Aperture/Depth of field/f-stops- Adjustable ring inside the lens that controls the amount of light that can hitthe sensor.- Larger the aperture – more light can flow in and vice versa.- Aperture setting is expressed as f-stops.- A low f-stop means a large opening and large f-stop means small opening.- Depth of field depends on aperture- With small aperture (i.e. large f-stops), image will have deep depth of field i.e.entire image will look crisp.- With large aperture (i.e. small f-stops), image will have shallow depth of fieldi.e. background will be blurred.F-Stop Appropriate forf/22 to f/14 (small aperture, deep depthof field)Landscape, bright sunlightf/11 to f/5.6 Portraits, indoorsf/4 and lower (large aperture, shallowdepth of field)Close-ups, dim-lighting
Shutter-speed- Controls how long sensor is exposed.- Faster the shutter speed, sensor is exposed for less time and vice versa.- Aperture and shutter speed work together to determine how much light getsto sensor.- Sporting event pictures require fast shutter speed – a big aperture allows fastshutter speed- Typical setting:Shutter Speed - Second Condition1/500 Bright daylight1/200 Overcast or shaded light1/50 Indoor
ISO (International Standards Organization)- Adjusts the sensitivity of sensor to light- Higher the ISO value greater the light sensitivity- In low light condition, set high ISO value and vice versa- Grains in image with high ISO setting – so optimize for lowest possible ISOvalue of ISO for an image you want- Slow the shutter speed in case of low light rather than just increasing the ISOvalueISO Setting Condition60 and up Low light situation, requires fast shutterspeed400 to 600 Indoors and dim light200 to 400 Shade or with flash100 to 200 Bright sunlight, requires fast shutterspeed
Focal Length- The area a lens captures depends on focal length and it is measure ofdistance between lens and sensor measured in mm.- A standard lens has focal length of 35mm that provides a view similar tounaided eye.- Longer focal length lens is called zoom lens and shorter wide-angle.
Landscape/Skyline/Sunset photography typical settingParameter Landscape / Skyline SunsetLens/Focal length Wide Angle (less than 35mm) Wide Angle (less than 35mm)Aperture f/8 or higher (big f-stop i.e. small aperture) f/5.6 or higherShutter Speed 1/200 sec or faster 1/30 sec or slowerOthers Flash off, deep depth of field required (i.e.large f-stop), Low ISOFlash off
Moving Water/Flower photography typical settingParameter Moving Water Flower/BugLens/Focal length Wide Angle (less than 35mm) Wide Angle (less than 35mm)Aperture f/8 or higher (big f-stop i.e. small aperture) f/4 or lessShutter Speed 1/5 sec or slower (for hazy water), 1/500 secor faster (for freezing water action and detail)1/200 or fasterOthers Flash off, deep depth of field required (i.e.large f-stop), Low ISOAvoid shadow, low ISO
Sports-action/Indoor action photography typical settingParameter Sports-action Indoor actionLens/Focal length Telephoto – 150mm or longer Telephoto – 150mm or longerAperture f/4 or larger f-stops f/5.6 or lessShutter Speed 1/500 sec or faster 1/200 or fasterOthers Flash off, Low ISO Set white balance to fluorescent orincandescent. Higher ISO
Other facts to keep in mind• Underexposed image will create histogram skewed to left.• Histogram of too bright photo will be skewed towards right.• Evenly exposed image will have broad spread of histogram.