MEMRISTORS<br />Presentation by;<br />PrateekMangal<br />PratishthaShira Ram<br />Praveen Solanki<br />RaghavendraSankhedi...
Think…<br />Is there any equation to relate flux and charge?<br />What  if we could create a processor with a basic buildi...
Did you know?<br />After  <br />   Resistors<br />   Capacitors and<br />   Inductors<br />A fourth basic passive element ...
So, what is the “memristor”?<br /> Memristors are a concatenation of “memory resistors”.<br />These are a type of passive ...
voltage across a two terminal element.</li></li></ul><li>History<br />Memristor was first proposed in 1971 in a seminal pa...
The ‘missing circuit element’..<br />Current<br />Charge<br />q<br />I<br />dq = Idt<br />Voltage<br />V<br />dV = R dI<br...
Theory<br />The memristor is essentially a two-terminal variable resistor, with resistance  dependent upon the amount of c...
Theory (Contd.)<br />As seen previously,  V(t)  =    M(q(T)).I(t)<br />And as                     M(q)  =   dФ<br />dq<br ...
Working<br />Like silicon, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a semiconductor, and in its pure state it is highly resistive. <br...
Working<br />Putting a bias voltage across a thin film of TiO 2 semiconductor that has dopants only on one side causes the...
Applications<br />Non-volatile memory<br />Low-power and remote sensing <br />Crossbar Latches as Transistor Replacements<...
Non-volatile memory<br />Memristors can retain memory states, and data, in power-off modes.<br />Industry analysts state t...
Low-power and remote sensing <br />Memristors can possibly allow for nano-scale low power memory and distributed state sto...
Crossbar Latches as Transistor Replacements<br />Solid-state memristors can be combined into devices called crossbar latch...
Circuits which mimic Neuromorphic and biological systems (Learning Circuits)<br />Simple electronic circuits based on an L...
Analog computation<br />There still exist some very important areas of engineering and modeling problems which require ext...
Programmable Logic and Signal Processing<br />The memristive applications in these areas will remain relatively the same, ...
Logical Operations<br /> Memristors can perform "universal boolean logic" without having a NOT/NAND/NOR , etc.<br /> “Mate...
The memristor can:<br />- store data like DRAM or Flash but it doesn’t require any energy to maintain the data storage.<br...
Summing it up..<br />The memristor will change circuit design in the 21st century as radically as the transistor changed i...
Bibliography<br />http://www.hpl.hp.com/news/2008/apr-jun/memristor.html<br />IEEE Spectrum, May 2008 issue, News: “The My...
A 3-d memristor Chip<br />
Thank you<br />Queries?<br />
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Memristors

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Memristors

  1. 1. MEMRISTORS<br />Presentation by;<br />PrateekMangal<br />PratishthaShira Ram<br />Praveen Solanki<br />RaghavendraSankhediya<br />RamkrishnaYadav<br />"NOW ALL THE EE TEXTBOOKS NEED TO BE CHANGED"-IEEE Kirchoff Award winner Leon Chua on the discovery of the memresistor.<br />
  2. 2. Think…<br />Is there any equation to relate flux and charge?<br />What if we could create a processor with a basic building block which acts as infinite non-volatile memory, logic circuit and switching circuit all at the same time?<br />What if you could suddenly shut down your computer and then restart it , to find all your files and settings just like they were before?<br />
  3. 3. Did you know?<br />After <br /> Resistors<br /> Capacitors and<br /> Inductors<br />A fourth basic passive element has been developed…<br />The <br />MEMRISTOR<br />(All our textbooks will have to be re-written now)<br />
  4. 4. So, what is the “memristor”?<br /> Memristors are a concatenation of “memory resistors”.<br />These are a type of passive circuit elements that maintain a relationship between <br /><ul><li>the time integrals of current and
  5. 5. voltage across a two terminal element.</li></li></ul><li>History<br />Memristor was first proposed in 1971 in a seminal paper published by Professor Leon O. Chua, professor in the University of Berkeley, US.<br />In 2008, Stan Williams and team at HP Labs unveiled a two-terminal titanium dioxide nanoscale device that exhibited memristor and memristive characteristics<br />
  6. 6. The ‘missing circuit element’..<br />Current<br />Charge<br />q<br />I<br />dq = Idt<br />Voltage<br />V<br />dV = R dI<br />dq = CdV<br />dФ=LdI<br />dФ= Vdt<br />dФ=M dq<br />Ф<br />Magnetic flux<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Theory<br />The memristor is essentially a two-terminal variable resistor, with resistance dependent upon the amount of charge q that has passed between the terminals.<br />V = I.M(q)<br />Essentially, a constant value of M(q)=R .<br />M = dΦm / dq<br />
  9. 9. Theory (Contd.)<br />As seen previously, V(t) = M(q(T)).I(t)<br />And as M(q) = dФ<br />dq<br />Hence, M(q(t)) = dФ/dt = V(t)<br />dq/dt I(t)<br />Similarly, it can be derived that <br /> Power P(t) = I(t)V(t) = {I(t)}²M(q(t))<br />
  10. 10. Working<br />Like silicon, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a semiconductor, and in its pure state it is highly resistive. <br />However, it can be doped with other elements to make it very conductive.<br /> In TiO 2 , the dopants don't stay stationary in a high electric field; they tend to drift in the direction of the current.<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Working<br />Putting a bias voltage across a thin film of TiO 2 semiconductor that has dopants only on one side causes them to move into the pure TiO 2 on the other side. And thus lowers the resistance. <br />Running current in the other direction will then push the dopants back into place, increasing the TiO 2 's resistance.<br />
  13. 13. Applications<br />Non-volatile memory<br />Low-power and remote sensing <br />Crossbar Latches as Transistor Replacements<br />Analog computation<br />Circuits which mimic Neuromorphic and biological systems (Learning Circuits)<br />Programmable Logic and Signal Processing<br />
  14. 14. Non-volatile memory<br />Memristors can retain memory states, and data, in power-off modes.<br />Industry analysts state there is industry concurrence that these flash memory or solid state drives (ssd) competitors could start showing up in the consumer market within 2 years.<br />
  15. 15. Low-power and remote sensing <br />Memristors can possibly allow for nano-scale low power memory and distributed state storage.<br />These are currently all hypothetical in terms of time to market.<br />
  16. 16. Crossbar Latches as Transistor Replacements<br />Solid-state memristors can be combined into devices called crossbar latches, which could replace transistors in future computers, taking up a much smaller area.<br />This will break the barrier to miniaturization of both the microprocessor and controller .<br />
  17. 17. Circuits which mimic Neuromorphic and biological systems (Learning Circuits)<br />Simple electronic circuits based on an LC network and memristors have been used recently to model experiments on adaptive behavior of unicellular organisms. <br />The experiments show that the electronic circuit, subjected to a train of periodic pulses, learns and anticipates the next pulse to come.<br />These types of learning circuits find applications in pattern recognition & Neural Networks. <br />
  18. 18. Analog computation<br />There still exist some very important areas of engineering and modeling problems which require extremely complex and difficult workarounds to synthesize digitally: in part, because they map economically onto analog models.<br />Analog required management for scalability beyond what even the extremely complex initial digital vaccum tube computers could provide. Memristor applications will now allow us to revisit a lot of the analog science that was abandoned in the mid 1960’s.<br />
  19. 19. Programmable Logic and Signal Processing<br />The memristive applications in these areas will remain relatively the same, because it will only be a change in the underlying physical architecture, allowing their capabilities to expand, however, to the point where their applications will be unrecognizable as related.<br />
  20. 20. Logical Operations<br /> Memristors can perform "universal boolean logic" without having a NOT/NAND/NOR , etc.<br /> “Material implication" along with FALSE forms a complete basis for universal computing. <br />Memristors naturally implement "material implication“. <br />
  21. 21. The memristor can:<br />- store data like DRAM or Flash but it doesn’t require any energy to maintain the data storage.<br />- the memristor chips can be laid down in layer upon layer upon layer, creating three-dimensional structures that can store and process data.<br />- the memristor is easy to make and completely compatible with today’s CMOS chip making processes.<br />- it can be scaled to very small geometries without losing its properties.<br />- the memristor can also perform logic, it can act as a microprocessor!<br />
  22. 22. Summing it up..<br />The memristor will change circuit design in the 21st century as radically as the transistor changed it in the 20th.<br />
  23. 23. Bibliography<br />http://www.hpl.hp.com/news/2008/apr-jun/memristor.html<br />IEEE Spectrum, May 2008 issue, News: “The Mysterious Memristor”<br />IEEE Spectrum, December 2008 issue, Cover Story: <br /> “How We Found the Missing Memristor”<br />http://www.memristor.org/memory-resistor/electronics<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memristor<br />http://www.siliconvalleywatcher.com/mt/archives/2010/04/the_miraculous.php<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bKGhvKyjgLY<br />
  24. 24. A 3-d memristor Chip<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Thank you<br />Queries?<br />

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