In 1991 we opened our country to foreign brands. As per this liberalization policy many a foreign players
ventured into our country finding it a lucrative large mass market. India’s market potential lures foreign
Many international companies that ventured in after 1991 are tallying their profits and losses and
wondering what the future holds for this market of 950 million people.
But India is a diverse country where different states have different consumption patterns and customs.
Thus competition has become the key word in today’s scenario.
Till 1970’s and 80’s Maggie and Kissan were the major ketchup brands but after liberalization Heinz
entered Indian market which offered tough competition. These major giants are also facing competition
from many local players like Tops, Cremica and other local brands.
Through this project we have studied 4 P’s of marketing mix which includes PRODUCT, PRICE, PLACE and
PROMOTION for Maggi Tomato Ketchup.
Product highlights various attributes of the product. Price helps us in analyzing whether it is
competitively priced or not. Promotions showcases which mode of promotion is most effective and how
do consumers respond to various celebrity endorsements. Place focuses on efficiency of distribution
network of Maggi Tomato Ketchup.
We have also drawn out some inferences by applying various statistical tools like ‘SIGN TEST’.
Towards the end we have suggested some recommendations as a group on how can we improve the
marketing mix of the product.
Nestlé, which world knows as cautious and conservatory company is a Swiss originated 140 years old
Multinational. The man at the helm is Swiss national Carlo Donati, an all inspiration and image of the
company. His philosophy is ‘bottom line dictating top line’ based on delegation and decentralization. It
resulted from a merger in 1905 between the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company for milk products established in
1866 by the Page Brothers in Cham, Switzerland and the Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé Company set up in
1867 by Henri Nestlé to provide an infant food product.
The first Nestlé factory to begin production in the United States was opened in Fulton, Oswego County,
Nestlé India Ltd. (NIL), the Indian subsidiary of the global FMCG major, Nestlé SA, introduced the Maggi
brand in India in 1982, with its launch of Maggi 2 Minute Noodles, an instant noodles product. Nestlé
India’s business objective and that of its management and employees is to manufacture and market the
Company’s products in such a way as to create value that can be sustained over the long term for
consumers, shareholders, employees, business partners and the national economy.
The product mix of Nestle India consists of milk products and baby products (42.5%), beverages (29.3
%), processed foods (14.4 %), chocolate and confectionary (13.8 %). Nestle India plans to expand
business into similar and diversified product categories. The management wants to leverage all the hard
work done to establish a particular brand by extending the brand in some other areas, where it sees an
opportunity to make further money. In other words to derive the maximum benefit from having
established the brand Nestle did exactly, what it wanted with one of their brands- Maggi.
Objective of the study
In this project, our main focus was to analyze Tomato Ketchup taking into consideration the 4 P’s of the
• To analyze various product attributes of Ketchups & Sauces and its management in the current
• To study the entire distribution mix of the product line.
• To critically comment on the pricing strategy adopted by the company.
• Lastly our study will also focus on the various promotional aspect of the brand in lieu of ketchup and
also promotional mix of the product line.
All these objective were to analyze the performance of a particular product line of a brand followed by
the suggestions which we as a group have given in order to improve their performance in the future and
also learned various useful aspects which they have devised and implemented that has bettered their
Scope of the Study
The brand value of Nestle is $9.11bn which is approximately 5% of the enterprise value as in August
2008(Source: The daily newspaper journal “The Mint” dated 17 September, 2008). According to this
report, Nestle is reported to be among top 100 brands globally positioned at 77th place with a brand
rating of “AAA”. Last year, it was positioned at 87th spot.
The ketchup market in India is estimated to be around Rs 220 crore, largely dominated by Nestlé’s
Maggi that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan that owns 26%. Globally, it's only a blip- but India
consumes about 13,800 tons of ketchup a year.
The Company launched a new variant of Maggi Tomato Ketchup called “Pichkoo”.
A higher-than-expected increase in raw material prices is posing a bigger threat for the company as of
now but past have proved that their innovative market strategies has contributed a lot to their overall
Through our study we have determined the positive and negative product attributes and thus
determined the expectations of the product. This information can be used by the company for further
product modification. We also determined the acceptability and adaptability towards introduction of
Maggi is an over 100-year-old Nestlé brand of instant soups, stocks, bouillons, ketchups, sauces,
seasonings and instant noodles. The original company came into existence in 1872 in Switzerland, when
Julius Maggi took over his father's mill. It quickly became a pioneer of industrial food production, aiming
at the improvement of the nutrition of worker families.
Over time the scope of MAGGI has been extended from a predominantly dehydrated cooking aid brand
towards a general savory food brand including many types of ready meals and also frozen food. This is in
line with the fact that people all over the world are cooking less and less from scratch.
There is a wide range of MAGGI products marketed worldwide in several countries. These include
dehydrated bouillon, granulated seasoning, soups, recipe mixes, snacks, frozen foods, etc.
In 1863 Julius Maggi developed a formula for bring added taste to meals, which later became lead to the
beginning of Maggi and convenience food products.
MAGGI, known worldwide for innovation and quality worldwide, understands that consumers are
usually under great pressure in terms of time, budget, cooking skills etc and therefore tries to establish a
bond through giving ideas and advice that make providing food easier. This results in the food provider
being appreciated by family and friends.
Maggi as a brand is globally known in the product category of bouillon or soup cubes. Nestle decided to
introduce Maggi brand in India in the same product category. This soup was initially test marketed in
1974 in Kerala. The response was not encouraging. Having then realized that the dietary habits of
Keralites are not conductive to the idea of drinking soup, test marketing of the brand extended to Goa
with the idea that Goan food habits have some similarity with western habits. Fortunately for the
company, the test turned out to be positive and Maggi became an accepted brand in India.
Maggi has faced lot of hurdles in its journey in India. The basic problem the brand faced is the Indian
Psyche. Indian Palate is not too adventurous in terms of trying new tastes. That may be the reason why
we are still stuck with Idli and Sambhar.
So a new product with a new taste that too from a different culture will have difficulty in appealing to
As of now, Maggi is the brand for 2-minute noodles, Chinese noodles, ketchups and sauces for Nestle. As
per the latest available data, sales of Maggi 2-minute noodle in India are highest among all other Nestle
products worldwide. Analysts say Nestle, which faced one of the most challenging years in the FMCG
industry in 2003, has realised that unless it continuously innovates in an endeavour to provide value-formoney to consumers, the company's bottomline may be impacted in the long run.
The ketchup market in India is estimated to be around Rs 220 crore, largely dominated by Nestlé’s
Maggi that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan that owns 26%.
Upto mid eighties Kissan was the number one brand in Tomato Ketchup and around that time the
competition came from Maggi -- a Nestlé’s brand. With Maggi launching several varieties of Tomato
Ketchup there was a growth in the market. With Kissan and Maggie fighting neck to neck other smaller
but established brands like Dipy's from Herbertsons, Volfruit from Voltas, Noga of Nagpur Orange
Federation and SunSip of Wimco gradually disappeared from the market. Delmonte now has joined
hands with Paoma Industries, the manufacturers of Rasna Brands of soft drink concentrate and is
expected to launch Tomato Ketchup shortly. The biggest global player in Tomato Ketchup Heinz is still
waiting and watching. It was expected that they will launch Tomato Ketchup in Indian market soon.
Some of the unknown local brands of course still existing only on price competition.
The price competition has also kept some of the other categories of food products still alive.
At a time when Kissan had become generic to tomato sauce, Maggi came in with its sauces range. Maggi
was the upstad newcorner who came in with a loud aggressive national burst. It did not come in with
one, but with a range of sauces in order to increase market share and expand the market by offering
more usage occasions, bring consumers with different needs into the Maggi Sauces fold and weaning
away users of different brands to Maggi. From a market share of 14% in 1985, Maggi Sauces now enjoys
a share of about 50% of the market.
MAGGI TOMATO KETCHUP
Maggi Tomato Ketchup is primarily a taste enhancer, giving the food provider taste, aroma and also
contains iodised salt.
Nestle was seriously working on brand extension to leverage brand success in some potential product
categories. The company finally decided to enter ketchup market with the brand Maggi. Finally in 1985
when Maggi noodles had reached 4000 tonnes business, they ensured the establishment of the brand
Maggi and launched their Maggi ketchup. Market leader Kissan was selling its ketchup in 500 gm. Nestle
decided upon 400 gm bottle to give the consumer a ‘price- point’ advantage. The main launched its
product all over India. The main focusing aspect of their advertisement was ‘what ketchup does to your
food- tasty and more palatable. It was a very clever move, which paved way for subsequent variants
1. Tomato Chilli
2. Masala Chilli
3. Chilli Garlic
• Tomato Ketchup
• Hot & Sweet
• Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic)
• Teekha Masala
• Tomato Chatpat
• Tomato Pudina
Marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories:
• Place (distribution)
The term "marketing mix" became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The
Concept of the Marketing Mix. Borden began using the term in his teaching in the late 1940's after
James Culliton had described the marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients". The ingredients in
Borden's marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal
selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and
analysis. E. Jerome McCarthy later grouped these ingredients into the four categories. These are the 4
P’s of Marketing Mix.
These four P's are the parameters that the marketing manager can control, subject to the internal and
external constraints of the marketing environment. The goal is to make decisions that center the four P's
on the customers in the target market in order to create perceived value and generate a positive
4 P’s of MARKETING MIX
Marketing decision variables are those variables under the firm's control that can affect the level of
demand for the firm's products. They are distinguished from environmental and competitive action
variables that are not totally and directly under the firm's control. It is a great way to help us focus on
the elements of a good marketing plan that we can't control but must be aware of and anticipate such
- new competitors,
- new legislation,
- change in consumer confidence,
- change in consumer tastes; and
The four marketing decision variables are:
• Allowances and deals
• Distribution and retailer mark-ups
• Discount structure
• Models and sizes
• Sales promotion
• Personal selling
• Channels of distribution
• Outlet location
• Sales territories
• Warehousing system
The 4 Ps of marketing classify the controllable elements of your marketing plan. Product, place
[distribution] and promotion are all expenses; price brings in revenue.
• Available in different variants: Maggi Ketchup Maggi Hot & Sweet Sauce, Maggi Masala Chilli Sauce,
Maggi Chilli Garlic Sauce, Maggi Tamarind Sauce, Maggi Tomato Sauce (Without onion & garlic), Maggi
Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic), tomato chatpat, Teekha masala, Tomato pudina.
• The product is bright red in color.
• The thickness is less as compared to Kissan.
• It is available in different variants: Kissan Ketchup and Kissan Sauce (no onion no garlic), Kissan
• The colour is dark red.
• The thickness is more as compared to Maggi Ketchup.
• They promote their product very effectively through television,
• They have applied the strategy of brand extension.
• They also sponsor various cookery shows to promote alternate usage of products.
• They also use strategy of free product samples to promote it.
• Celebrity endorsements. Eg. Javed Jafferi PROMOTION
• Less promoted as compared to maggi.
• No particular celebrity endorsement.
• The utter confusion regarding the long-term strategy for Kissan brand was visible through the
experiments that were conducted on this brand by Hll.
• But with a brand which had a tremendous equity during the late nineties and early 2000, HUL had
weird plans. One of the major casualties of MS Banga's Power brand strategy was Kissan. During the
early 2000, the brand Kissan was rebranded as Kissan Annapurna. Kissan Annapurna was marketing not
jams and squashes by Atta, salt and other staple foods. Later Annapurna and Kissan was splited into two
separate brands , one concentrating on staple foods and other on processed foods. This migration
strategy proved to be very costly for both Kissan and Annapurna brand.
Kissan was synonymous with Jams and Squashes during its initial years. Kissan Ketchup was a market
leader in ketchup segment but these experiments and myopic strategies pushed the brand behind the
focused and aggressive Maggi.
So all through the period 2001-2005, Kissan was in a sticky wicket. But now according to reports, the
brand mandarins of HUL is now clear about Kissan as a brand for processed food like Jams , ketchups
That change is visible in the recent campaign of Kissan which takes a unique view of Ketchup. Taking the
tagline " Aao banaye pakode behtar" translated to " Making Pakode taste better". In these series of ads,
the brand plays a second fiddle to the main snack. The brand takes the positioning of a "Great
• The distribution network is well spread as it is easily available in all kirana stores, retail store etc.
• The distribution network is well spread as it is easily available in all kirana stores, retail store etc.
• Its Maggi Rich Tomatoes is priced at Rs 90 (1 kg bottle with 20% free offer) and Rs 26 (200 gm bottle).
• Its Kissan Ketchup and Kissan Sauce (no onion no garlic) are priced at Rs 91 (1 kg bottle), Rs 49 (500 gm
bottle) and Rs 60 (600 gm squeezy pack), while Kissan Tomchi is priced at Rs 53 (500 gm).
PRODUCT LEVELS: CUSTOMER VALUE HIERARCHY
There are five segments in customer value hierarchy that is:
1. Core benefit
2. Basic product benefit
3. Expected product benefit
4. Augmented product benefit
5. Potential product benefit.
Now if we classify these heads according to our Brand “Maggi”
The “Core benefit” which Maggie provides is its instant recipe and a tag line which assures that it is
“FAST TO COOK & GOOD TO EAT”.
The “Basic product benefit” which our product provides to our target market is a good taste with proper
nutrition levels and good health, as one of its punch line says “Taste Bhi Health Bhi”.
The “Expected product benefit” which Maggi provides is a proper and a good package which is vacuum
zed which ensures customers a good quality, fully packed seasoning tastemaker & affordable prices.
In most of the underdeveloped and developing countries like India competition takes place in the
“expected product benefit” as Augmented product benefit stage is still to come.
Product differentiation strategy means how a particular product is different from others on the basis of:
3. Performance quality
According to our product, the form shape, size, physical structure of Maggi is very attractive as it is easy
to carry, comes in various packs and sizes according to customers convenience. For example “Maggi
Pichkoo ketchup” packs which is a smaller quantity consumption variant.
The various features of Maggi Tomato Ketchup are first of all its perfect taste according to the Indian
touch & spices, its pocketabililty factor, packaging, easily transformation of recipe according to the
different tastes of consumers, an ideal preparation recipe at the back of its pack & above all its
As according to our survey report we found out the performance level of Maggi Tomato Ketchup was
excellent there were various other brands offered to our target market, but Maggi prevailed as the
winner out of them because of its various factors (taste, less consumption of time in preparation, prices,
Quality is the main factor on which Maggi Tomato Ketchup emphasizes as it is Maggi’s main strength
which provides Maggi an edge over its competitors. As all the products of Maggi are produced identical
which fulfills its promise to its target market.
Maggi products are durable as due to its preparation these products are easy to store, have a long shelf
life and can be stored at any given temperatures which is tested and approved.
Reliability is also one of Maggi’s strength, as one can always rely on a Maggie product for a particular
taste which it guaranties that is no matter which pack you are buying you would be provided with the
same taste, aroma & seasoning.
It is an Indian customer’s psyche that “whatever looks good and feels good would be of good quality” so
Maggi packs had been designed keeping in mind the same concept, its promotional schemes, color of
the packages and the pictures depicted on the pack appeals to the customers.
Maggi leveraged the brand equity very effectively. The product quality was good and the
communication was excellent. The brand was positioned as a "Different" sauce with the baseline "It’s
Brand Image: Young - Teenager, Ever changing, humorous, unpredictable and "whacky"
Customers were intrigued as to what is different about the brand and was curious to try the sauce. The
ads featuring Javed and Pankaj kapoor was superb and funny. It was created by JWT. The new
campaigns are handled by Publicis and the baseline has been changed to "Enjoy the Difference".
In this case even though the new baseline "Enjoy the Difference" was not very different from the old
We strongly feel that the brand managers should take the ownership of the brand and the way it is
communicated. If it is left to agency alone, every time the agency changes, the communication changes.
These additions made a point of difference against competitor’s Tomato Ketchup. Their main positioning
message is ‘Enjoy the difference’. With the successful extension of brand and right positioning, Nestle
emerged as market leader in ketchup segment by 1999.
The Consumer Magazine has published its in-house laboratory test findings on 15 brands of tomato
sauce and ketchup from across the country and 2 unbranded samples from Ahmedabad.
Overall, Maggi Ketchup (79) scored the highest among the national brands followed by Kissan Sauce (78)
and Heinz Ketchup (78).
INNOVATION PROCESS ADOPTED BY MAGGI TO COMPETE THE “PRICE WAR”…..
– the innovation process of maggi…….
Formulations Manufacturer conservatism
Packaging Consumer expectations
Marketing Consumer conservatism
Distribution Sociological, Political
MEANS Innovation DRIVING FORCES
Technology watch SOURCES Profit
Technology transfer Market environment
Information Know-how Fashions, trends
… Knowledge …
The present study constitutes the comparison of the 4 Ps of the Maggi of Nestle India Ltd. and Kissan of
Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
This will be done from the secondary data collected from the websites and the food consultants.
We have established some hypothesis and some inferences on the basis of the primary data collected.
The steps involved in the research are:
1. SURVEY METHODS
Customer survey for primary data:
We asked the customers to rank the various attributes on a scale of very important, important and not
very important. To find-out the brand perception of various brands, paired comparison between them is
2. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
In designing the questionnaire we paid particular attention to the content and wording of the questions.
There were some questions which could be easily framed. The questionnaire was meticulously prepared
by identifying the various variables i.e product, price, place, promotion. The same scale of yes/no and
very important, moderately important and least important was used to make the respondents
SAMPLE COPY OF THE QUESTONNAIRE
OBJECTIVE:- To study the brand preference of Maggi Tomato Ketchup.
1. Name: …………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Occupation: ………………………………………………………………………………….
3. Family Monthly Income:
Below 25000 25000-50000 50000-1 Lac 1 Lac and above
4. Location: ……………………………………………………………………………………….
15-25 25-35 35-45 45 and above
6. Family type:
7. Do you consume tomato ketchup?
8. Which brand you prefer the most?
Smith & Jones
9. Have you ever used Maggi Tomato Ketchup?
10. If no , it is because :
Lack of awareness
Lack of availability
You find it expensive
You don’t like the product
11. You came to know about Maggi Tomato Ketchup from :
Word of mouth
Point of sale
12. Do you remember any of the T.V. advertisements of Maggi Tomato Ketchup?
13. Does celebrity endorsement prompt you to purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup?
14. Have you tried new variants of Maggi Tomato Ketchup after viewing the advertisements?
15. What is the level of discounts /offers available with Maggi Tomato Ketchup?
High Medium Low
16. Which of the offers available influence you the most to purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup?
Buy one get one
17. Is Maggi Tomato Ketchup easily available to you?
18. From where do you usually purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup?
19. Which flavor of Maggi Sauces you like the most?
Hot & Sweet
Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic)
20. What is the size of Tomato Ketchup you usually purchase?
21. How frequently you purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup?
Every forth night
22. Tick the level of importance according to your preference:
Attribute Very important Moderately important Least important
23. Any further suggestions: ……………………………………………..…………………………………………………..
3. SAMPLING DESIGN
The sampling frame is defined in terms of who the respondents are can answer the questions that need
to be addressed. First we defined our target population as the people who are involved in the purchase
of house hold items. Then we used random sampling in conducting the survey.
Our sample mainly had females from different age groups.
4. LOCATION FOR THE SURVEY
Our survey is limited to the Delhi NCR region. Responses were collected form Noida, Greater Noida,
South Delhi, Faridabad.
5. SAMPLE SIZE
While planning the survey we estimated the sample size of 150 respondents. We have surveyed 130
people who lie within our target population. The survey consists of more number of females (more than
60% of the total sample size). Most of the respondents are from the middle and upper middle class.
6. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
The data collected via survey was entered into the excel sheet. The results were tabulated and analyzed.
According to the analysis relevant inferences has been made related to each question.
Based on the question no. 22 of the questionnaire, a hypothesis was analyzed. The hypothesis is that the
color and the thickness of tomato ketchup are equally important to the respondents of the survey
conducted. Using sign test this null hypothesis has been rejected and the alternate hypothesis has been
1. SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT MAGGI TOMATO KETCHUP
SOURCE NO. OF RESPONDENTS
NEWS PAPER 14
T.V. AD 97
WORD OF MOUTH 23
This graph reveals that T.V. Advertisements are the major source of information regarding Maggi
Tomato Ketchup and so we can also infer that they have been successful in their promotion strategies
involving electronic media.
2. REMEMBER ANY TV AD
RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS
This graph facilitates us in realising that majority of the people are aware of the brand Maggi as they
remember TV ads so it can be inferred that Maggi’s promotional team has far been successful in
positioning its Tomato Ketchup in the mind of the people.
3. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT PROMOTE BUYING
RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS
This graph infers that Celebrity Endorsements does not influence the buying decision of majority
consumers. It also infers that reference group does not make any impact on consumer mind when we
talk about Maggi Tomato Ketchup.
4. LEVEL OF DISCOUNT OFFER
HIGH MEDIUM LOW UNAWARE
2 64 57 5
This pie-chart reveals that Maggi Tomato Ketchup is positioned in the mind of the consumer and also its
various discount offers to major extent.
5. MAGGI TOMATO KETCHUP IS PURCHASED FROM
PLACE NO. OF RESPONDENTS
NEAR BY STORE 78
RETAIL STORE 51
This graph highlights the impact of organized retail on unorganized sector, unorganized still being the
dominant, as around 38% of consumer make purchases of Tomato Ketchup from retail store.
6. SIZE OF TOMATO KETCHUP USUALLY PURCHASED
SIZE NO OF RESPONDENTS
This graph figures out that the larger sized bottle of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is largely demanded even in
the presence of smaller sized bottles and even the new Pichkoo.
7. FREQUECY OF BUYING MAGGI TOMATO KETCHUP
TIME NO. OF RESPONDENTS
EVERY WEEK 11
EVRY FORTNIGHT 7
EVERY MONTH 63
This graph depicts that the frequency of buying every month of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is maximum.
8. MOST LIKED FLAVOUR
FLAVOURS NO OF RESPONDENTS
Tomato Ketchup 67
Hot & Sweet 46
Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic) 9
THEEKHA MASALA 5
Tomato Chatpat 10
Tomato Pudina 7
This graph shows that the original flavour of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is still the leader in terms of
popularity and Hot & Sweet is slowly catching up with it. Its new variants and flavour have also been
noticed and have started making in-roads for themselves.
9. CHOICE OF OFFERS
OFFERS NO. OF RESPONDENTS
This graph infers that “Buy One Get One Free” offer of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is the first choice among
the consumers. This shows that consumers are price sensitive too and they prefer buying when there
are offers running around.
10. IMPORTANCE OF THE ATTRIBUTES
ATTRIBUTES VERY IMPORTANT MODERATELY IMP LEAST IMP
TASTE 124 4 0
SOLOCCCR 37 71 20
THICKNESS 67 53 8
COLOR 37 71 20
This graph depicts our analysis of the importance of the various product attributes like taste, color and
thickness in the eye of people. We can very well observe in the graph that Taste, undoubtedly, is the
most important attribute that people prefer more over any other while selecting a brand. Moderate
importance is given color attribute and thickness also derives its importance somewhere between
moderate to very.
OBJECTIVE: to find what is more important between color and thickness of tomato ketchup among the
1. USING THE SIGN TEST FOR DATA ANLYSIS:
Table for sign test
S. NO. RESPONDENTS VIEW FOR COLOR RESPONDENTS VIEW FOR THICKNESS SIGN
9 1 3 -2
10 2 1 1
11 2 1 1
37 3 2 1
38 1 2 -1
39 2 1 1
40 2 3 -1
41 3 2 1
42 2 1 1
43 3 2 1
44 3 2 1
45 3 2 1
46 3 2 1
47 2 3 -1
48 2 3 -1
49 2 1 1
50 3 1 2
51 1 2 -1
52 2 1 1
53 3 2 1
54 3 1 2
2. NO OF POSITIVE SIGN= 43
NO OF NEGATIVE SIGN=11
TOTAL SAMPLE SIZE=54
(In this sample size we have ignored the respondents who have given the equal importance to
color and taste for tomato ketchup)
3. NULL HYPOTHESIS,H(0): P=0.5
(There is no difference between the importance level of color and thickness for tomato ketchup)
4. ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS,H(1): P<0.5
(The level of importance of color is less than thickness for tomato ketchup)
5. APPLYING SIGN TEST: So,
�, Standard Error= 0.068
6. Z (test) = 4.264
7. Significance level, α = 0.05
Z (critical) = 1.96
INTERPRETING THE RESULTS:
Since the Z (test) is greater than Z(critical), we reject the null hypothesis that the importance of color
and taste for tomato ketchup is same.
Therefore, we accept the alternate hypothesis that is the importance of color is less than thickness
among the respondents for tomato ketchup.
The data collected from the survey clearly shows that taste is the most important factor while
purchasing the tomato ketchup.
The above analysis tells that thickness of tomato ketchup is the second most important attribute for the
respondents after taste. Maggi is the leader in the ketchup industry and known for its better taste and
varieties. Maggi should work towards the thickness of its tomato ketchup.
• The ketchup is thinner as compared to Kissan. According to our inference thickness is one important
criteria which affects buying behaviour. Hence company should work on the thickness of the ketchup.
• Company should work on taste also. According to the data collected people prefer the taste of Kissan.
• They should maintain quality of the product.
• Most of the people buy Maggi Ketchup from local kirana stores. But organized sector is booming and
according to our survey 38% people buy Maggi Ketchup from Retail Stores. Hence they should increase
the visibility of the product in Retail Stores and hence effective distribution network.
• According to the data collected it is recorded that the level of discounts offered is low. Hence company
should try to provide more discounts on the product. ‘Buy One Get One Free’ is the most preferred
• The frequency of TV advertisements has decreased. They should try to come out with more innovative
advertisement to catch the attention of the customers.
• They should promote there new product ‘PICHKOO’ as people are less aware of this new size. It could
increase the market share tremendously as it is very convenient to carry.
• It should be more competitively priced. Customers perceive it to be highly priced.
1. SAMPLING ERROR:
The sample of our survey is confined to the respondents from the middle class and the upper middle
The sample size of 130 is not the true representative of our sampling frame and result in skewed
The locations under taken for the survey is also a constrain because the result of the survey is limited to
some regions and cannot be used for further analysis and implementation.
2. RESPONSE ERRORS:
These errors arise when the respondents give inaccurate or incomplete answers. A major problem is
faced in the survey involved the comparative ratings of various attributes for tomato ketchup. Many of
the respondents were not very willing to mark
their income group.
3. CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONS:
All the questions in the questionnaire were closed-ended to avoid any confusion from the respondents
end. But a drawback of this approach is that there was some biasness in capturing the responses of the
respondents. The reasons for such inaccuracy could be because of unfamiliarity, boredom, faulty recall
and the question format.
4. RECORDING ERROR:
This type of error arise dues to errors in hearing, interpreting, and recording the answers given by the
respondents. For example, a respondent indicates a moderate response for the attributes of the tomato
ketchup, but the interviewer misinterprets that to a positive response.
5. DATA ANALYSIS ERROR:
These errors occur while raw data from questionnaire are transformed into research findings. For
example, if the outliers are not filtered from the data during the statistical procedure, result in incorrect
interpretation and findings.