Cybercasing and privacy implications of geo tagging

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This article aims to raise awareness of a rapidly emerging
privacy threat that we term cybercasing: using geo-tagged information available online to mount real-world attacks

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Cybercasing and privacy implications of geo tagging

  1. 1. Cybercasing the Joint: On the Privacy Implications of Geo-Tagging Gerald Friedland 1 Robin Sommer 1,2 1 International Computer Science Institute 2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Sites like pleaserobme.com (see § 2) have started cam- This article aims to raise awareness of a rapidly emerging paigns to raise the awareness of privacy issues causedprivacy threat that we term cybercasing: using geo-tagged in- by intentionally publishing location data. Often, how-formation available online to mount real-world attacks. While ever, users do not even realize that their files contain lo-users typically realize that sharing locations has some implica- cation information. For example, Apple’s iPhone 3G em-tions for their privacy, we provide evidence that many (i) are beds high-precision geo-coordinates with all photos andunaware of the full scope of the threat they face when doing videos taken with the internal camera unless explicitlyso, and (ii) often do not even realize when they publish such switched off in the global settings. Their accuracy eveninformation. The threat is elevated by recent developments exceeds that of GPS as the device determines its positionthat make systematic search for specific geo-located data and in combination with cell-tower triangulation. It thus reg-inference from multiple sources easier than ever before. In ularly reaches resolutions of +/- 1 m in good conditionsthis paper, we summarize the state of geo-tagging; estimate the and even indoors it often has postal-address accuracy.amount of geo-information available on several major sites, in-cluding YouTube, Twitter, and Craigslist; and examine its pro- More crucial, however, is to realize that publishinggrammatic accessibility through public APIs. We then present geo-location (knowingly or not) is only one part of thea set of scenarios demonstrating how easy it is to correlate geo- problem. The threat is elevated to a new level by thetagged data with corresponding publicly-available information combination of three related recent developments: (i) thefor compromising a victim’s privacy. We were, e.g., able to find sheer amount of images and videos online that make evenprivate addresses of celebrities as well as the origins of other- a small relative percentage of location data sufficient forwise anonymized Craigslist postings. We argue that the secu- mounting systematic privacy attacks; (ii) the availabilityrity and privacy community needs to shape the further devel- of large-scale easy-to-use location-based search capabil-opment of geo-location technology for better protecting users ities, enabling everyone to sift through large volumes offrom such consequences. geo-tagged data without much effort; and (iii) the avail- ability of so many other location-based services and an-1 Introduction notated maps, including Google’s Street View, allow- ing correlation of findings across diverse independentLocation-based services are rapidly gaining traction in sources.the online world. With big players such as Google and In this article, we present several scenarios demon-Yahoo! already heavily invested in the space, it is not strating the surprising power of combining publiclysurprising that GPS and WIFI triangulation are becom- available geo-information resources for what we term cy-ing standard functionality for mobile devices: starting bercasing: using online tools to check out details, makewith Apple’s iPhone, all the major smartphone makers inferences from related data, and speculate about a lo-are now offering models allowing instantaneously upload cation in the real world for questionable purposes. Theof geo-tagged photos, videos, and even text messages to primary objective of this paper is to raise our commu-sites such as Flickr, YouTube, and Twitter. Likewise, nu- nity’s awareness as to the scope of the problem at a timemerous start-ups are basing their business models on the when we still have an opportunity to shape further de-expectation that users will install applications on their velopment. While geo-tagging clearly has the potentialmobile devices continuously reporting their current loca- for enabling a new generation of highly useful personal-tion to company servers. ized services, we deem it crucial to discuss an appropri- Clearly, many users realize that sharing location infor- ate trade-off between the benefits that location-awarenessmation has implications for their privacy, and thus de- offers and the protection of everybody’s privacy.vice makers and online services typically offer different We structure our discussion as follows. We beginlevels of protection for controlling whether, and some- with briefly reviewing geo-location technology and re-times with whom, one wants to share this knowledge. lated work in § 2. In § 3 we examine the degree to which 1
  2. 2. we already find geo-tagged data “in the wild”. In § 4 we tematic location-based search: the authors leverageddemonstrate the privacy implications of combining geo- Foursquare’s “check-ins” to identify users who are cur-tags with other services using a set of example cybercas- rently not at their homes. However, in this case loca-ing scenarios. We discuss preliminary thoughts on miti- tions were deliberately provided by the potential victims,gating privacy implications in § 5 and conclude in § 6. rather than being implicitly attached to files they upload. Also, geo-tagging is a hazard to a much wider audience, as even people who consciously opt-out of reporting any2 Geo-Tagging Today information might still see their location become public through a third party publishing photos or videos, e.g.,We begin our discussion with an overview of geo- from a private party. Besmer and Lipford [1] examine atagging’s technological background, along with related related risk in the context of social networks that allowwork in locational privacy. users to add identifying tags to photos published on their Geo-location Services. An extensive and rapidly profile pages. The authors conduct a user study that re-growing set of online services is collecting, providing, veals concerns about being involuntarily tagged on pho-and analyzing geo-information. Besides the major play- tos outside of a user’s own control. They also present aers, there are many smaller start-ups in the space as well. tool for negotiating photo sharing permissions.Foursquare, for example, encourages its users to con-stantly “check-in” their current position, which they then To mitigate the privacy implications, researcherspropagate on to friends; Yowza!! provides an iPhone ap- have started to apply privacy-preserving approachesplication that automatically locates discount coupons for from the cryptographic community to geo-information.stores in the user’s current geographical area; and Sim- Zhong et al. [4] present protocols for securely learningpleGeo aims at being a one-stop aggregator for location a friend’s position if and only if that person is actuallydata, making it particularly easy for others to find and nearby, and without any service provider needing to becombine information from different sources. aware of the users’ locations. Olumofin et al. [7] discuss In a parallel development, a growing number of sites a technique that allows a user to retrieve point-of-interestnow provide public APIs for structured access to their information from a database server without needing tocontent, and many of these already come with geo- disclose the exact location. Poolsappasit et al. [8] presentlocation functionality. Flickr, YouTube, and Twitter all a system for location-based services that allows specifi-allow queries for results originating at a certain location. cation and enforcement of specific privacy preferences.Many third-parties provide services on top of these APIs. From a different perspective, Krumm [5] offers a surveyPicFog, for example, provides real-time location-based of ways that computation can be used to both protect andsearch of images posted on Twitter. Such APIs have also compromise geometrical location data.already been used for research purposes, in particular for GPS and WIFI Triangulation. Currently, it is mostlyautomated content analysis such as work by Crandall et high-end cameras that either come with GPS functional-al. [2], who crawled Flickr for automatically identifying ity or allow separate GPS receivers to be inserted intolandmarks. their Flash connector or the so-called “hot shoe”. Like- Locational Privacy. Location-based services take wise, it is mostly the high-end smartphones today thatdifferent approaches to privacy. While it is common to have GPS built in, including the iPhone, Android-basedprovide users with a choice of privacy settings, the set of devices, and the newer Nokia N-series. An alternativeoptions as well as their defaults tend to differ. YouTube, (or additional) method for determining the current lo-for example, uses geo-information from uploaded videos cation is WIFI access point or cell-tower triangulation:per default, while Flickr requires explicit opt-in. Like- correlating signal strengths with known locations allowswise, defaults differ across devices: Apple’s iPhone geo- a user or service to compute a device’s coordinates withtags all photos/videos taken with the internal camera un- high precision, as we demonstrate in § 4. If a deviceless specifically disabled; with Android-based phones, does not directly geo-tag media itself, such informationthe user needs to turn that functionality on. can also be added in post-processing, either by correlat- The privacy implications of recording locations have ing recorded timestamps with a corresponding log fromseen attention particularly in the blogosphere. However, a hand-held GPS receiver; or manually using a map orthese discussions are mostly anecdotal and rarely con- mapping software.sider how the ease of searching and correlating infor- Metadata. For our discussion, we are primarily con-mation elevates the risk. From a more general perspec- cerned with geo-tagging, i.e., the process of adding lo-tive, the EFF published a thoughtful white-paper on Lo- cation information to documents later uploaded online.cational Privacy [3], discussing implications of secretly The main motivation for geo-tagging is the personalizedrecording peoples’ activity in public spaces. organizing and searching that it enables. For example, Pleaserobme.com [9] was probably the first ef- by including current location and time with a series offort that demonstrated the malicious potential of sys- vacation photos, it becomes easy to later group them au- 2
  3. 3. tomatically, as well as to find further photos online from much more quickly than those that do. This would thenothers who visited the same place. indicate that such an opt-in policy is indeed suitable to The most common mechanism for associating loca- contain the amount of geo-tagging.tions with photos are EXIF records, which were orig- We also examined the brands of cameras used forinally introduced by the Japan Electronic Industry De- taking the photos that have geo-information, derivedvelopment Association for attaching metadata to images from their EXIF records which can be retrieved viasuch as exposure time and color space. Since then EXIF Flickr’s API as well. Doing so however requires onehas been extended to also cover geographical coordinates API request per image, and hence we resorted to ran-in the form of latitude and longitude. Currently, EXIF is domly sampling a 5% set of all geo-tagged images up-used only with JPEG and TIFF image files and WAV au- loaded in 2010. We found that the top-five brands weredio files. However, most other multimedia formats can Canon (31%), Nikon (20%), Apple (6%), Sony (6%),contain metadata as well, often including geo-tags. For and Panasonic (5%). A closer look at the individual mod-videos, proprietary “maker notes” are the most common els confirms our observation in § 2 that today it is mostlyform for storing locations. All these formats are easy devices at the higher end of the price scale that are geo-to parse with the help of standard tools and libraries, in- tagging.cluding browser plugins for revealing metadata as well as YouTube. Like Flickr, YouTube also allows queriesApple’s Preview program that offers a convenient Locate restricted to specific locations. With YouTube however,button for geo-tags taking one directly to Google Maps. due to restrictions of its API, it is not possible to di- In general, metadata can pose a privacy risk by storing rectly determine the number of geo-tagged videos, as weunexpected information not immediately apparent when can with Flickr. YouTube restricts the maximum num-opening a document. Murdoch and Dornseif [6] demon- ber of responses per query to 1,000; and while it alsostrated that editing software may leave thumbnails of the returns an (estimated) number of total results, that fig-original image behind in EXIF data, and similar prob- ure is also capped at 1,000,000. Still, we believe we canlems have been found with other formats, such as Word estimate the share of geo-tagged videos in the follow-and PDF documents. ing way: We first submitted a number of different un- It turns out, however, that many automatic image ma- constrained queries that each yielded a set of 1,000,000nipulation tools—especially those used in content man- results. We then refined these queries by adding an addi-agement systems—“accidentally” discard metadata dur- tional filter to include only videos that had geo-location.ing processing. For that reason, we find that images on We found that the sizes of the remaining result sets rangemany of the larger Web sites do not have any metadata from about 30,000 to 33,000 videos. In other words, outattached. As we discuss in § 4, we did however find EXIF of what we assume to be a random sample of 1,000,000data (and thus also locations) on private homepages and YouTube videos, roughly 3 % have geo-location. Whileblogs as well as on sites such as Craigslist and TwitPic. this number is clearly an estimate, it matches with what we derived for Flickr. 13 Prevalence of Geo-Tagged Data Craigslist. The virtual flea market Craigslist allows users to include photos with their postings by either up-In this section a number of experiments are presented that loading them directly to the company’s servers, or by in-aim at understanding to what degree image and video serting external HTML IMG links. In the former case,data is geo-tagged today. images are recoded and stripped off their metadata. In the Flickr. Flickr has comprehensively integrated geo- latter case, however, such a link can point to the originallocation into its infrastructure and it provides a powerful image as taken by the poster’s camera and thus may stillAPI for localized queries. This API allows direct queries have its EXIF records intact. To estimate the number ofon the number of images that are, or are not, geo-tagged geo-tagged photos linked to from Craigslist postings, wewithin a certain time interval. Examining all 158 mil- examined all postings to the San Franscisco Bay Area’slion images uploaded in the first four months of 2010, For Sale section over a period of four days (including awe found that about 4.3% are geo-tagged. When looking weekend). While Craigslist does not provide a dedicatedat the development over past years, we see—somewhat query API, it offers RSS feeds that include the postings’counter-intuitively—a declining trend: while there was full content. Consequently, during our measurement in-steep increase in geo-tagging from 2004 to about the end terval, we queried a suitably customized RSS feed everyof 2006 (when it peaked at 9.3%), its share has been de- 10 minutes for the most recent 500 postings having im-clining to the current level since then. We speculate that ages, each time downloading all linked JPEGs that weFlickr’s opt-in privacy policy is the reason for this devel- had not yet seen. In total, we collected 68,729 images,opment: as more users are joining Flickr, the number of 1 YouTube’s API distinguishes between videos without location,those explicitly enabling EXIF import is likely shrinking, with coarse location (usually manually added, e.g. “Berlin”), and withand thus the number of images not geo-tagged is rising exact location. For our experiments, we only considered the latter. 3
  4. 4. # Model # Model it for sale (see Figure 1). When we then entered the geo- 414 iPhone 3G 6 Canon PowerShot SD780 coordinates that the phone embedded into the picture into 287 iPhone 3GS 3 MB200 Street View, Google was able to locate the photo’s posi- 98 iPhone 2 LG LOTUS tion within +/−1 m. Such accuracy is much higher than 32 Droid 2 HERO200 what we believe most people would expect. 26 SGH-T929 2 BlackBerry 9530 20 Nexus One 1 RAPH800 Among the Craigslist postings with geo-information 9 SPH-M900 1 N96 we also found a significant number where the poster 9 RDC-i700 1 DMC-ZS7 chose to not specify a home address, phone number, 6 T-Mobile G1 1 BlackBerry 9630 or e-mail account and opted for Craigslist’s anonymous emailing option. We take this as an indication that many Table 1: Devices geo-tagging photos found on Craigslist. posters were not aware that their images were geo-tagged and thus leaked their location information.of which about 48% had EXIF information. 914 images We note that while we only performed experimentswere tagged with GPS coordinates, i.e., about 1.3% of with Craigslist’s “For Sale” category, it is not hardthe total. We presume that this number is lower than what to imagine what consequences unintended geo-taggingwe found for Flickr and YouTube because many photos might have in “Personals” or “Adult Services”.on Craigslist are edited before posting. Still, already with Twitter. Blogging has become a common tool fora cursory look we found several cases where precise lo- celebrities to provide their fans with updates on theircations had the potential to compromise privacy, as we lives, and most of such blogs contain images. Likewise,discuss in § 4. We also examined the camera models used many celebrities now also use public Twitter feeds that,to take the geo-tagged Craigslist photos (Table 1). While besides potentially being geo-tagged themselves, maythe iPhone models are clearly ahead of all other models, also link to external images they took. Our second sce-it is interesting to see a wide range of other devices. nario therefore involved tracking a popular reality-TV host who is very active on Twitter. His show is broad- cast on US national television and has been exported into4 Cybercasing Scenarios various foreign countries. In recent episodes, the chan- nel even began advertising that the host is maintaining aIn this section we take the perspective of a potential at-tacker to investigate examples of cybercasing. We fo- Twitter feed. It turns out that most images posted to thatcus on four different scenarios: one on Craigslist, one on feed—including photos taken at the host’s studio, placesTwitter, and two on YouTube. To not further harm the where he walks his dog, and of his home—were takenprivacy of the persons involved in our experiments, we with an iPhone 3GS and are hosted on TwitPic, whichrefrain from describing identifying specifics. conserves EXIF data. In addition, we noticed that the host is also commonly tweeting while he is traveling or Craigslist. In our first scenario, we manually in- meeting other well-known people away from home. Us-spected a random sample of Craigslist postings contain- ing the Firefox plug-in Exif Viewer, a right-click on anying geo-located images, collected as described in § 3. of the Twitter images suffices to reveal these locationsOne typical situation we found was a car being offered using an Internet map service of one’s choice. Again, av-for sale with images showing it parked in a private park- eraging geo-tags from multiple images taken at the sameing space. Most of the time it was straight-forward for us location would increase accuracy further.to verify a photo’s geo-location by comparing the image Geo-location can also be exploited for taking the op-with what we saw on Google Street View. posite route: finding a celebrity’s non-advertised Twit- A fair number of postings with geo-located images ter feed intended only for private purposes (e.g., for ex-also offered other high-valued goods, such as diamonds, changing messages with their personal friends2). Doingobviously photographed at home, making them potential so becomes possible with sites such as Picfog, which al-targets for burglars. In addition, many offered specifics lows anybody to search all images appearing on Twit-about when and how the owner wants to be contacted ter by keyword and geo-location in real-time. Hav-(“please call Sunday after 3pm”), enabling speculation ing a rough idea of where a person lives thus allows aabout when somebody might not be at home. Since many user to tailor queries accordingly until the right photopostings published more than one image, and some loca- shows up. As an experiment, we succeeded in finding ations were the origin of more than one offer, a more ac- non-advertised but publicly-accessible Twitter-feed of acurate estimation of the postal address would have been celebrity with a residence in Beverly Hills, CA.possible through averaging the geo-tags. YouTube. In our final setup, we examined whether While we did not further verify addresses, we set one can semi-automatically identify the home addressesup an experiment to assess GPS accuracy in a typical of people who normally live in a certain area but are cur-Craigslist setting: We first photographed a bike in front rently on vacation. Such knowledge offers opportunitiesof a garage with an iPhone 3G, as if we wanted to offer 2 By default, Tweets are public and do not require authentication. 4
  5. 5. Figure 1: Photo of a bike taken with an iPhone 3G and a corresponding Google Street View image based on the stored geo-coordinates. The accuracy of the camera location (marked) in front of the garage is about +/−1 m. Many classified advertisementscome with photos of objects offered for sale, with geo-tags automatically added.for burglars to break into their unoccupied homes. We “home”. This time, we found a person who seemed towrote a script using the YouTube API that, given a home have moved out of the city. While many of that person’slocation, a radius, and a keyword, finds a set of matching videos had been geo-tagged with coordinates at a specificvideos. For all the videos found, the script then gath- address in San Francisco, the most recent video was at aers the associated YouTube user names and downloads place in New Jersey for which Google Maps offered aall videos that are a certain vacation distance away and real-estate ad including a price of $ 399,999. The personhave been uploaded the same week. had specified age and real name in his YouTube entry. In our first experiment, we set the home location to be Finally, we note that using our 204-line Python script wein Berkeley, CA, downtown and the radius to 60 miles. were able to gather all the data for these two experimentsAs the keyword to search for we picked “kids” since within about 15 minutes each.many people publish home videos of their children. Thevacation distance was 1000 miles. Our script reported1000 hits (the maximum number) for the initial set of 5 Improving Locational Privacyvideos matching “kids”. These then expanded to about50,000 total videos in the second step, identifying all Educating users about its misuse potential is clearly keyother videos from the corresponding users. 106 of these to avoid wide-spread misuse of location information.turned out to have been taken more than 1000 miles away However, it is our experience that currently, even manyand uploaded the same week. Sifting quickly through tech-savvy users find it difficult to accurately assess thethe titles of these videos, we found about a dozen that risk they face. We thus believe that the security and pri-looked promising for successful cybercasing. Examin- vacy community needs to take a more active role in shap-ing only one of them more carefully, we already had a ing the deployment of this rapidly emerging technology.hit: a video uploaded by a user who was currently travel- We deem it crucial to ensure that users (i) are put intoing in the Caribbean, as could clearly be seen by content, a position where they can make informed decisions; andgeo-tagging, and the date displayed in the video (one day (ii) are sufficiently protected unless they explicitly opt-inbefore our search). The title of the video was similar to to potentially risky exposure. In the following, we frame“first day on the beach”. Also, comments posted along preliminary suggestions towards this end.with the video on YouTube indicated that the user had On a general level, we encourage our community toposted multiple vacation videos and is usually timely in aim for a consensus on what constitutes an acceptabledoing so. When he is not on vacation, he seemed to privacy policy for location-based services. Current ap-live with his kids near Albany, CA (close to Berkeley) proaches differ widely across devices and services, andas several videos were posted from his home, with the we believe that establishing a unified strategy acrosskids playing. Although the geo-location of each of the providers would go a long way towards avoiding uservideos could not be pinpointed to a single house due to confusion and thus unnecessary exposure. More specif-GPS inaccuracies indoors, the user had posted his real ically, we believe that a global opt-out approach to shar-name in the YouTube profile, which would likely make it ing high accuracy location-information is almost alwayseasy to find the exact location using social engineering. inappropriate. Rather, users should need to acknowl- We also performed a second search with the same pa- edge usage at least on a per-application basis. Apple’srameters, except for the keyword which we now set to iPhone 3G takes a step into the right direction by re- 5
  6. 6. photo and video capturing devices, allowing potential at- tackers to easily “case out joints” in cyberspace. Several factors aggravate the problem. First, many people are either unaware of the fact that photos and videos taken with their cell phones contain geo-location, especially with such accuracy; or what consequences publishing the information may have. Second, even experts often fail to appreciate the easy search capabilities of today’s on- line APIs and the resulting inference possibilities. Third, the fact that only a small percentage of all data is cur- rently geo-tagged must not mislead us into ignoring theFigure 2: Our mockup of a mobile-phone dialog to give usersmore control over the geo-location embedded in their photos. problem because (i) with all the commercial pressure, the number seems poised to rise; and (ii) our preliminary ex- periments demonstrate that even a seemingly small frac-questing permission each time a new application wants tion like 1% can already translate into several hundredto access the GPS sensor. However, its user interface relevant cases within only a small geographical area.still has two short-comings: (i) it does not apply that pol- Finally, we want to emphasize that we are not ad-icy to photos/videos taken with the internal camera; and vocating avoiding the use of geo-location in general or(ii) for each application, it is an all-or-nothing decision. geo-tagging specifically. It is a wonderful technologyRegarding the latter, it seems that often simply reducing that drives innovation in many areas. However, we feela location’s resolution might already be a suitable trade- there is a clear need for education, as well as for researchoff. As an experiment on how such an approach could be on designing systems to be location-aware while at thesupported, Figure 2 shows a mockup we did for extend- same time offering maximum protection against privacying the iPhone’s standard permission dialog with a slider infringement.allowing to choose an acceptable resolution for each ap-plication in intuitive terms. According to the choice, the Acknowledgments We would like to thank Gregor Maier anddevice would then strip off a corresponding number of Nicholas Weaver for discussions and feedback, the anonymousthe least-significant digits of any coordinates. Not only reviewers for valuable suggestions, and Michael Ellsworth for English corrections. This work was supported in part by NSFwould this give users more control, but it would also ex- Award CNS-0831779 and by NGA NURI #HM11582-10-1-plicitly point out that house-level accuracy is in the cards. 0008. Opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendationsFor jail-broken iPhones, there are already 3rd-party tools are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the viewsavailable that spoof the location information visible to of the supporters.other applications. An alternative approach is enforcing privacy policies Referencesat the time when files are uploaded to public reposito- [1] Andrew Besmer and Heather Richter Lipford. Moving Beyondries, rather than when they are captured/recorded. For Untagging: Photo Privacy in a Tagged World. In Proc. Interna-example, a browser could provide the user with a dialog tional Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems, 2010.similar to our iPhone mockup when she is about to send [2] David Crandall, Lars Backstrom, Dan Huttenlocher, and Jonvideos to YouTube. The browser would then adapt any Kleinberg. Mapping the Worlds PhotosMapping the Worlds Pho- tos. In Proc. World Wide Web Conference, 2009.geotags according to the user’s choice before proceeding. [3] EFF. On Locational Privacy, and How to Avoid Losing it Forever. It is also stimulating to think about how APIs such as http://www.eff.org/wp/locational-privacy.those offered by Flickr and YouTube can offer a higher [4] Ian Goldberg Ge Zhong and Urs Hengartner. Louis, Lester andlevel of privacy without restricting geo-technology in Pierre: Three Protocols for Location Privacy. In Proc. Privacyits capabilities. One way would be for them to re- Enhancing Technologies Symposium, 2007.duce the resolution; that however would limit some ser- [5] John Krumm. A Survey of Computational Location Privacy. Per- sonal and Ubiquitous Computing, 13(6):391–399, 2009.vices significantly. Conceptually more interesting is to [6] Steven J. Murdoch and Maximillian Dornseif. Far Moreleverage approaches from related fields such as privacy- Than You Ever Wanted To Tell Hidden Data in Internet.preserving data mining. As discussed § 2, researchers http://md.hudora.de/presentations/forensics/have started to examine such approaches, yet we are HiddenData-21c3.pdf.not aware of any real-world API that incorporates these [7] Femi Olumofin, Piotr K. Tysowski, Ian Goldberg, and Urs Hen- gartner. Achieving Efficient Query Privacy for Location Basedideas. Services. In Proc. Privacy Enhancing Technologies, 2010. [8] Nayot Poolsappasit and Indrakshi Ray. Towards Achieving Per- sonalized Privacy for Location-Based Services. Transactions on6 Final Remarks Data Privacy, 2(1):77–99, 2009. [9] Please Rob Me - Raising Awareness About Over-sharing.This article makes a case for the emerging privacy issue http://pleaserobme.com.caused by wide-spread adaptation of location-enabled 6

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