Life processes

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Life processes

  1. 1. 1)N u t r i t i o n 2)N u t r i t i o n i n pl a nt s 3) N u t r i t i o n i n h u ma n s 4)R e s p i r a t i o n 6)T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n pl a nt s
  2. 2. Th i n u t b o nu t h o f Au He i s e p r o c e s s o f t a k i n g f o o d a n d i t s i l i z a t i o n b y t h e d y i s c a l l e d t r i t i on. Br o a d l y e r e a r e t w o mo d e s n u t r i t i o n – t ot r ophi c a n d t e r ot r ophi c . Fo o d t h e ma t e r i a l
  3. 3. Th c o b o i n d i l i ma b u a n me nu t h e d i f f e r e n t mp o n e n t s o f f o o d , t h o r g a n i c a n d o r g a n i c , h a v i n g s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s k e p r o v i d i n g e n e r g y , t e r i a l s f o r b o d y i l d i n g , ma i n t e n a n c e d r e g u l a t i o n o f t a b o l i s m a r e c a l l e d t r i e nt s . Th e y a r e o f r e e ma i n t y p e s :
  4. 4. Differences between autotrophs and heterotrophs He t e r o t r o p h Au t o t r o p h T e p f s a t s h n r r u s h u e y o b t a i n e r g y b y e p a r i n g f o o d o m i n o r g a n i c b s t a n c e s s u c h C O 2 and w a t e r i n e p r e s e n c e o f n l i g h t . These organisms are called p r o d u c e r s as t h e y ma n u f a c t u r e t h e i r o wn f o o d . T e c s c o h n o u o r Th u t ma p r t h e y o b t a i n e r g y f r o m mp l e x o r g a n i c b s t a n c e s b y n s u mi n g p l a n t s o t h e r a n i ma l s . e i n o e s l u d y e o r g a n i s ms i z e t h e f o o d f a c t u r e d b y u c e r s . He n c e , a r e c a l l e d
  5. 5. In unicellular organisms, since the entire cell surface is in contact with the surroundings, the food is obtained by d i f f u s i o n . Ho we v e r , a s t h e c o mp l e x i t y l e v e l i n c r e a s e s , s p e c i a l i z e d p a r t s a r e e v o l v e d t o p e r f o r m t h i s f u n c t i o n . Nutrition in Amoeba: Amoeba consumes food with the help of p s e u d o p o d i a . Ps e u d o p o d i a a r e t e m p o r a r y f i n g e r -l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s o f t h e c e l l s u r f a c e , wh i c h f u s e o v e r t h e f o o d p a r t i c l e . Th i s r e s u l t s
  6. 6. Nu t r i t i o n i n Paramecium: In Paramecium, food i s i n g e s t e d t h r o u g h a d e f i n i t e c e l l mo u t h . T h e c i l i a p r e s e n t a l l o v e r t h e b o d y mo v e c o n t i n u o u s l y t o p u s h t h e f o o d p a r t i c l e s a l o n g t h e wa t e r c u r r e n t . Th e f o o d e n t e r i n g i n s i d e c o l l e c t s t o f o r m a f o o d v a c u o l e . Di g e s t i o n o f f o o d
  7. 7. T h e process of taking in a source of energy (food) from outside the body of an organism to inside is known as n u t r i t i o n . P l a n t s h a v e a n autotrophic mode o f nut r i t i on. I n t hi s mo d e o f n u t r i t i o n , plants prepare or synthesize their own food with the help of inorganic raw materials. Thus, they are known
  8. 8. Photosynthesis Au t o t r o p h s s u c h a s g r e e n p l a n t s a n d s o me b a c t e r i a p r e p a r e o r synthesize their own food. They are capable of trapping solar energy with the help of a green pigment called chlorophyll. T h i s t r a p p e d s o l a r e n e r g y i s t h e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o c h e mi c a l e n e r g y o f f o o d u s i n g C O 2 and H 2O . Photosynthesis is t h e p r o c e s s b y
  9. 9.  Sunlight
  10. 10. Ent r y of r a w ma t e r i a l s Plants obtain water through their roots. Water is then transported to all plant parts with the help of the x y l e m . Ex c h a n g e o f g a s e s (e n t r y o f C O 2 and r e l e a s e o f O 2) o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e
  11. 11. S t o m a t a are t i n y p o r e s p r e s e n t ma i n l y o n t h e s u r f a c e o f l e a v e s . Th e y a r e a l s o p r e s e n t o n t h e s u r f a c e o f y o u n g s t e ms a n d r o o t s . S t o ma t a c o n s i s t o f a s t o m a t a l opening or stoma, which is surrounded by two distinct epidermal cells known as g u a r d c e l l s . Th e o p p o s i n g
  12. 12. Opening and closing of stomata T o t t t t a l c h f h h h u n o l e ope n s t o ma e t ur g e gua r e gua r r gi d, t d wh e n s e wa t os e s . i ng a nd c l os i ng t a de pe nds upon or pr e s s ur e i n d c e l l s . Wh e n d c e l l s a r e h e s t o ma o p e n s t he gua r d c e l l s e r , s t o ma
  13. 13. T h e f o l l o wi n g e v o c c u r d u r i n g t h i p r o c e s s – (i ) A b s o r p t i o n o f e n e r g y b y c h l o r o p h y l l . (i i ) C o n v e r s i o n o e n e r g y t o c h e mi c e n e r g y a n d s p l i t w a t e r mo l e c u l e s e n t s s l i g h t f l i g h t a l t i n g o f
  14. 14. Two phases of photosynthesis The two r e r e Li t h t h t a p r process of photosynthesis occurs in phases – the l i g h t a c t i o n s and the d a r k a c t i ons . g h t r e a c t i o n s – As e n a me s u g g e s t s , i s r e a c t i o n k e s p l a c e i n t h e e s e n c e o f l i g h t .
  15. 15. Ad d i t i o n a l l y i n p h a s e , a s s i mi l a t p o we r i n t h e f o r A T P a n d N A D P H 2 are p r o d u c e d . L i g h t r e a c t i o n s o c c u r i n t h e me mb r a n e s o f t h y l a k o i d s . Ev e nt s oc c ur r i n dur i ng l i ght r e a c t i ons : A b s o r p t i o n o f l e n e r g y b y t h i s o r y m o f g i g h t
  16. 16. Da r e r e a n s t c h t h NA l i u t r e c a r k r e a c t i ons – Th i s a c t i o n d o e s n o t q u i r e d i r e c t l i g h t d o c c u r s i n t h e r o ma o f l o r o p l a s t s . Du r i n g i s p h a s e , ATP a n d D P H 2 (f o r m e d d u r i n g g h t r e a c t i o n s ) a r e i l i z e d f o r t h e d u c t i o n o f C O 2 to r b o h y d r a t e s (f o o d ).
  17. 17. H u ma n b e i n g s c a n n o t p r o d u c e t h e i r o wn f o o d t h u s , their mode of nutrition is h e t e r o t r o p h i c . I n t h i s mo d e o f n u t r i t i o n , o r g a n i s ms o b t a i n energy from the intake of complex organic substances, generally from plant and animal sources. These organisms are known as h e t e r o t r o p h s . A l l
  18. 18. It is by the process of d i g e s t i o n that t h e n u t r i e n t s p r e s e n t i n f o o d a r e u t i l i z e d b y t h e h u ma n b o d y . D i g e s t i o n ma y t h u s b e d e f i n e d a s t h e me c h a n i c a l a n d c h e mi c a l r e d u c t i o n o f i n g e s t e d n u t r i e n t s f i r s t i n t o p a r t i c l e s , t h e n i n t o
  19. 19. Digestive organs and their functions (i) Mouth: D i g e s t i o n o f f o o d b e g i n s i n t h e mo u t h . T h e mo u t h c o mp r i s e s o f t h e f o l l o wi n g : Te e t h: Th e y t e a r a n d b r e a k d o wn t h e f o o d . Sa l i v a : I t c o n t a i n s a d i g e s t i v e e n z y me c a l l e d s a l i v a r y a my l a s e , w h i c h b r e a k s d o wn s t a r c h i n t o s u g a r . Tongue : I t i s a s e n s e
  20. 20. (i i ) P h a r y n x : It i s a c o mmo n p a s s a g e w a y f o r f o o d a n d a i r . I t o p e n s i n t o t h e o e s o p h a g u s (w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e s t o ma c h ) a n d t r a c h e a (w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e l u n g s ).
  21. 21. (i i i ) O e s o p h a g u s : The c i r c u l a r s mo o t h mu s c l e s i n t h e o e s o p h a g u s c o n t r a c t wh e n f o o d i s s wa l l o we d . T h i s p r e v e n t s t h e c h e we d f o o d ma t e r i a l f r o m mo v i n g b a c k i n t o t h e mo u t h . T h i s i s f o l l o we d b y t h e c o n t r a c t i o n s a n d r e l a x a t i o n s o f t h e
  22. 22. Pe r i s t a l s i s
  23. 23. (i v ) S t o m a c h : The s t o m a c h s t o r e s a n d mi x e s t h e f o o d r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e o e s o p h a g u s wi t h t h e g a s t r i c j u i c e . Th e g a s t r i c g l a n d s p r e s e n t i n t h e wa l l s o f t h e s t o ma c h s e c r e t e s e v e r a l s u b s t a n c e s , wh i c h t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e t h e g a s t r i c j u i c e .
  24. 24. Ac Ex h y t h d a p r t h So b e o e i di t y : c e s s p r o d u c t i d r o c h l o r i c a c e s t o ma c h c a n ma g e t h e o t e c t i v e l i n i e s t o ma c h . me t i me s , t h e v t we e n t h e s o p h a g u s a n d o n o f i d i n n g o f a l v e
  25. 25. Th e f o o d f r o m t h e s t o ma c h p a s s e s i n t o t h e s ma l l i n t e s t i n e . (v ) S m a l l i n t e s t i n e : It i s t h e l o n g e s t p a r t o f t h e a l i me n t a r y c a n a l . I t i s ma d e u p o f t h r e e p a r t s - d u o d e n u m, j e j u n u m, a n d i l e u m. Th e l e n g t h o f t h e s ma l l i n t e s t i n e
  26. 26. T h e s ma l l i n t e s t i n e p r o d u c e s i n t e s t i n a l j u i c e f r o m t h e g l a n d s p r e s e n t i n t h e wa l l , wh i c h h e l p s i n f u r t h e r d i g e s t i o n o f f o o d . Digestive juices from two glands, namely the liver and pancreas m i x e s w i t h t h e f o o d i n t h e s ma l l i n t e s t i n e . The liver produces b i l e j u i c e (which causes emulsification of fats) and the p a n c r e a s produces p a n c r e a t i c j u i c e (f o r d i g e s t i n g p r o t e i n s a n d e mu l s i f i e d
  27. 27. Th i s d i g e s t e d f o o d i s t h e n a b s o r b e d t h r o u g h t h e intestinal walls. The inner lining of the small intestine has millions of tiny finger-like projections called the v i l l i . T h e s e p r o j e c t i o n s i n c r e a s e t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f t h e s ma l l i n t e s t i n e f o r mo r e e f f i c i e n t f o o d a b s o r p t i o n . Wi t h i n t h e s e v i l l i , t h e c a p i l l a r i e s a b s o r b n u t r i e n t s f r o m t h e d i g e s t e d p r o d u c t s o f p r o t e i n s a n d
  28. 28. (v i ) L a r g e i n t e s t i n e : The i n d i g e s t i b l e ma t e r i a l a n d w a t e r e n t e r s t h e l a r g e i n t e s t i n e . I t a l s o h a s v i l l i t o a b s o r b wa t e r a n d s o me v i t a mi n s f r o m t h e u n d i g e s t e d f o o d . Th i s a b s o r p t i o n o f wa t e r h e l p s t o c o mp a c t t h e f a e c e s . I t
  29. 29. Re bo i n e x p r o x c a p r c o o x s d h h o y r o n y p i a a c g b c s g i l l l e e o e u e r a t i on i s t he y pr oc e s s of a t i on a nd a t i on. I t i s t h e s s o f t a k i n g i n n a n d r e l e a s i n g n d i o x i d e . Th e s s i n v o l v e s t h e mp t i o n o f n a n d
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Re s p i r a t i o n c a n o c c u r b o t h i n t h e p r e s e n c e a n d a b s e n c e o f O 2. On this basis, it can be classified b i ctwo types: a e r n a ei r co b i nc d a A e r o into Ao b pi o b r e s pi r a t i on a rneas e r r a t i i co .n I t o I t o b o o e t h f t h f e r u n o c c u r s i n e p r e s e n c e O 2. i n v o l v e s e e x c h a n g e g a s e s t we e n a n g a n i s m a n d t s i d e v i r o n me n t . I t o E g a t h f x a b o c c u r s i n e a b s e n c e O 2. c h a n g e o f s e s i s s e n t .
  32. 32. Glucose is the simplest molecule that enters a series of reactions called G l y c o l y s i s and the K r e b s c y c l e to p r o d u c e e n e r g y . Pr o t e i n s a n d f a t t y a c i d s a r e b r o k e n d o wn a n d e n t e r t h e c y c l e a t d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s . A mi n o a c i d s , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c a r b o n c h a i n , e n t e r t h e Kr e b s c y c l e a t d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s .
  33. 33. Aerobic respiration: I t i n v o l v e s f o u r ma i n s t e p s : Step 1: The first step is called g l y c o l y s i s . I t o c c u r s i n t h e c y t o p l a s m o f a c e l l . I t d o e s n o t r e q u i r e o x y g e n . H e r e , t h e 6-c a r b o n mo l e c u l e g l u c o s e i s p a r t i a l l y b r o k e n d o wn i n t o a 3-c a r b o n m o l e c u l e , p y r u v a t e o r p y r u v i c a c i d . I n t h i s s t e p , o n e g l u c o s e mo l e c u l e p r o d u c e s 2 mo l e c u l e s o f p y r u v a t e . Glucose 2 P y r u v a t e Step 2: T h e t w o p y r u v i c a c i d mo l e c u l e s a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o a c e t y l Co A, wh i c h c a n e a s i l y e n t e r t h e mi t o c h o n d r i a , w h i c h i s t h e s i t e f o r f u r t h e r r e a c t i o n s . S t e p 3: These a c e t y l C o A
  34. 34.  In absence Wa s t e
  35. 35. An a e r o b i c r e s p i r a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e r o o t s o f s o me s p e c i e s o f wa t e r l o g g e d p l a n t s , p a r a s i t i c w o r ms , y e a s t , a n i ma l mu s c l e s , a n d mi c r o o r g a n i s ms . In some microorganisms such as yeasts, anaerobic respiration is called f e r m e n t a t i o n . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f f e r me n t a t i o n , e t h a n o l i s f o r m e d a s a b y -p r o d u c t .
  36. 36. Respiration in humans T h e h u ma n r e s p i r a t o r y s y s t e m supplies o u r b o d y w i t h O 2 and a l s o h e l p s i n r e m o v i n g C O 2, which i s a w a s t e p r o d u c t f o r me d d u r i n g c e l l u l a r r e s p i r a t i o n . Th e i n t a k e o f O 2 and e x i t o f C O 2i n v o l v e s t wo p r o c e s s e s :
  37. 37. 1) Inhalation: I t i n v o l v e s b r i n g i n g i n a i r f r o m o u t s i d e t h e b o d y i n t o t h e l u n g s . Wh e n w e b r e a t h e i n , t h e s i z e o f o u r c h e s t i n c r e a s e s . T h i s h a p p e n s b e c a u s e wh e n a i r e n t e r s , t h e l u n g s e x p a n d a n d t h e r i b s mo v e o u t w a r d s . S i mu l t a n e o u s l y , t h e d i a p h r a g m c o n t r a c t s a n d b e c o me s f l a t . T h u s , t h e s i z e o f o u r c h e s t i n c r e a s e s .
  38. 38. Organs involved in respiration: The organs of the respiratory system extend from the nose to lungs. They include the n o s e , p h a r y n x , t r a c he a , br onc hi , a nd br onc hi ol e s . 1) N o s t r i l s : The a i r f r o m o u t s i d e f i r s t e n t e r s t h e n o s t r i l s , which is divided into the left and the right nostril. These nostrils lead to open spaces in the nose called the n a s a l pa s s a ge . Th i s p a s s a g e c o n t a i n s h a i r a n d mu c u s , w h i c h p e r f o r m t h e f u n c t i o n s o f f i l t e r i n g , mo i s t e n i n g , a n d w a r mi n g t h e a i r e n t e r i n g t h e n a s a l
  39. 39. 3) Larynx: The air from the pharynx enters the larynx or voice b o x . I t c o n t a i n s t wo t r u e v o c a l c o r d s , wh i c h a r e ma d e u p o f c a r t i l a g e a n d f i b r e s . Wh e n a i r p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h i s a r e a , t h e v o c a l c o r d s v i b r a t e a n d t h i s p r o d u c e s d i f f e r e n t s o u n d s . H u ma n b e i n g s c a n c o n t r o l t h i s v i b r a t i o n . T h u s , t h e y c a n ma k e v a r i o u s s o u n d s a n d a r e c a p a b l e o f s p e e c h . 4) Trachea: From the larynx, the inhaled air moves into the wind pipe or trachea. Th e t r a c h e a i s a l o n g
  40. 40. Ex c h a n g e o f g a s e s i n r e s p i r a t i o n Wh e n w e b r e a t h e i n , we t a k e i n O 2, w h i c h r e a c h e s t h e l u n g a l v e o l i . O 2 then d i f f u s e s i n t o b l o o d o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c a p i l l a r i e s f r o m t h e a l v e o l i , wh i c h h a s a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f O 2. T h e h a e mo g l o b i n p i g me n t p r e s e n t
  41. 41. A f t e r s u p p l y i n g O 2 to t h e b o d y c e l l s , t h e b l o o d c o l l e c t s C O 2, which i s p r o d u c e d a f t e r c e l l u l a r r e s p i r a t i o n i n t h e c e l l s . T h u s , t h e b l o o d b e c o me s d e o x y g e n a t e d . T h e h a e mo g l o b i n p i g me n t h a s l e s s a f f i n i t y f o r C O 2. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s ma i n l y t r a n s p o r t e d i n t h e d i s s o l v e d f o r m. T h i s d e o x y g e n a t e d b l o o d b r i n g s b a c k C O 2 to l u n g a l v e o l i . Th e l u n g s h a v e a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f O 2. Th e r e f o r e , i t d i f f u s e s i n t o
  42. 42. Th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m i n p l a n t s mo v e s t h e e n e r g y s t o r e d i n l e a v e s t o d i f f e r e n t p a r t s . I t a l s o h e l p s i n mo v i n g r a w ma t e r i a l s a b s o r b e d f r o m t h e r o o t s t o v a r i o u s o r g a n s o f t h e p l a n t . Ho we v e r , t h e s e a r e e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p a t h wa y s . Th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m i n p l a n t s c o n s i s t s o f t wo d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o n d u c t i n g t i s s u e s . Xy l e m c o n d u c t s wa t e r a n d mi n e r a l s o b t a i n e d f r o m s o i l (v i a r o o t s ) t o t h e r e s t o f t h e p l a n t . Ph l o e m t r a n s p o r t s f o o d
  43. 43. Transport of water Co t i v e a n i n c o wa wh t h Ro mi s o s u f i t o mp o n e n t s o f t h e x y l e m s s u e (t r a c h e i d a n d s s e l s ) o f r o o t s , s t e ms , d l e a v e s a r e t e r c o n n e c t e d t o f o r m a n t i n u o u s s y s t e m o f t e r -c o n d u c t i n g c h a n n e l s , i c h r e a c h e s a l l p a r t s o f e p l a n t . o t s a b s o r b wa t e r a n d n e r a l s a l t s f r o m t h e i l . Ea c h s o i l p a r t i c l e i s r r o u n d e d b y a c o n t i n u o u s l m o f wa t e r , l o o s e l y h e l d i t b y a f o r c e k n o wn a s
  44. 44. Th a r b e s u t h t h i n t h p a c o wh c e a c i s wa c r e c e l l s i n t h e r o o t h a i r e d e f i c i e n t i n wa t e r c a u s e t h e y c o n t i n u o u s l y p p l y t h e a b s o r b e d wa t e r t o e s t e ms a n d l e a v e s . T h u s , e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f wa t e r t h e r o o t h a i r i s l e s s t h a n e wa t e r p r e s e n t i n s o i l r t i c l e s . Th i s c r e a t e s a n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t , i c h a l l o ws t h e r o o t h a i r l l s t o u p t a k e wa t e r t i v e l y . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e a s t e a d y mo v e me n t o f t e r i n t o t h e r o o t x y l e m e a t i n g a c o l u mn o f w a t e r ,
  45. 45. Transportation of food The transportation of food from the leaves to other parts of the plant occurs in the vascular tissue, namely the p h l o e m . This process of transporting food is known as t r a n s l o c a t i o n . T h e p h l o e m a l s o t r a n s p o r t s a mi n o a c i d s a n d o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s t o s t o r a g e o r g a n s o f t h e p l a n t (a l o n g wi t h t h e g r o wi n g o r g a n s ) s u c h a s r o o t s , f r u i t s , a n d s e e d s . Th e p h l o e m c o n s i s t s o f c o mp a n i o n c e l l s , s i e v e
  46. 46. The system that transports nutrients and collects waste materials for disposal in the body is the c i r c u l a t o r y s y s t e m . T h e c i r c u l a t o r y s y s t e m consists of the central organ i.e., the heart, blood vessels, and circulating fluid i.e., blood. Another system, called the l y m p h a t i c s y s t e m , transports i m m u n e c e l l s .
  47. 47. Blood vessels Ar t e r i e s a r e t o u g h , e l a s t i c t u b e s t h a t c a r r y b l o o d f r o m t h e h e a r t a n d s u p p l y i t t o v a r i o u s o r g a n s o f t h e b o d y . A s t h e a r t e r i e s mo v e a w a y from the heart (i.e., on reaching organs and tissues), they divide into smaller vessels. The smallest vessels called capillaries h a v e v e r y t h i n w a l l s . Ar t e r i e s a r e r e d i n c o l o r b e c a u s e t h e y c a r r y o x y g e n a t e d b l o o d .
  48. 48. Ca t i f o b l o r a r c o i s b l t h l o Th p i l l a r i e s (i n o r g a n s a n d s s u e s ) j o i n t o g e t h e r t o r m v e i n s . Ve i n s c o l l e c t o o d f r o m d i f f e r e n t g a n s a n d t i s s u e s . Ve i n s e t h i n -w a l l e d a s mp a r e d t o a r t e r i e s . T h i s b e c a u s e t h e y b r i n g b a c k o o d f r o m t h e o r g a n s t o e h e a r t a n d b l o o d i s n o n g e r u n d e r p r e s s u r e . e s e v e i n s c a r r y
  49. 49. B r b P l e l l Components of blood: o d o a o d c o n b l o o d o d c e l s ma : B l s i s t s o f p l a s ma , c e l l s , wh i t e l s , a n d p l a t e l e t s . o o d plasma is the strawcolored/pale-yellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in s u s p e n s i o n . Re d b l o o d c e l l s : Re d b l o o d c e l l s , or e r y t h r o c y t e s , are the most common type of blood cell and the v e r t e b r a t e o r g a n i s m 's principal means of delivering oxygen (O 2) to the body tissues via the blood flow
  50. 50. Wh i t e b l o o d c e l l s (l e u k o c y t e s ): a r e cells of the immune system involved i n d e f e n d i n g t h e b o d y a g a i n s t b o t h i n f e c t i o u s disease and f o r e i g n ma t e r i a l s . Pl a t e l e t s (t h r o m b o c y t e s ): a r e s m a l l , d i s k s h a p e d c l e a r c e l l f r a g m e n t s which
  51. 51. Heart I n h u ma n b e i n g s , t h e h e a r t i s a mu s c u l a r o r g a n . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c h a mb e r s – r i g h t a u r i c l e , right ventricle, left auricle, and left ventricle. The walls of these chambers are made up of a special muscle called m y o c a r d i u m , w h i c h c o n t r a c t s c o n t i n u o u s l y a n d r h y t h mi c a l l y t o d i s t r i b u t e b l o o d t o a l l t h e b o d y c e l l s .
  52. 52. Flow of blood in the human heart T a T b l b s b a h n h l o o u l u e h e a r d i n f e e y c a r o o d f r we r r e d y r e s p p l y t o o d t o r i c l e t h a s s u p e r i o r r i o r v e n a c a v a . r y d e o x y g e n a t e d o m t h e u p p e r a n d g i o n s o f t h e p e c t i v e l y a n d h e d e o x y g e n a t e d t h e r i g h t o f t h e h e a r t .
  53. 53. Th e r i g h t a u r i c l e c o n t r a c t s a n d p a s s e s t h e d e o x y g e n a t e d b l o o d t o t h e r i g h t v e n t r i c l e , t h r o u g h a n a u r i c u l o v e n t r i c u l a r a p e r t u r e (t r i c u s p i d v a l v e ). Th e r i g h t v e n t r i c l e c o n t r a c t s a n d p a s s e s t h e d e o x y g e n a t e d b l o o d i n t o t h e t w o p u l mo n a r y a r t e r i e s , w h i c h p u mp s i t t o t h e l u n g s wh e r e t h e b l o o d i s o x y g e n a t e d . Fr o m t h e l u n g s , t h e p u l mo n a r y v e i n s t r a n s p o r t t h e o x y g e n a t e d b l o o d t o t h e l e f t a t r i u m o f t h e h e a r t . Th u s , i n f i s h e s , t h e b l o o d p a s s e s
  54. 54. Lymphatic system L c h t I v c v p t t y o e r n e o e r h h mp h i s a n o t h e r f l u i d n n e c t i v e t i s s u e , wh i c h l p s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a n s p o r t a t i o n . a d d i t i o n t o b l o o d s s e l s , t h e b o d y n t a i n s l y mp h a t i c s s e l s . S o me p o r e s a r e e s e n t i n t h e wa l l s o f e c a p i l l a r i e s a n d r o u g h t h e s e p o r e s ,
  55. 55. This forms the t i s s u e f l u i d or l y m p h . I t i s a c o l o r l e s s f l u i d t h a t c o n t a i n s l e s s p r o t e i n . T h e l y mp h e n t e r s i n t o t i n y v e s s e l s s i t u a t e d i n i n t e r c e l l u l a r s p a c e s . Th e s e c a p i l l a r i e s j o i n t o f o r m t h e l y mp h v e s s e l s .
  56. 56. Func t i ons of t he l y mp h : I t a c t s a s a r e s e r v o i r o f wa t e r , s a l t s , a n d d i g e s t e d f o o d . I t c a r r i e s d i g e s t e d f o o d a n d f a t s f r o m t h e s ma l l i n t e s t i n e . L y mp h a t i c v e s s e l s p r e s e n t i n t h e i n t e s t i n a l v i l l i
  57. 57. T e s o k o u a T i p u t h x y f i f r n h n a r h e h u ma n c r e t o r y s t e m c o n s i s t s a p a i r o f d n e y s , a p a i r u r e t e r s , a i n a r y b l a d d e r , d a u r e t h r a . e u r i n e f o r me d t h e k i d n e y s , s s e s i n t o t h e i n a r y b l a d d e r r o u g h t h e
  58. 58. Functions of kidneys Th n i t h i n b a r e Th wa a c f r k i e y e l i mi n a t e t r o g e n o u s wa s t e s f r o m e b o d y a n d a r e h e l p f u l ma i n t a i n i n g t h e w a t e r l a n c e o f t h e b o d y b y mo v i n g e x c e s s f l u i d s . e v a r i o u s n i t r o g e n o u s s t e s s u c h a s u r e a , u r i c i d e t c . a r e s u p p l i e d o m t h e b l o o d t o t h e d n e y s (t h i s i s s i m i l a r
  59. 59. Th e k i d n e y s c o n s i s t o f a c l u s t e r o f v e r y t h i n wa l l e d c a p i l l a r i e s . Ea c h c l u s t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d wi t h a c u p shaped end of a tube, in which filtered urine is collected. These basic filtering units of the kidneys are called n e p h r o n s . Ea c h k i d n e y p o s s e s s e s a l a r g e n u mb e r o f n e p h r o n s (a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1- 1.5 m i l l i o n ).
  60. 60. The main components of a nephron are the g l o m e r u l u s , B o w m a n ’s c a p s u l e , and a long r e n a l t u b e . Th e b l o o d e n t e r s t h e k i d n e y s t h r o u g h t h e r e n a l a r t e r y , wh i c h b r a n c h e s i n t o ma n y
  61. 61. I n t h e p r o x i ma l t u b u l e , s o me s u b s t a n c e s s u c h a s a mi n o a c i d s , g l u c o s e , a n d s a l t s a r e s e l e c t i v e l y r e a b s o r b e d a n d u n wa n t e d mo l e c u l e s a r e a d d e d i n t h e u r i n e . Th e f i l t r a t e t h e n mo v e s d o w n i n t o t h e l o o p o f H e n l e , i n w h i c h mo r e wa t e r i s r e a b s o r b e d . F r o m h e r e , t h e f i l t r a t e mo v e s u p wa r d s i n t o t h e d i s t a l t u b u l e , a n d f i n a l l y t o t h e c o l l e c t i n g d u c t . Th i s d u c t c o l l e c t s u r i n e f r o m ma n y n e p h r o n s .
  62. 62. Pl a n t s u s e a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s t o r e mo v e w a s t e ma t e r i a l s . O x y g e n , a b y -p r o d u c t o f photosynthesis is removed through stomata. The excess water absorbed from roots is also lost through stomata via t r a n s p i r a t i o n . C e l l v a c u o l e s , g u m, r e s i n e t c . a r e s t o r e d i n o l d x y l e m t i s s u e s . Wa s t e p r o d u c t s ma y b e s t o r e d

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