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  1. 1. CANCER Dr Raymond Arhin 2007
  2. 2. <ul><li>Breast cancer in a mastectomy specimen (top). The cancerous tumour (pale yellow) resembles the figure of a crab, giving the disease its name. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is CANCER? <ul><li>Cancer is a disease characterized by cells that </li></ul><ul><li>grow and divide without respect to normal limits, </li></ul><ul><li>invade and destroy adjacent tissues, </li></ul><ul><li>and may spread to distant sites by metastasis </li></ul>
  4. 4. Epidemiology <ul><li>Cancer affects 1 in 3 of us in our lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of cancers happen to people who are over the age of 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer can affect people of all ages </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer causes about 13% of all death </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pancreatic ca (6%) Lymphoma(4%) Leukaemia(5%) Melanoma(4%) Ovarian cance(6%) Endometrial cancer(6%) Pancreatic cancer(7%) Bladder cancer(5%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Colorectal cancer(11%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Colorectal cancer(10%) Breast Cancer (15%) Lung Cancer(15%) prostate cancer (10%) prostate cancer (10%) lung cancer (27%) breast cancer (32%) lung cancer (31%) prostate cancer (33%) Cause of death Most common Cause of death Most common Female Male
  6. 6. SYMPTOMS- Local symptoms : <ul><li>unusual lumps or swelling ( tumor ), </li></ul><ul><li>hemorrhage (bleeding), </li></ul><ul><li>pain and/or ulceration. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression of surrounding tissues may cause symptoms such as jaundice. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms of metastasis (spreading) : <ul><li>Enlarged lymph nodes, </li></ul><ul><li>Cough, especially blood in cough, </li></ul><ul><li>enlarged liver, </li></ul><ul><li>bone pain, fracture of affected bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Although advanced cancer may cause pain, it is often not the first symptom. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Systemic symptoms : <ul><li>weight loss, </li></ul><ul><li>poor appetite and severe weight loss, </li></ul><ul><li>excessive sweating especially at night, </li></ul><ul><li>anemia </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diagnosis <ul><li>Cancers are recognized either because- </li></ul><ul><li>signs or symptoms appear, </li></ul><ul><li>screening. </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsy </li></ul><ul><li>A cancer may be suspected for a variety of reasons, but the definitive diagnosis of most malignancies must be confirmed by histological examination of the cancerous cells by a pathologist. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Investigation <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>These commonly include blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and a camera test(endoscopy). </li></ul><ul><li>Chest x-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Treatment <ul><li>Cancer can be treated by </li></ul><ul><li>surgery, </li></ul><ul><li>chemotherapy, </li></ul><ul><li>radiation therapy, </li></ul><ul><li>immunotherapy, </li></ul><ul><li>other methods. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Prognosis <ul><li>Cancer has a reputation for being a deadly disease. </li></ul><ul><li>With modern treatment the peognosis is improving and actually much better than heart attack or stroke in some cases. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Causes <ul><li>Chemical carcinogens </li></ul><ul><li>Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, or carcinogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with mesothelioma. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is associated with stomach, oesophageal, liver,mouth cancer. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal imbalances </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system imbalances </li></ul><ul><li>Heriditary </li></ul>
  15. 15. Prevention <ul><li>Modifiable (&quot;lifestyle&quot;) risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol consumption (associated with increased risk of oral, esophageal, breast, and other cancers), </li></ul><ul><li>smoking </li></ul><ul><li>physical inactivity (associated with increased risk of colon, breast, and possibly other cancers), </li></ul><ul><li>overweight (associated with colon, breast, endometrial, and possibly other cancers). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diet <ul><li>Obesity increases the risk of developing cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Diet- Particular dietary practices often explain differences in cancer incidence in different countries (e.g. gastric cancer is more common in Japan, while colon cancer is more common in the United States). </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced red meat consumption is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have linked consumption of grilled meat to an increased risk of stomach cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer, a phenomenon which could be due to the presence of carcinogens such as benzopyrene in foods cooked at high temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of a plant-based diet and lifestyle changes resulted in a reduction in cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul>
  17. 17. screening <ul><li>Breast cancer screening can be done by breast self-examination, ot mammograms Colorectal cancer -fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy, </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical cytology testing (using the Pap smear) leads to the identification and excision of precancerous lesions. Testicular self-examination is recommended for men beginning at the age of 15 years to detect testicular cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer -digital rectal exam along with prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood testing. </li></ul>