties
– Local res...


Programs
◦ Clean and Green
◦ Adopt a Lot
◦ Land Lease

11


1970
◦ Population: 196,940
◦ GM jobs: ~80,000



2010
◦ Population: 102,434
◦ GM jobs: <8,000

12
13


Do urban produce gardens influence the lawn
maintenance of nearby properties?

14


Mowing and Weeding



Landscaping



Litter and Trash

15
16
17
18
Produce Gardens and Nearby Residential, Occupied Properties

19
Vacant Lots and Nearby Residential, Occupied Properties

20
Residential, Occupied Properties

21
Final Sample

22
Neighborhood Factors
• Census
– Population Density
– Percent Occupied
Households

• MI-YVPC Survey
–
–
–
–

Social Capital...


Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM)



Final Model:

◦ Level 1: Parcel Characteristics
 Near Produce Garden or not

◦ ...
Table 1. Effect of living within 50 meters of a produce garden or vacant lot on mean lawn maintenance score
(parcel n=399,...


Cautions about causal inference



Gardens not randomly placed



Generalizability

26






Reduction of Urban
Blight
Social Diffusion of
Benefits
Flint has
opportunities to
invest in greening

27


LandBank
◦ Clean and Green, Adopt a Lot



Greened Areas and Crime

28
For more information please visit:

http://yvpc.sph.umich.edu/

29
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Urban Produce Gardens and Maintenance of Nearby Parcels at the American Criminology Society 11-15-2013 (Alison Krusky)

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Urban Produce Gardens and Maintenance of Nearby Parcels:
Allison M. Krusky, MPH, RD
Justin E. Heinze, PhD
Thomas M. Reischl, PhD
Sophie M. Aiyer, PhD
Susan Franzen, MS
Marc A. Zimmerman, PhD

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  • Explain MI-YVPC
  • Explain MI-YVPC
  • Say the word “outcomes” of NH Disorganiztion
  • Say the word “Outcomes of neighborhood maintenance”
  • Groenewegen, van den Berg, de Vries &amp; Verheij (2006): Vitamin G (point 1)Kuo0 and Sullivan (2001): Environment and Crime in the Inner City (point 2)Malakoff’s ACGA monograph reviews two unpublished reports, one from Philadelphia (cite) and another from San Francisco (cite) that observed marked reductions in burglaries, thefts and illicit drug dealing in neighborhoods with garden projects. Well maintained green areas promote health and well-being: Reduced mental fatigue, aggression, violence, crimeLower blood pressure and muscle tensionIncrease social cohesion by promoting opportunities for interaction among residents
  • Explain where this idea came from. Hot spots are highly maintained, blue are poorly maintained areas
  • Explain where this idea came from. Hot spots are highly maintained, blue are poorly maintained areas
  • Outcomes – make sure note that this is for “well cared for parks and gardens”
  • Make sure to note that produce gardens also had to be “actively maintained”
  • Define lawn maintenanceSelect appropriate properties to compare
  • After controlling for neighborhood level population and social characteristics, we found better lawn maintenance in residential, occupied properties near produce gardens Found the same at 100m.
  • Urban Produce Gardens and Maintenance of Nearby Parcels at the American Criminology Society 11-15-2013 (Alison Krusky)

    1. 1. Allison M. Krusky, MPH, RD Justin E. Heinze, PhD Thomas M. Reischl, PhD Sophie M. Aiyer, PhD Susan Franzen, MS Marc A. Zimmerman, PhD This project is supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Grant Number 5U01CE001957-02. 1
    2. 2. FOCUS OF INTERVENTION INTERVENTION APPROACH UNIVERSAL HIGH RISK INDIVIDUAL RELATIONSHIP COMMUNITY Youth Empowerment Solutions Fathers & Sons Clean & Green Adopt-a-Lot ED Brief Intervention Mentoring Community Policing 2
    3. 3.  6,137 Properties  Parcel Maintenance Observation Tool 3
    4. 4.  Fear of crime  Crime  Negative health and social impacts 4
    5. 5.    Improved mental health Reduced fear of crime Reduced crime 5
    6. 6. Residential Lawn Maintenance • Opportunity for social interaction • Opportunity for surveillance • Territorial marking • Improved neighborhood aesthetics 6
    7. 7.   Proximity Similar House Design  Opposing Side  Unique 7
    8. 8.  Community garden participants ◦ Social Capital ◦ Neighborhood Norms and Values 8
    9. 9.  Residents ◦ Perceived as “safe areas” ◦ Connection to Nature ◦ Community Bond ◦ Empowerment 9
    10. 10. Produce Gardens • Sole purpose of parcel is to grow fruits and/or vegetables • Ownership – LandBank Properties – Local residents: Community garden – Individuals 10
    11. 11.  Programs ◦ Clean and Green ◦ Adopt a Lot ◦ Land Lease 11
    12. 12.  1970 ◦ Population: 196,940 ◦ GM jobs: ~80,000  2010 ◦ Population: 102,434 ◦ GM jobs: <8,000 12
    13. 13. 13
    14. 14.  Do urban produce gardens influence the lawn maintenance of nearby properties? 14
    15. 15.  Mowing and Weeding  Landscaping  Litter and Trash 15
    16. 16. 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. 18
    19. 19. Produce Gardens and Nearby Residential, Occupied Properties 19
    20. 20. Vacant Lots and Nearby Residential, Occupied Properties 20
    21. 21. Residential, Occupied Properties 21
    22. 22. Final Sample 22
    23. 23. Neighborhood Factors • Census – Population Density – Percent Occupied Households • MI-YVPC Survey – – – – Social Capital/ Cohesion Neighborhood Disorder Fear of Crime Neighborhood Participation 23
    24. 24.  Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM)  Final Model: ◦ Level 1: Parcel Characteristics  Near Produce Garden or not ◦ Level 2: Neighborhood Characteristics       Social Capital/Cohesion Neighborhood Disorder Fear of Crime Neighborhood Participation Population Density Percent Owner-Occupied Households 24
    25. 25. Table 1. Effect of living within 50 meters of a produce garden or vacant lot on mean lawn maintenance score (parcel n=399, census block group n=15) Sample Residential, Occupied properties within 50 meters a produce garden or vacant lot Predictor Model 1a Near Produce Garden or not (1=Yes, 0=No) Intercept B01 Model 1b Near Produce Garden or not (1=Yes, 0=No) Intercept B0 Population Density Percent Owner Occupied Properties Social Capital/Cohesion (z-score) Neighborhood Disorder (z-score) Neighborhood Participation (z-score) Fear of Crime (z-score) Coefficient .25* -.06 .19* -.38* -.00 .01 1.95** 1.64** -.48* .89 *p < 0.05, ** p< 0.01, μ0=n.s. 25
    26. 26.  Cautions about causal inference  Gardens not randomly placed  Generalizability 26
    27. 27.    Reduction of Urban Blight Social Diffusion of Benefits Flint has opportunities to invest in greening 27
    28. 28.  LandBank ◦ Clean and Green, Adopt a Lot  Greened Areas and Crime 28
    29. 29. For more information please visit: http://yvpc.sph.umich.edu/ 29

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