Biochar preparation and effect of biochars on corn growth, yield , nutrient uptake and soil sustainability

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Biochar is sterile, odorless, high carbon solid that can be produced from a variety of organic feedstock. Soil application of biochar can reduce the overall total BD of the soil which is desirable for most plant growth and increased WHC. Nutrient availability can be affected by increasing CEC, altering soil pH, or direct nutrient contributions from biochar. The soil fertility of course texture is poor, so biochar application improved soil fertility of sandy loam soils, especially soil having low O.C., CEC, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and increased nutrient uptake resulted in increased in crop yield.
• Application of corn stover biochar @ 10 t ha-1 along with RDF increased DM and CP yield, chlorophyll content and plant height (at 30 and 60 DAS) as compared to CB and PJ biochars and FYM.
• Nutrient uptake like P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Cu were significantly increased with the application of RDF+MS10 while in case of uptake of N and Mn were significantly increased in RDF+MS5.
• RDF+MS10 was found most effective in obtaining significantly higher DMY and CPY and larger removal of nutrients from the soil and found beneficial for built up nutrients in soil. It also showed significantly higher CEC and OC content in sandy loam soil.
• Application of RDF+MS5 significantly increased DMY and CPY content of forage corn crop which ultimately resulted in larger removals of nutrients from the soil.


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Biochar preparation and effect of biochars on corn growth, yield , nutrient uptake and soil sustainability

  1. 1. Sustainable biochar is produced from waste biomass using modern thermo-chemcial technologies. Addition of sustainable biochar to soil has many environmental and agricultural benefits, including waste reduction, energy production, carbon sequestration, water resource protection, and soil improvement. Therefore, the use of sustainable biochar as a soil amendment is an innovative and highly promising practice for sustainable agriculture.The properties of various biochars were characterized. A field experiment was conducted to find out the efficacy of different biochar and effect on soil fertility. This study conducted with two biochars produced from agricultural wastes materials and one from Prosopis juliflora wood biochar. as a soil amendment in poor sandy loam soils of Kheda district of Gujarat state.
  2. 2. Liberation of gases (CH4,CO2,CO) Final product- Corn Biochar
  3. 3. ?
  4. 4. 1.
  5. 5. Combination of A and B (A) Fertility levels-2 1. Control (AC) 2. Recommended Dose of fertilizer (RDF) N:P2O5:K2O:80:40:0 kg/ha (B) Level of Biochars-8 1. 5 tonnes biochar of cluster bean stover (CB5) 2. 5 tonnes biochar of corn stover (MS5) 3. 5 tonnes biochar of ra wood (PJ5) 4. 10 tonnes biochar of cluster bean stover (CB10) 5. 10 tonnes biochar of corn stover (MS10) 6. 10 tonnes biochar of cluster bean stover (CB10) 7. 5 tonnes Farmyard Manure (FYM5) 8. 10 tonnes Farmyard Manure (FYM10) Treatments:16
  6. 6. Fig. 1 Effect of biochar on plant height of corn crop at 30 DAS Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment Plant height (cm) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment Plant height (cm) 1 AC+MS 5 28.22 9 RDF+MS5 56.11 2 AC+MS 10 32.89 10 RDF+MS10 67.43 3 AC+CB 5 31.04 11 RDF+CB 5 62.67 4 AC+CB10 32.56 12 RDF+CB10 65.78 5 AC+PJ 5 28.78 13 RDF+PJ 5 47.78 6 AC+PJ10 29.67 14 RDF+PJ10 60.44 7 AC+FYM 5 29.44 15 RDF+FYM 5 52.67 8 AC+FYM10 29.89 16 RDF+FYM10 63.67 CD (0.05) 8.79
  7. 7. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment Plant height (cm) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment Plant height (cm) 1 AC+MS 5 41.22 9 RDF+MS5 129.78 2 AC+MS 10 47.44 10 RDF+MS10 150.78 3 AC+CB 5 45.22 11 RDF+CB 5 126.00 4 AC+CB10 45.67 12 RDF+CB10 145.78 5 AC+PJ 5 37.44 13 RDF+PJ 5 109.89 6 AC+PJ10 44.89 14 RDF+PJ10 129.89 7 AC+FYM 5 41.44 15 RDF+FYM 5 126.11 8 AC+FYM10 49.89 16 RDF+FYM10 134.11 CD (0.05) 12.00
  8. 8. 150.78 47.44 145.78 45.67 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 RDF+MS10 AC+MS10 RDF+CB10 AC+CB10 Plant height (cm)
  9. 9. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 21.23 28.89 23.79 24.83 19.72 18.46 20.42 30.39 92.89 94.4 84.07 84.88 57.75 62.4 68.44 88.94 Drymatteryield(qha-1) Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment
  10. 10. • Soil application of RDF+MS10 biochar recorded the highest DMY (94.40 q ha-1) and it produced significantly higher yield than other treatments. However, it was at par with RDF+MS5 (92.89 q ha-1) and RDF+FYM10 (88.94 q ha-1). •The second effectiveness of biochar was cluster been stover (CB) and RDF+CB10 produced significantly higher DMY (84.88 q ha-1) than others but it was followed with RDF+CB5 (84.07 q ha-1). • The third in order was Prosopis juliflora wood biochar along with fertilized treatments. The fourth in order was fertilized treatment along with FYM (RDF+FYM5) which gave higher DMY (68.44 q ha-1) but it was at par with RDF+PJ10 (62.40 q ha-1). •The application of MS, CB and PJ biochar either applied @ 5 or 10 MT ha-1 in absence of fertilized failed to produce higher DMY and these treatments recorded significantly lower DMY than combined application of fertilized with all the type of biochars. •Application of either biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased 3 times higher plant height of corn plant at 60 DAS than application of similar biochar or FYM without RDF which resulted in decreased in DMY of corn.
  11. 11. Unferilized Treatment Crude protein yield (q/ha) Fertilized treatment Crude protein yield (q/ha) AC+MS 5 2.14 RDF+MS5 7.80 AC+MS 10 2.85 RDF+MS10 7.55 AC+CB 5 2.15 RDF+CB 5 7.31 AC+CB10 1.95 RDF+CB10 7.25 AC+PJ 5 1.58 RDF+PJ 5 5.38 AC+PJ10 1.92 RDF+PJ10 5.68 AC+FYM 5 1.81 RDF+FYM 5 5.86 AC+FYM10 3.04 RDF+FYM10 7.78 S.E.m.± 0.19 CD (0.05) 0.55
  12. 12. 1. A
  13. 13. RDF+MS10 RDF+CB10
  14. 14. RDF+MS10 RDF+ MS5
  15. 15. RDF+CB10 AC+ CB10
  16. 16. RDF+ MS5 MT/Ha AC+10 MT/Ha
  17. 17. Cluster bean stover biochar Corn stover biochar
  18. 18. Clusrer Bean stover Biochar Farmyard manure
  19. 19. Prosopis juliflora wood Biochar @ 5 MT/Ha + RDF cluster bean stover biochar @ 10 MT/Ha
  20. 20. Fig 15 Application of Corn stover Biochar @ 10 MT/Ha along with RDF (RDF+MS10 MT/Ha) showed taller plant height and gave 4 times higher DMY (94.4 q/Ha) than alone soil application of Cluster bean stover Biochar @ 5 MT/Ha (23.79 q/ha). Corn stover biochar @ 10 MT/Ha +RDF Cluster bean stover biochar @ 5 MT/Ha
  21. 21. RDF+CB10 MT/Ha RDF+PJ 10 MT/Ha
  22. 22. RDF+CB5 MT/Ha AC+PJ 5 MT/Ha
  23. 23. Fig 18 Application of Prosopis juliflora wood biochar @ 10 MT/Ha along with RDF (RDF+PJ 10 MT/Ha) showed taller plant height and produced 2.62 times higher DMY (62.4 q/Ha) than alone soil application of Cluster bean stover biochar @ 5 MT/Ha (23.79 q/ha). RDF+CB5 MT/HaAC+PJ 5 MT/Ha Prosopis juliflora wood biochar @ 10 MT/Ha +RDF Cluster bean stover biochar @ 5 MT/Ha
  24. 24. Fig. 19 Effect of biochar on N uptake (kg/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased N uptake by 3 to 4 times as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 34.27 45.52 34.42 31.2 25.34 30.65 29.00 48.68 124.8 120.79116.96116.06 86.15 90.82 93.79 124.44 Nuptake(kgha-1) Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment
  25. 25. Fig. 20 Effect of biochar on P uptake (kg/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased P uptake by 4 to 4.5 times as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3.44 4.55 4.16 4.04 3.01 3.49 2.39 3.76 17.96 19.07 17.6816.99 11.62 13.01 10.58 14.65 Puptake(kgha-1) Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment
  26. 26. Fig. 21 Effect of biochar on K uptake (kg/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased K uptake by 2.5 to 4 times as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 33 46 34 36 25 25 24 36 131 133 97 122 64 76 82 132 Kuptake(kgha-1) Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment
  27. 27. Fig. 22 Effect of biochar on Ca and Mg uptake (kg/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased Ca and Mg uptake as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 AC+MS5 AC+MS10 AC+CB5 AC+CB10 AC+PJ5 AC+PJ10 AC+FYM5 AC+FYM10 RDF+MS5 RDF+MS10 RDF+CB5 RDF+CB10 RDF+PJ5 RDF+PJ10 RDF+FYM5 RDF+FYM10 9.25 11.97 10.6 9.66 6.7 9.03 9.47 13.88 43.63 46.02 40.1640.32 29.630.35 33.79 37.21 Ca uptake Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 AC+MS5 AC+MS10 AC+CB5 AC+CB10 AC+PJ5 AC+PJ10 AC+FYM5 AC+FYM10 RDF+MS5 RDF+MS10 RDF+CB5 RDF+CB10 RDF+PJ5 RDF+PJ10 RDF+FYM5 RDF+FYM10 6.667.01 5.845.47 4.49 5.626.12 9.82 35.52 37.34 35.9835.22 22.72 24.81 22.1 29.62 Mg uptake Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized
  28. 28. Fig. 23 Effect of biochar on S uptake (kg/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased S uptake by 3 to 4.5 times as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 6.22 8.69 8.09 7.62 4.35 5.86 6.81 7.75 28.23 30.21 28 28.56 18.5617.97 15.83 21.55 Suptake(kgha-1) Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment
  29. 29. Fig. 24 Effect of biochar on zinc uptake (g/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased Zn uptake by 3 to 3.5 times as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 96 122 103 100 81 76 94 134 380 361 352 345 268 243 274 385 Znuptake(kgha-1) Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment
  30. 30. Fig. 25 Effect of biochar on Fe uptake (g/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased Fe uptake by 3 to 4 times as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 738 933 811 817 748 670 765 1041 2906 2834 2701 2717 2213 2141 2307 3030 Feuptake(kgha-1) Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment
  31. 31. Fig. 26 Effect of biochar on Mn and Cu uptake (g/ha) in presence and absent of recommended dose of fertilizer on corn crop Application of three type of biochars or FYM along with RDF significantly increased Mn and Cu uptake by 3 to 4 times as compared to similar type of three biochars or FYM without RDF. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 85.69 130.3 114.5120.86 71.52 83.9483.01 122.68 364.36 348.57 327.56328.29 238.61244.88241.43 294.42 Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 AC+MS5 AC+MS10 AC+CB5 AC+CB10 AC+PJ5 AC+PJ10 AC+FYM5 AC+FYM10 RDF+MS5 RDF+MS10 RDF+CB5 RDF+CB10 RDF+PJ5 RDF+PJ10 RDF+FYM5 RDF+FYM10 12.69 13.46 9.069.59 7.997.77 10.56 16.02 45.39 54.7 42.52 44.95 24.87 30.28 36.63 42.09 Treatments Fertilized treatmentUnfertilized treatment Mn uptake Cu uptake
  32. 32. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment Bulk density (g cm-3) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment Bulk density (g cm-3) 1 AC+MS5 1.123 9 RDF+MS5 1.104 2 AC+MS10 1.083 10 RDF+MS10 1.050 3 AC+CB5 1.209 11 RDF+CB5 1.203 4 AC+CB10 1.194 12 RDF+CB10 1.182 5 AC+PJ5 1.214 13 RDF+PJ5 1.221 6 AC+PJ10 1.202 14 RDF+PJ10 1.192 7 AC+FYM5 1.264 15 RDF+FYM5 1.272 8 AC+FYM10 1.251 16 RDF+FYM10 1.244 CD (0.05) 0.056 Fig 27 Effect of biochar on bulk density (g m-3) in sandy loam soils
  33. 33. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment CEC (Cmol (p+) kg-1) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment CEC (Cmol (p+) kg-1) 1 AC+MS5 13.08 9 RDF+MS5 14.60 2 AC+MS10 13.94 10 RDF+MS10 15.64 3 AC+CB5 12.07 11 RDF+CB5 13.61 4 AC+CB10 13.17 12 RDF+CB10 14.60 5 AC+PJ5 10.73 13 RDF+PJ5 12.27 6 AC+PJ10 11.07 14 RDF+PJ10 12.83 7 AC+FYM5 11.02 15 RDF+FYM5 12.07 8 AC+FYM10 11.93 16 RDF+FYM10 13.17 CD (0.05) 2.33
  34. 34. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment O.C. (%) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment O.C. (%) 1 AC+MS5 0.34 9 RDF+MS5 0.38 2 AC+MS10 0.37 10 RDF+MS10 0.49 3 AC+CB5 0.33 11 RDF+CB5 0.37 4 AC+CB10 0.36 12 RDF+CB10 0.42 5 AC+PJ5 0.29 13 RDF+PJ5 0.36 6 AC+PJ10 0.32 14 RDF+PJ10 0.37 7 AC+FYM5 0.33 15 RDF+FYM5 0.36 8 AC+FYM10 0.36 16 RDF+FYM10 0.40 CD (0.05) 0.06
  35. 35. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment Available N (kg ha-1) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment Available N (kg ha-1) 1 AC+MS5 225.00 9 RDF+MS5 273.33 2 AC+MS10 237.33 10 RDF+MS10 280.33 3 AC+CB5 244.00 11 RDF+CB5 259.33 4 AC+CB10 255.00 12 RDF+CB10 265.00 5 AC+PJ5 211.33 13 RDF+PJ5 230.33 6 AC+PJ10 220.67 14 RDF+PJ10 237.00 7 AC+FYM5 209.67 15 RDF+FYM5 244.33 8 AC+FYM10 222.33 16 RDF+FYM10 250.67 CD (0.05) 40.67
  36. 36. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment DTPA Zn (mg kg-1) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment DTPA Zn (mg kg-1) 1 AC+MS 5 1.38 9 RDF+MS5 1.62 2 AC+MS 10 1.22 10 RDF+MS10 1.48 3 AC+CB 5 1.29 11 RDF+CB 5 1.38 4 AC+CB10 1.25 12 RDF+CB10 1.31 5 AC+PJ 5 1.24 13 RDF+PJ 5 1.29 6 AC+PJ10 1.19 14 RDF+PJ10 1.27 7 AC+FYM 5 1.22 15 RDF+FYM 5 1.28 8 AC+FYM10 1.25 16 RDF+FYM10 1.34 CD (0.05) 0.19
  37. 37. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment DTPA Fe (mg kg-1) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment DTPA Fe (mg kg-1) 1 AC+MS 5 7.56 9 RDF+MS5 11.06 2 AC+MS 10 7.04 10 RDF+MS10 9.99 3 AC+CB 5 7.40 11 RDF+CB 5 9.20 4 AC+CB10 7.31 12 RDF+CB10 8.95 5 AC+PJ 5 7.32 13 RDF+PJ 5 8.30 6 AC+PJ10 6.70 14 RDF+PJ10 8.26 7 AC+FYM 5 6.98 15 RDF+FYM 5 7.90 8 AC+FYM10 7.77 16 RDF+FYM10 8.17 CD (0.05) 1.46 Application of RDF+MS5 recorded significantly higher DTPA extractable Fe in soil (11.06 mg kg-1) after harvest of corn crop than other treatments followed by RDF+MS10 (9.99 mg kg-1). In the descending order of the effectiveness of the treatments, were RDF+CB5 and RDF+CB10. Fertilized biochar treatments RDF+MS5, RDF+MS10 and RDF+CB5 were highly effectiveness in increasing DTPA extractable Fe in soil by 46.29 %, 41.90 % and 24.32 % as compared to AC+MS5, AC+MS10 and AC+CB5, respectively.
  38. 38. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment Microbial population (X 105 cfu g-1) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment Microbial population (X 105 cfu g-1) 1 AC+MS 5 4.57 9 RDF+MS5 5.64 2 AC+MS 10 5.83 10 RDF+MS10 6.17 3 AC+CB 5 4.58 11 RDF+CB 5 5.84 4 AC+CB10 5.07 12 RDF+CB10 6.27 5 AC+PJ 5 2.89 13 RDF+PJ 5 3.33 6 AC+PJ10 4.20 14 RDF+PJ10 5.54 7 AC+FYM 5 4.15 15 RDF+FYM 5 5.50 8 AC+FYM10 5.40 16 RDF+FYM10 6.53 CD (0.05) 1.07
  39. 39. Sr. No. Unferilized Treatment W.H.C. (%) Sr. No. Fertilized treatment W.H.C. (%) 1 AC+MS 5 24.04 9 RDF+MS5 25.30 2 AC+MS 10 27.01 10 RDF+MS10 28.27 3 AC+CB 5 23.10 11 RDF+CB5 24.70 4 AC+CB10 24.07 12 RDF+CB10 25.07 5 AC+PJ 5 24.03 13 RDF+PJ5 25.03 6 AC+PJ10 25.01 14 RDF+PJ10 25.40 7 AC+FYM 5 21.00 15 RDF+FYM5 22.67 8 AC+FYM10 22.07 16 RDF+FYM10 23.79 CD (0.05) 3.54
  40. 40. .
  41. 41. Contact: Pravin Patel Pcpatel_2011@yahoo. in Thank you Students and technicians: Naresh Yadav, Rajkishore and Manish Dabhi,
  42. 42. Pravin Patel Pcpatel_2011@yahoo. in Thank you Students and technicians: Naresh Yadav, Shri L.N.Bariya, Manish Dabhi and Rajkishore

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