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# Praveen

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### Praveen

1. 1. AERODYNAMICS IN AEROPLANES & CARS PRAVEENKUMAR.R.HIREMATH 1SI07ME085 MECHANICAL B SECTION VIIIth SEM
2. 2. AERODYNAMICS IN AIRPLANES
3. 3. INTRODUCTION AERODYNAMICS : Study of forces generated by motion of air on moving body. CLASSIFACATION OF AERODYNAMICS : external and internal, subsonic , supersonic , hypersonic FIELDS OF APPLICATION : aerospace engineering, design of automobiles , ships , civil engineering , design of bridges etc.
4. 4. The Four Forces of FlightThe four forces act on the airplane in flight and also work against each other.
5. 5. The Four Forces of FlightThe four forces act on the airplane in flight and also work against each other.
6. 6. The earth’s gravity pulls down onobjects and gives them weight. WEIGHT COUNTERACTS LIFT.
7. 7. WHAT’S IT TAKE TO CREATELIFT? Air and motion.How do we explain lift? Newton’s Laws of Motion and Bernoulli’s Principal are used to explain lift.
8. 8. Newton’s Second Law: force causes a change invelocity which in turn generates another force.Newton’s Third Law: net flow of air is turned downresulting in an ‘equal and opposite’ upward force.
9. 9. Newton’s Third Law states that for every actionthere is an equal and opposite reaction.
10. 10. Venturi Tube Bernouli’s first practical use of his theorem Where are venturi tubes used today?
11. 11. Bernoulli’s Theory in ActionAir speeds up in the constricted space betweenthe car & truck creating a low-pressure area.Higher pressure on the other outside pushesthem together.
12. 12. What is a wing? A wing is really just half a venturi tube.
13. 13. A fluid (and air acts like a fluid) speeds up as it moves through a constricted spaceBernoulli’s Principle states that, as airspeeds up, its pressure goes down.
14. 14. Bernoullis Principle: slower movingair below the wing creates greaterpressure and pushes up.
15. 15. Bernoulli’s Principle: Air moving over the wingmoves faster than the air below. Faster-movingair above exerts less pressure on the wing thanthe slower-moving air below. The result is anupward push on the wing--lift!
16. 16. Bernoulli’s Principal: pressurevariation around the wing results ina net aerodynamic pushing up.
17. 17. A wing creates lift due to a combinationof Bernoulli’s Principal & Newton’s ThirdLaw
18. 18. Wing Shape Internal ribs define the wings shape
19. 19. Pitch Around the Lateral Axis
20. 20. Elevator Controls Pitch The ELEVATOR controls PITCH. On the horizontal tail surface, the elevator tilts up or down, decreasing or increasing lift on the tail. This tilts the nose of the airplane up and down.
21. 21. Roll Around Longitudinal Axis
22. 22. Ailerons Control Roll The AILERONS control ROLL. On the outer rear edge of each wing, the two ailerons move in opposite directions, up and down, decreasing lift on one wing while increasing it on the other. This causes the airplane to roll to the left or right.
23. 23. Yaw Around the vertical Axis
24. 24. Rudder Controls Yaw The RUDDER controls YAW. On the vertical tail fin, the rudder swivels from side to side, pushing the tail in a left or right direction. A pilot usually uses the rudder along with the ailerons to turn the airplane.
25. 25. Which of these airplanes will speed up?Which will slow down?
26. 26. Drag is the force of resistance anaircraft ‘feels’ as it moves throughthe air.
27. 27. For an airplane totake off, lift must begreater than weight. For an airplane to speed up while flying, thrust must be greater than drag.
28. 28. Engines (either jet or propeller) typicallyprovide the thrust for aircraft. When youfly a paper airplane, you generate thethrust.
29. 29. A propeller is a spinning wingthat generates lift forward.
30. 30. AIRPLANE PARTS
31. 31. AERODYNAMICS IN CARS
32. 32. WHY WE NEED TO IMPROVE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS SPEED better aerodynamics higher will be the speeds. FUEL EFFICIENCY better aerodynamics , less work for engine.
33. 33. AERODYNAMICS IN MCLAREN F1 SPECIFICATIONS FRONT END REAR END SCOOPS WINGS Mclaren F1
34. 34. AERODYNAMIC DEVICES SPOILERS NACA DUCTS Increase rate of flow To expose air to areas not exposed to direct air flow.
35. 35. FRONT END FRONTAL PRESSURE PRESSURE DIFFERENCE MINIMISE FRONTAL AREA REDUCE CdBack
36. 36. REAR END REAR VACCUM FLOW DETACHEMENT TURBULANCE Back
37. 37. SCOOPS ENGINE COOLING INCREASESFLOW RATE OF AIR Back
38. 38. WINGS PRODUCE DOWNFORCE REDUCE DRAGBack
39. 39. METHODS TO EVALUATE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS WIND TUNNELS• Research tool to study effect of air moving over a solid object.• Trial and error process.• Special pressure paints for analysis.• Detailed analysis of air flow patterns.• Analyzing for the optimal design.
40. 40. SUMMARY Aerodynamics in cars,aeroplanes is a factor in the over all performance of the cars,aeroplanes.
41. 41. THANK YOU