What is Information Architecture

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What is Information Architecture

  1. 1. User Experience Design Understanding Information Architecture Praveen Verma Twitter: @praveenkvma http://www.deignprevails.blogspot.com Mars… &^ %*??? May 12, 2006
  2. 2. 202/21/07 And now they say it is the closest that Information Architecture has come to IT. Soon it will become necessary part of standard software development process.
  3. 3. KEANE Information Architecture A Story Information Architecture (IA) Interaction Design (ID) Information Design (ID too) User-centered Design (UCD) User-interface Design (UI) Usability/Usability Engineering (UE) Human Factors Engineering (HFE)
  4. 4. 402/21/07 The Problem
  5. 5. 502/21/07 The Solution Questions Answers Users • audience types • information needs Content • scope and volume • structure • metadata Business Context • strategy • resources • culture / politics • workflow Interaction Interface IA Info. Architecture: Organization, Labeling, Navigation Structures, & Optimizing Searching Systems
  6. 6. 602/21/07 The Solution Personal Digital Assistant Synonyms Handheld Computer "Alternate" Spellings Persenal Digitel Asistent Abbreviations / Acronyms PDA Broader Terms Wireless, Computers Narrower Terms PalmPilot, PocketPC Related Terms WindowsCE, Cell Phones Documents and Applications Users Communication Chasm
  7. 7. 702/21/07 Understanding Information Architecture Topology Information architecture though deals with Business and Technology but the heart of it lies in advocating Users needs. Users Business Technology Information Architecture Business Analysis System Analysis
  8. 8. 802/21/07 Understanding Information Architecture Components Information Design Information Organization Interaction Design Findability Understandability Usability Intranets, Web applications, websites, software, etc.
  9. 9. 902/21/07 Understanding Information Architecture Components Metadata, Controlled Vocabulary Navigation structures, Taxonomy, Content Follow industry best practices, W3C standards, Accessibility Findability Understandability Usability
  10. 10. 1002/21/07 … and some more components The art and science of structuring and organizing information systems to help people achieve their goals.
  11. 11. 1102/21/07 Why is IA Important?  Cost of finding (time, frustration)  Cost of not finding (bad decisions, alternate channels)  Cost of construction (staff, technology, planning, bugs)  Cost of maintenance (content management, redesigns)  Cost of training (employees, turnover)  Value of brand (identity, reputation, trust) - Information architects assist business analysts to identify user-based requirements. - IAs are responsible for how users interpret and interact with information, freeing up visual designers to concentrate on visual design elements and programmers to concentrate on code. - Long before programming begins, IAs investigate customers and their needs and they factor business strategy and technology resources into solutions. This reduces the need later in the project to throw away code that doesn't work for customers.
  12. 12. 1202/21/07 Responsibilities  User Research  Increase Revenues by Innovative Solutions (online advertising, cross selling)  Strategic Positioning  Product Innovation  Taxonomy  Usability  Usability Testing  Comparative Studies  Information Visualization  Task Analysis  etc…
  13. 13. 1302/21/07 User Research
  14. 14. 1402/21/07 User Research  Study the emerging market (India as pilot) to describe the cultural context, identify user needs and generate new business and product ideas.  How things might be different in the future compared with the present.  How things are today, and also how current technology is actually used.
  15. 15. 1502/21/07 Intelligent Innovation
  16. 16. 1602/21/07 User Research, Product Innovation, and Positioning  Eduwise for Intel: Intel’s small notebook PC design for students, code-named “Eduwise,” is the result of extensive ethnographic research to provide an affordable, collaborative learning environment specifically for teachers and young students in developing communities.
  17. 17. 1702/21/07 Strategic positioning Strategic positioning determines who the customers are and what should be told about the product or service to get them to buy from you. Finding the right target and message to build your marketing plan can be crucial in the success of your product.
  18. 18. 1802/21/07 Strategic Positioning Project Requirement: Create market segmentation for middle-tier Indian market, identify and characterize corresponding personas, and deliver an e- persona tool. Parameters considered: SEC, ownership, income, urban vs. rural, attitudes towards technology and consumption. Techniques: Cluster analysis, affinity diagrams, extensive interviewing (with few games & exercises), and use of secondary research like income surveys. E-persona tool
  19. 19. 1902/21/07 Increase Revenues by Innovative Solutions – Cross Selling
  20. 20. 2002/21/07 Increase Revenues by Innovative Solutions – Online Advertising
  21. 21. 2102/21/07 Increase Revenues by Innovative Solutions – Online Advertising
  22. 22. 2202/21/07 Increase Revenues by Innovative Solutions – Navigation
  23. 23. 2302/21/07 Increase Revenues by Innovative Solutions – Navigation
  24. 24. 2402/21/07 Taxonomy: Metadata  Metadata: Attributes that describe a content object  Example Metadata Record: Compact Disc (Amazon.com) Attributes Attribute Values Title Symphonies nos 35-41 Composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Conductor Karl Böhm Ensemble Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra Genre Classical Date Recorded January 23, 1996
  25. 25. 2502/21/07 Taxonomy: It’s just a Camera Narrow by Brand Nikon (315) Canon (251) Sony (247) Olympus (226) Panasonic (162) Kodak (162) Fuji (150) Mizco (96) Hewlett-Packard (94) Samsung (85) Pentax (82) Vivitar (72) Narrow by Seller Amazon.com (1,142) Adorama Camera (619) Ace Digital Club (494) Wall Street Photo (434) Cameta Camera (315) Beach Audio (309) TheFactoryDepot (289) ANTOnline (285) J&R Music and Computer World (254) Target (218) BlueZodiac (184) 17th Street Photo (178) Narrow by Price $0-$24 (648) $25-$49 (417) $50-$99 (643) $100-$199 (904) $200-$499 (853) $500-$999 (287) $1000-$1999 (138) $2000-$4999 (28) $5000-$9999 (4) Narrow by Megapixels 1.9 MP & Under (190) 2 to 2.9 MP (123) 3 to 3.9 MP (237) 4 to 4.9 MP (190) 5 to 5.9 MP (371) 6 MP & Up (780) Narrow by Optical Zoom 1.9x & Under (363) 2.0x to 3.9x (1,061) 4.0x to 5.9x (143) 6x to 9.9x (89) 10x to 19x (144) Narrow by Display Size 1.9 in. & Under (770) 2 to 2.9 in. (927) 3 to 4.9 in. (60) 5 to 9.9 in. (1) 20 to 29 in. (1) Narrow by Image Stabilization None (1,522) Optical (238) Electronic (72) Yes (Super SteadyShot) (2) Digital Image Stabilization (1) Narrow by Viewfinder Type Optical (1,074) None (602) LCD (198) Eye level Porro Mirror type Optical View Finder (15) Eye level Penta Dach Mirror type Optical View Finder (8) Real-image optical zoom viewfinder (3) Fixed-eye level penta-Dach mirror type; built-in diopter adjustment (-1.7 to +0.5m-1) (3) Optical Zoom viewfinder (2) Real-image optical viewfinder (1) Pentaprism SLR viewfinder with Diopter adjust (-3dpt to + 1.5dpt) (1) Eye-level SLR with fixed pentaprism and Dioptric Adjustment Correction (1) Brand, Seller, Price, MP, Zoom, LCD, Image Stabilization, Viewfinder
  26. 26. 2602/21/07 Taxonomy: Classification and Term Relationships
  27. 27. 2702/21/07 Task Analysis
  28. 28. 2802/21/07 Task Analysis cont…
  29. 29. 2902/21/07 Complex Projects (information visualization)
  30. 30. 3002/21/07 Handheld Devices (interaction flow design) Sample Bluetooth print flow Image print specification Template %Print Size %Print Number Print Options Image print preview Print ▼ ▲ Sent print job Image sent to the printing device. Image print specification □ Image 1 □ Image 2 □ Image 3 Select Cancel select
  31. 31. 3102/21/07 Interaction (Error Messages)
  32. 32. 3202/21/07 Deliverables  User Need Matrix: A document to capture user needs of various site users and prioritize them accordingly. • Value Addition • Ensures that all user requirements are captured •Helps in prioritizing user needs and therefore helps in prioritizing page elements • Creates a snapshot view of the user eco- system
  33. 33. 3302/21/07 Deliverables  Site Map • Value Addition • Provides the high level snapshopt view and relationship between pages of the site. •Helps in restructuring the deep hierarchies.
  34. 34. 3402/21/07 Deliverables  Personas: A persona is a user archetype to help guide decisions about product features, navigation, interactions, and even visual design • Value Addition • Demographics • Psychographics • Environmental
  35. 35. 3502/21/07 Deliverables  Scenarios: Scenarios help you identify your visitors' goals by helping you develop a better idea of their problems and how they relate to your firm's solutions. • Value Addition • Identify the specific information that various categories of visitors are interested in • Provides holistic view to the task flow • Helps in prioritizing the information needs of the customers
  36. 36. 3602/21/07 Deliverables  Wireframes • Value Addition • Saves lot of time • Ideas can be presented without coding • Helps in validating page elements and structure with the user.
  37. 37. 3702/21/07 Deliverables  Usability Testing: Preparing Protocol, Conducting, and Reporting • Value Addition • Saves unnecessary effort and time • Helps in convincing the clients
  38. 38. 3802/21/07 Deliverables: The Process  Holistic View of the Process Site Map User Need Matrix Home Page Scenarios and Use cases Low Fidelity WireframesHigh Fidelity HTML WireframesVisual Design

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