Junctionless transistors


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study of junctionless transistors

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Junctionless transistors

  2. 2.  Transistors are fundamental building blocks of the modern electronic devices.  All the existing transistors have junctions.  BJT – two p-n junctions JFET – only one p-n junction MESFET – Schottky junction  
  3. 3.  1. 2. 3. 4.   Disadvantages of junctions: Decreases mobility Heat dissipiation Difficult and expensive to fabricate Source of current leakage Miniaturization has reached limit. Junctionless transistor can help chip makers to further reduce the size.
  4. 4.  Junctionless transistor was invented by Tyndall National Institute ,Ireland in 2010.
  5. 5.  The junctionless transistor (JLT) is a multi-gate FET with no PN nor N+N or P+P junctions.  The device is basically a resistor in which the mobile carrier density can be modulated by the gate.  Uniformly doped nano wire without junctions with a wrap-around gate.
  6. 6.  No junctions and no doping concentration gradients.
  7. 7.  Doping concentration is constant and uniform throughout the device and typically ranges from 10^19 and 10^20 cm^(-3).  The device features bulk conduction instead of surface channel conduction.
  8. 8. Due to zero doping gradient, no diffusion take place from source to drain.  The voltage across gate fully controls the movements of electrons across source and drain.  Semiconductor is doped so heavily that it allows reasonable current flow ,when on.  Semiconductor layer is narrow enough for full depletion carriers ,when off. 
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Short-channel effect is an effect in which the channel length is the same order of magnitude as the depletion-layer width of the source and drain junction.  Drain induced barrier lowering(increase in vt with vd) is less important in junctionless transistor.  No hot electron effect.  Punchthrough(decrease in base with voltage BC) stage does not occur. 
  11. 11.  Junctionless MuGFET: This device has no junctions,a simpler fabrication process, less variability and better electrical property.  Bulk Planar Junctionless Transistor: Highly scalable source–drain junctionfree FET. It is thus junctionless in the source–channel–drain path but needs a junction in the vertical direction for isolation purposes.
  12. 12.  Drain current : increases with doping and channel thickness.  Leakage current : increases with channel thickness and doping.  Dielectric constant : gate control improves with dielectric constant.  Short channel effect: These are drastically reduced .
  13. 13. Threshold Voltage variability: voltage variation is double than conventional devices.  Scattering properties: decreases with increase in gate voltage. 
  14. 14. JUNCTION TRANSISTOR JUNCTIONLESS TRANSISTOR 1. High electric field. 1. Less electric field(no decrease in mobility). 2.Major carrier make itself barrier to carrier scattering. 2.No barrier, so high current drive. 3.Complex and expensive fabrication. 3. No annealing , implantation, easy fabrication. 4.Short channel effects. 4. No short channel effect.
  15. 15.  Junctionless devices have the potential to operate at faster and use less energy than the conventional transistors used in today's microprocessors.  They have near-ideal sub threshold slope, extremely low leakage currents, and less degradation of mobility with gate voltage and temperature than classical transistors.
  16. 16.  Junctionless transistor fabrication process is greatly simplified, compared to standard CMOS since there are no doping concentration gradients in the device.  One disadvantage of conventional junction less transistors is that they suffer from poor short-channel control.
  17. 17. Exports in nanotechnology will reach 30 billion euro by 2015.  These are so small that transistors from 70s can no longer be used.  Technology will reach to 10nm regime very soon.  Better voltage control and reduced complexity will density of transistors per chip. 
  18. 18.  The devices have no junctions and are made in n+ or p+ silicon nano-wires.  The  No devices have full CMOS functionality. junctions or doping gradients.  Less sensitive to thermal budget issues than regular CMOS devices.  A near-ideal subthreshold slope, close to 60 mV/dec at room temperature.
  19. 19.   Extremely low leakage currents. Gated resistors exhibit less degradation of mobility than classical transistors when the gate voltage is increased.
  20. 20. 1. A Review paper: “A Comprehensive study of Junctionless transistor” by Twinkal Solankia, Nilesh Parmar. 2.“Performance Investigation of Short-channel Junctionless Multigate Transistors”, P. Razavi, G. Fagas, I. Ferain, N. Dehdashti Akhavan, R. Yu, J.P. Colinge ,Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork, Ireland. 3. Google and google images. 4. Junctionless Transistors,Jean-Pierre Colinge,Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork,Lee Maltings, Cork, Ireland.