Unit 7: Forestry and Natural Resources Mr. Ham Introduction to  AgriScience and  Technology
Objective 7.1  Define Natural Resources <ul><li>Natural resources are all those things with which we come in contact that ...
Examples include: <ul><li>Mineral  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and Wi...
Objective 7.1a Explain the difference between non-exhaustible, renewable, and exhaustible natural resources. <ul><li>Non-e...
Renewable Resources <ul><li>Renewable Resources: natural resources that can be replaced by human efforts. </li></ul><ul><u...
Exhaustible Resources <ul><li>Exhaustible Resources: natural resources that cannot be replaced or reproduced. </li></ul><u...
Objective 7.2 Explain the importance of soil and water conservation. <ul><li>Both are exhaustible resources </li></ul><ul>...
Soil Conservation <ul><li>Soil Components </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water 25%...
Sand <ul><ul><ul><li>Particle size of .05 to 2.0millimeters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest soil particle </l...
Silt <ul><li>Particle size between .002 t0 .05 millimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in nutrients. </li></ul>
Clay <ul><li>Smallest soil particle. </li></ul><ul><li>Particle size less than .002 millimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>It is el...
Organic Matter (Humus) <ul><li>Plant and animal remains in various stages of decay. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent source of ...
Physical Properties of Soil <ul><li>Soil Texture: the portion of sand, silt and clay.  (How it feels.)  Affects the proper...
<ul><li>Soil Tilth: how loose the soil is and how wet or dry it may be.  It is important for establishing good plant root ...
Soil Profile <ul><li>Four Horizons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top soil, dark in color,...
 
 
Soil Water <ul><li>Water Table </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water free to move throughout the ...
<ul><li>Hydroscopic Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin layer of water held around the soil particle so tightly that it is u...
Erosion Control <ul><li>Mulching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straw or wood chips used to provided a protective layer over the so...
No-Till Farming
Terracing: Ridges or embankments that slow the rate of water runoff as it travels down a slope.
<ul><li>Strip Cropping: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plowed crops may be planted in alternating strips with crops that don’t requ...
Water Buffer Strips
Objective 7.3 Discuss the importance of forestry. <ul><li>Forestry Provides… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood Products </li></ul...
List the purposes that a forest serves. <ul><li>Protect watershed </li></ul><ul><li>Production of timber </li></ul><ul><li...
Define timberland <ul><li>Timberland: forest land capable of producing wood in excess of twenty cubic feet per acre. </li>...
Explain the impact the timber industry has on the U.S. <ul><li>There are 490 million acres of timberland in the U.S. </li>...
Explain why the south is such an excellent producer of timber <ul><li>It has a warm climate, abundant rainfall, long growi...
Define pulpwood <ul><li>Pulpwood: is wood that is cut or prepared for manufacturing into pulp, which can be made into pape...
List and explain the importance of beneficial influences of trees <ul><li>Influence on Climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ...
<ul><li>Control of Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>- Leaves and branches of trees break the impact of rain, causing it to drip ra...
<ul><li>Retention of Snow Melt </li></ul><ul><li>- Forest soil is likely to freeze less deeply, it absorbs more water from...
<ul><li>Environment for Fish </li></ul><ul><li>-Forest vegetation that shades water courses from the full heat of the sun ...
<ul><li>Flood prevention and water flow </li></ul><ul><li>-Forested watersheds where management is carefully practiced, ex...
<ul><li>Wildlife Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>-Wildlife uses the trees and forest as food and shelter. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Prevention of Soil Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>-Water that moves through forested soils, does more slowly and stays ...
<ul><li>Reduction of Wind Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees are used as windbreaks and slows down the  force of wind. </li>...
<ul><li>Habitat for Songbirds </li></ul><ul><li>-Forest and rural areas are habitats for songbirds. If forest are taken aw...
<ul><li>Removal of Gas Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>-Sulfur Dioxide is used for metabolism for trees. The roots will absor...
<ul><li>Removal of Particulates </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees catch particles that are in the air.  The leaves usually hold ont...
<ul><li>Noise Abatement  </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees act as a sound barrier.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Temperature difference in city areas </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees block the heat from the sun. The heat absorbed in th...
<ul><li>Greenbelts as Moisture Storage Zones </li></ul><ul><li>-Water is diverted from trees into storage zones. Trees als...
<ul><li>Effect on Property Values </li></ul><ul><li>-Property values are enhanced if trees are growing on a city lot or a ...
<ul><li>Barriers to Reduce Glare and Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees are being utilized effectively as barriers agains...
Objective 7.4  List the major species of wildlife in Arkansas. <ul><li>Deer Turkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Black Bear Elk </li>...
Objective 7.5 Discuss recreational use of natural resources. <ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camping </li></ul></...
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9th forestry and natural resources

  1. 1. Unit 7: Forestry and Natural Resources Mr. Ham Introduction to AgriScience and Technology
  2. 2. Objective 7.1 Define Natural Resources <ul><li>Natural resources are all those things with which we come in contact that can be used to perform any useful function. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples include: <ul><li>Mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objective 7.1a Explain the difference between non-exhaustible, renewable, and exhaustible natural resources. <ul><li>Non-exhaustible: natural resources that can last forever regardless of human activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They renew themselves continuously. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. surface water and air </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Renewable Resources <ul><li>Renewable Resources: natural resources that can be replaced by human efforts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. forest, fish and wildlife </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Exhaustible Resources <ul><li>Exhaustible Resources: natural resources that cannot be replaced or reproduced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. oil, mineral resources, and soil </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Objective 7.2 Explain the importance of soil and water conservation. <ul><li>Both are exhaustible resources </li></ul><ul><li>Both serve as a filter </li></ul><ul><li>Limited quantities of each </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of life </li></ul>
  8. 8. Soil Conservation <ul><li>Soil Components </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water 25% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air 25% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sand <ul><ul><ul><li>Particle size of .05 to 2.0millimeters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest soil particle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not hold water well. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Silt <ul><li>Particle size between .002 t0 .05 millimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in nutrients. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Clay <ul><li>Smallest soil particle. </li></ul><ul><li>Particle size less than .002 millimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>It is electrically charged which gives it enormous water holding capacity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Organic Matter (Humus) <ul><li>Plant and animal remains in various stages of decay. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent source of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in soil structure, aeration and water holding capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the darker material found in the top soil. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Properties of Soil <ul><li>Soil Texture: the portion of sand, silt and clay. (How it feels.) Affects the properties of the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Structure: how the soil particles are arranged. It affects the aeration and water holding capacity of the soil. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Soil Tilth: how loose the soil is and how wet or dry it may be. It is important for establishing good plant root structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Consistence: the general make-up of the soil. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Soil Profile <ul><li>Four Horizons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top soil, dark in color, rich in nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B Horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsoil, lighter in color, less nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C Horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent material, nutrient poor, faded or “washed out” color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R Horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bedrock </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Soil Water <ul><li>Water Table </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water free to move throughout the pores in the soil. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Hydroscopic Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin layer of water held around the soil particle so tightly that it is unavailable to the plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water that fills the air pores in the soil. It occurs when the soil is saturated and quickly percolates out of the soil. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Erosion Control <ul><li>Mulching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straw or wood chips used to provided a protective layer over the soil. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. No-Till Farming
  20. 22. Terracing: Ridges or embankments that slow the rate of water runoff as it travels down a slope.
  21. 23. <ul><li>Strip Cropping: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plowed crops may be planted in alternating strips with crops that don’t require plowing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strips slow down the speed of wind and rate of water runoff. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Water Buffer Strips
  23. 25. Objective 7.3 Discuss the importance of forestry. <ul><li>Forestry Provides… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat for Wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration System for Air and Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Soil Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. List the purposes that a forest serves. <ul><li>Protect watershed </li></ul><ul><li>Production of timber </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of wildlife habitat and recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of stream flow </li></ul><ul><li>Control of erosion </li></ul><ul><li>General aesthetics </li></ul>
  25. 27. Define timberland <ul><li>Timberland: forest land capable of producing wood in excess of twenty cubic feet per acre. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Explain the impact the timber industry has on the U.S. <ul><li>There are 490 million acres of timberland in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 million people work in the forestry industry. </li></ul><ul><li>$34 billion in revenue is generated by the industry. </li></ul><ul><li>3.8 billion cubic feet of wood is imported every year. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Explain why the south is such an excellent producer of timber <ul><li>It has a warm climate, abundant rainfall, long growing season, and great soils. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Define pulpwood <ul><li>Pulpwood: is wood that is cut or prepared for manufacturing into pulp, which can be made into paper products. </li></ul>
  29. 31. List and explain the importance of beneficial influences of trees <ul><li>Influence on Climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The crowns of the trees hold the moisture in because the force of the wind is broken so it makes the forest cool in the summer and warm in the winter. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Control of Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>- Leaves and branches of trees break the impact of rain, causing it to drip rather than a strong force. Rain is absorbed by ground litter, reducing surface runoff. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Retention of Snow Melt </li></ul><ul><li>- Forest soil is likely to freeze less deeply, it absorbs more water from the melting snow. By delaying the melting snow, forests prolong the period of runoff. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Environment for Fish </li></ul><ul><li>-Forest vegetation that shades water courses from the full heat of the sun contributes toward the prevention of excessive stream temperatures. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Flood prevention and water flow </li></ul><ul><li>-Forested watersheds where management is carefully practiced, extremes of water flow in winter and summer are avoided, thus aiding in flood control. </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Wildlife Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>-Wildlife uses the trees and forest as food and shelter. </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>Prevention of Soil Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>-Water that moves through forested soils, does more slowly and stays free of sediments. </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>Reduction of Wind Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees are used as windbreaks and slows down the force of wind. </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Habitat for Songbirds </li></ul><ul><li>-Forest and rural areas are habitats for songbirds. If forest are taken away, the population of songbirds will reduce. </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Removal of Gas Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>-Sulfur Dioxide is used for metabolism for trees. The roots will absorb soil and water pollutants through the roots, aiding in the cleansing of soil and water. </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Removal of Particulates </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees catch particles that are in the air. The leaves usually hold onto the particles until the particles are washed to the ground by a rain. </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>Noise Abatement </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees act as a sound barrier. </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>Temperature difference in city areas </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees block the heat from the sun. The heat absorbed in the transpiration process also cools the air in the immediate vicinity of the cities. </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>Greenbelts as Moisture Storage Zones </li></ul><ul><li>-Water is diverted from trees into storage zones. Trees also pump water from the soil, allowing for additional storage. </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>Effect on Property Values </li></ul><ul><li>-Property values are enhanced if trees are growing on a city lot or a ranch. </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>Barriers to Reduce Glare and Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>-Trees are being utilized effectively as barriers against excessive glare and against reflection from high-albedo surfaces, such as concrete and glass. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Objective 7.4 List the major species of wildlife in Arkansas. <ul><li>Deer Turkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Black Bear Elk </li></ul><ul><li>Coyotes Rabbits </li></ul><ul><li>Squirrels </li></ul><ul><li>Catfish Trout </li></ul><ul><li>Bass Strippers </li></ul><ul><li>Bream Carp </li></ul><ul><li>Suckers </li></ul>
  46. 48. Objective 7.5 Discuss recreational use of natural resources. <ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting and fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canoeing/boating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biking </li></ul></ul>

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