Sustainability And Renewable Energy In Architecture An Overview (2008)

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An overview of sustainability and understanding how to design sustainable buildings

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Sustainability And Renewable Energy In Architecture An Overview (2008)

  1. 1. SUSTAINABILITY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY IN ARCHITECTURE
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABILITYWHAT IS SUSTAINABILITYThe best-known definition of sustainability or sustainable development is the definitionby the World Commission on Environment and Development."forms of progress that meet the needs of the present without compromising the abilityof future generations to meet their needs.― Sustainability is about considering the social, economic and environmental implications of what we do with a view to minimising the negative effects on people and quality of life, both now and in the future. ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC THE ‘TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE’
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABILITYWHY SHOULD WE BE SUSTAINABLE?- Environmental Impact of people – Noticeable Climate Change- Increasing Oil price per barrel- 50% of oil resources already exploited- 120 million barrels a day by 2025- Highest % of CO2 in 50 years- 30% increase in energy demand by 2025- Less potable water actually used for drinking and cooking IS SOMEONE TRYING TO TELL US SOMETHING ?  ECONOMIC BENIFITS – 2ND FASTEST GROWING ECONOMY, INNOVATION IN CONSTRUCTION STILL NOT SATISFACTORY  SOCIAL BENEFITS – BETTER SAFER AND HEALTHY LIVING CONDITIONS FOR EVERYONE  EVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS – REDUCE POLLUTION, CONSERVE OUR RESOURCES
  4. 4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT POLICIES KOYOTO AGREEMENT – 1997 The Kyoto protocol is an international and legally binding agreement to reducegreenhouse gas emissions worldwide (industrialized nations). It came into force inFebruary 2005 after being agreed at a 1997 UN conference in Kyoto, Japan. A total of 174nations ratified the pact to reduce the greenhouse gases emitted by developed countriesto at least 5% below 1990 levels by 2008-12. BALI AGREEMENT – 2007Delegates from over 180 nations, together with observers from intergovernmental andnon-governmental organizations, meet to negotiate a new pact to succeed the Kyotoprotocol, which expires in 2012
  5. 5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT POLICIESINDIAN SUSTAINABILITY POLICY –The Government of India has established a separate FinancialInstitution since 1987. Indian Renewable Energy DevelopmentAgency (IREDA) based in New Delhi.‘RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES will have a share of 6%from the present level of 1.67% by the year 2012’ - Ministry forNon-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) KERALA ENERGY POLICY –The total electricity generation in 2001-2002 is 7142 MU froman installed capacity of 2601.18 MW. These are projected toreach about 23,000 Gwh and 3800 MW in 2005-06, a steepIncrease.WIND TURBINES , THERMAL POWER STATIONS ANDMICRO HYRO POWER
  6. 6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT POLICIES DRIVERS FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN INDIA COMMITMENT TO REDUCE C02 / GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ? SOCIAL ASPECTS – HEALTHY AND SAFE ENVIRONMENT ? TAPPING RENEWABLE ENERGY - EXPECTED TO REACH HIGHEST RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCER IN THE WORLDTHE CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABILITY IN INDIA FINANCIAL – WHAT IS VIABLE WILL DEPEND ON PROJECTS TECHNOLOGY AND SKILL DEFECIT RACE AGAINST INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION INDUSRTY STANDARDS WITH INCREASING CLIENTS DEMANDS LACK OF ENFORCEABLE POLICIES AND TARGETS
  7. 7. SUSTAINABILITY IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  AVERAGE OF 48% ENERGY PRODUCED IS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  84% OF OPERATION ENERGY - HEATING/COOLING, VENTILATION AND LIGHTING
  8. 8. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY MEASURING POWER CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGS ENERGY IS MEASURED AS POWER CONSUMED IN WATTS OR KILO WATTS PER HOUR 1 UNIT = 1 KW = 1000 W Annual KW hours = (kilowatts x number of hours use/day x 365 days) A 60 Watt bulb used for 50 hrs per week / 2610 hrs per year = 156.6 KWh ELECTRICITY - PRIMARY ENERGY NATURAL GAS – SECONDARY ENERGY
  9. 9. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY CARBON FOOTPRINT OR CARBON EMISSION CO2 IS ONE OF THE PRIMARY CONTRIBUTOR TO GREEN HOUSE GAS EFFECT AND GLOBAL WARMING 73% OF GREEN HOUSE GASSES IS CO2 BUILDING ARE RATED BY THE CARBON EMISSION IT PRODUCES DURING CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE THROUGH OUT ITS LIFE CYCLE CARBON EMISSION FACTOR – IT IS A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF CO2 IN KILOGRAMS, THAT IS EMITTED IN PRODUCING 1KWH OF ENERGY – Kg CO2 / KWh Electricity = 0.43 Natural Gas = 0.19 Gasoil / Petrol = 2.68
  10. 10. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY CARBON FOOTPRINT OR CARBON EMISSION OUR 60 W BULB CONSUMING 156.6 KWh per Annum = 156.6 X 0.43 = 67.4 Kg CO2 / Annum AVERAGE HOUSE MONTHLY CONSUMPTION = 651 KWh = 7812 KWh annually CARBON EMISSION = 7812 X 0.43 = 3360 Kg CO2 / Annum = 3.36 TONNES OF CO2 CARBON FOOTPRINT = 3.36 / 4 (people) = 0.84 T is your carbon foot print from building alone << MAN’S CARBON FOOTPRINT = 0.84 TCAMEL’S CARBON FOOTPRINT NIL OR DOES HE CARE ? >>
  11. 11. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY THERMAL COMFORT Thermal comfort is very difficult to define. The best that you can realistically hope to achieve is a thermal environment which satisfies the majority of people in the workplace, or put more simply, ‘reasonable comfort’. Environmental factors: Air temperature Radiant temperature Air velocity Humidity Personal factors: Clothing Insulation Metabolic heat – User Activity THERMAL COMFORT – STANDARD CONDITIONS Optimum air temperature range 20-24 ° C Radiant summer temperature of 21 – 26 ° C Optimum humidity range 40-60% min recommended fresh air rate 10 L/s per 10 m2 Optimum air movement 0.1-0.5 m/s (naturally ventilated), 0.1-0.2 m/s (air-conditioned).
  12. 12. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY DEGREE DAYS – Cooling Degree Day measures how high the average daily temperature is relative to a reference temperature such as 18 C (or how many degrees of cooling are required). If the average daily temperature for June 3rd is 20C then 20 - 18 = 2 deg Therefore the result is 2 Cooling Degree Days or 2C of cooling required. If the average temperature for June 3rd had been 10C then it is 8 heating degree days. Cooling degree days cannot be negative. New Delhi UK - Birmmingham
  13. 13. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY HEAT TRANSFER IN BUILDINGS Radiant energy is responsible for between 45% and 93% of the heat transfer into, or out of a building.
  14. 14. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY THERMAL CONDUCTANCE - U VALUE U-value is a measure of a materials ability to conduct heat. The thermal performance of windows and walls is commonly stated in U-values. EMISSIVITY - E VALUE Emissivity is the ability of a surface to emit or transfer radiant energy through itself - everything has an E-value
  15. 15. BUILDING ENERGY - TERMINOLOGY THERMAL MASS ‘Thermal mass’ is the characteristics of a material to absorb heat, store it, and at a later time, release it. HOW THERMAL MASS WORKS Material Conductivity W/mK Vol heat capacity kJ/m 3 K Water 1.9 4186 Cast concrete (dense) 1.4 2300 ‘In summer, thermal mass absorbs heat that Granite 2.1 2154 Dense concrete block 1.8 2000 enters the building. In hot weather, thermal mass has a lower initial Sandstone 1.6 1800 Clay tiles 0.52 1770 temperature than the surrounding air and acts Rammed earth 1.1 1675 as a heat sink. Clay plaster 0.91 1650 By absorbing heat from the atmosphere the Brick 0.72 1360 Dense plaster 0.05 1300 internal air temperature is lowered during the Flooring screed 0.41 1000 day, with the result that comfort is improved Plasterboard Lightweight plaster 0.17 0.16 800 600 without the need for supplementary cooling. Lightweight concrete block 0.11 600 Fibreboard 0.06 300 Timber flooring 0.14 780 Carpet 0.07 260 Rockwool insulation 0.035 42 Fibreglass insulation 0.04 9
  16. 16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT USING ECOTECTTHERMAL ANALYSIS
  17. 17. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS A ZERO CARBON BUILDING IS ONE WHOSE NET CARBON EMISSION IS ZERO ACHIEVEMENT THORUGH AN INTEGRATED PROCESS :-  BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN – USE PASSIVE METHODS  ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEMS  RENEWABLE ENERGY  LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATERIALS  HEALTH AND SAFTEY PLANNING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT  IDENTIFY CLIENT ASPIRATIONS  PLANNING AT CONCEPT STAGE – ARCHITECTS/ ENGINEERS / PROJECT MANAGERS  PAYBACK PERIOD OF INVESTMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN  ACHIEVING ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATES  PARTNERING / CO WORK WITH CONTRACTOR AND SUPPLIERS  IMPLEMENT AND MONITOR
  18. 18. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE DESIGN PRINCIPLES  REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF BUILDINGS BY DESIGN  REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF BUILDINGS BY ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEMS – COOLING, LIGHTING E.T.C  GENERATE ON SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR CONSUMPTION  USE REUSABLE/ RECYCLED MATERIALS  REDUCE WASTE  REDUCE WATER CONSUMPTION  USE MODERN METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION  HEALTH AND SAFTEY
  19. 19. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION OF BUIDING FABRIC / MATERIALS USE THERMAL MASS EFFICIENTLY CREATE A THERMAL LAG WITH HEAVY MASS DURING DAY – THICK WALLS / DENSE MATERIALS, HIGH U - VALUE
  20. 20. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION OF BUIDING FABRIC / MATERIALS REDUCE RADIANT HEAT FROM THE BUILDING FABRIC USING RADIANT HEAT BARRIER RADIANT HEAT BARIER - Radiant barriers function by reducing heat transfer by radiation.
  21. 21. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION OF BUIDING FABRIC / MATERIALS GLAZED FACADE – LOW E DOUBLE / TRIPPLE GLAZED FACADE WITH HIGH U- VALUE
  22. 22. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION OF BUIDING FABRIC / MATERIALS RENEWABLE MATERIALS
  23. 23. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS VENTILATION DESIGN – NATURAL VENTILATION TEMPERATURE OF AIR IS THE BIGGEST FACTOR IN DETERMINING THERMAL COMFORT – 50% OF COOLING LOST FROM BUILDING IS THROUGH VENTIALTION NATURAL VENTILATION HAS THE BENEFIT OF NO / LOW ENERGY CONUMPTION  SITE PLANNING – ORIENTATION TO DRAW IN PREVALING COOL WINDS
  24. 24. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS VENTILATION DESIGN – NATURAL VENTILATION  SITE PLANNING – ORIENTATION TO DRAW IN PREVALING COOL WIND USING CUMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ASSESMENT – FLUENT /FLOVENT SOFTWARE
  25. 25. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGSVENTILATION DESIGN – NATURAL VENTILATION ENABLE NATURAL VENTILATION THROUGH BUILDING INTELLIGENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS SINGLE SIDE VENTILATION SINGLE SIDE VENTILATION CROSS VENTILATION STACK VENTILATION
  26. 26. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS VENTILATION DESIGN – NATURAL VENTILATION  WIND CATHCERS - MONODRAUGHT
  27. 27. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS VENTILATION DESIGN – MIXED MODE VENTILATION / DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION ATRIA
  28. 28. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGSVENTILATION DESIGN – MIXED MODE VENTILATION / GORUND SOURCE COOLING VENTILATION
  29. 29. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS VENTILATION DESIGN – MIXED MODE VENTILATION
  30. 30. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS NATURAL VENTILATION MECHANICAL VENTILATION MIXED MODE VENTILATION GIVES ALL THE BENEFITS OF NATURAL VENTILATION AND BETTER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT
  31. 31. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SOLAR ARCHITECTURE – SOLAR SHADING DESIGN OPTIMISE SHADING TO REDUCE SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH WINDOWS AND WALLS
  32. 32. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SOLAR ARCHITECTURE – SOLAR SHADING AND DAY LIGHT CONTROL USING OPACITY OF THE GLAZED FACADE
  33. 33. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SOLAR ARCHITECTURE – SOLAR SHADING AND DAY LIGHT CONTROL USING OPACITY OF THE GLAZED FACADE USING NANOGEL INSULATION
  34. 34. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SOLAR ARCHITECTURE – NATURAL DAY LIGHT SYSTEMS - SUNPIPE
  35. 35. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SOLAR ARCHITECTURE – NATURAL DAY LIGHT SYSTEM S - SUNPIPE
  36. 36. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SOLAR ARCHITECTURE – EVAPORATIVE COOLING – WATER WALL
  37. 37. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEMS – CO GENERATION SYSTEM COMBINED SYSTEM THAT GENERATE POWER AND USE WASTE HEAT FOR ABSORPTIVE COOLING THE PUMP INSIDE THIS SYSTEM WORKS AT LOWER POWER THAN AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
  38. 38. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEMS – EVAPORATIVE COOLING
  39. 39. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEMS – EVAPORATIVE COOLING - HUMIDIFIERS
  40. 40. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEMS – EVAPORATIVE COOLING
  41. 41. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES PHOTOVOLTAICS – SOLAR ENERGY Solar panels work by converting light directly into an electric current. PV solar panels only require day light not direct sunlight. Does not have moving parts and last 25 years.
  42. 42. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES PHOTOVOLTAICS – SOLAR ENERGY BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
  43. 43. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES PHOTOVOLTAICS – SOLAR ENERGY BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
  44. 44. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES WIND TURBINE – SOLAR ENERGY
  45. 45. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES WIND TURBINE – SOLAR ENERGY TYPES OF WIND TURBINES HORIZONTAL AXIS – MORE EFFICIENCY VERTICAL AXIS
  46. 46. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES WIND TURBINE – BUILDING INTEGRATED
  47. 47. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS Primary Energy CO2 emissions System Efficiency (%) (kg CO2/kWh heat) Oil fired boiler 60 - 65 0.45 – 0.48 Gas fired boiler 70 - 80 0.26 – 0.31 Electrical heating /cooling 36 0.9 Conventional electricity + GHSP 120 - 160 0.27 – 0.20 Green electricity + GHSP 300 - 400 0.00
  48. 48. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS RENEWABLE ENERGY – ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS – UNDER FLOOR HEATING / COOLING Ground Collector Under Floor Cooling 4kW (minimum) COOLING for 1kW Electricity
  49. 49. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE – SUDS Sustainable Drainage is an environmentally-friendly way of dealing with surface water runoff to avoid problems associated with conventional drainage practice. These problems include reducing flooding SUDS is a new approach to drainage that keeps water on site longer, prevents pollution and allows storage and use of the water. The Water Cycle Reed bed water polishing Settlement pond Bio-digester plant The Water Cycle
  50. 50. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE - SLOW DOWN RUN OFF RATEPORUS PAVINGS AND GROUND COVER WATER STORE IN SMALL PONDS LANDSCAPE WATER FEATURES
  51. 51. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE - GREEN ROOF AND RAINWATER HARVESTING BENEFITS OF GREEN ROOF
  52. 52. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE - GREEN ROOF AND RAINWATER HARVESTING There are three main types of green roof: — extensive: which can be extensive sedum or extensive bio diverse — simple intensive which can also be bio diverse — intensive.
  53. 53. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS EXAMPLES – COUNCIL HOUSE 2, AUSTRALIA – GREEN STAR RATING SOLAR SHADING DESIGN
  54. 54. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS EXAMPLES – COUNCIL HOUSE 2, AUSTRALIA COOLING STRATEGY
  55. 55. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS EXAMPLES – COUNCIL HOUSE 2, AUSTRALIA COOLING STRATEGY
  56. 56. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS EXAMPLES – COUNCIL HOUSE 2, AUSTRALIA WATER REUSE
  57. 57. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS EXAMPLES – BEDDZED , UK – FIRST ZERO CARBON DEVELOPMENT BIO CLIMATIC DESIGN
  58. 58. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS EXAMPLES – BEDZED , UK – FIRST ZERO CARBON DEVELOPMENT RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT DESING
  59. 59. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHOD / RATING TWO MAIN ESTABLISHED ASSESMENT METHODS – BREEAM - Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method, UK LEED – Leadership in Energy And Environment Design BREEAM, have been designed to assess the holistic environmental performance of buildings. Performance is assessed against a range of categories; Energy, Transport, Pollution, Materials, Water, Ecology and Health and Wellbeing. Credits are obtained under each of these categories, and each credit carries a particular number of points. The result is an environmental rating for the building on a scale of Pass, Good, Very Good or Excellent. A LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IS MADE STARTING FROM ACQUIRING RAW MATERIALS TO CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION UNTIL DEMOLITION OF BUILDING
  60. 60. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHOD / RATING
  61. 61. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHOD / RATING
  62. 62. ACHIEVING LOW CARBON / ZERO CARBON BUILDINGS FUTURE OF SUSTAINABILITY NEW TARGETS CHANGE IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS ACHIEVE LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DEVELOPE A SAFE AND HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT

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