JOURNEY OF MATHS OVER A PERIOD OF TIME..................................
Mathematics is the abstract study
of topics such
as quantity (numbers), structure, s
pace, and change.
The word mathematics comes from
the Greek μάθημα (máthēma), which, in the
ancient Greek language, means "that which
is learnt",what one gets to know," hence
also "study" and "science", and in modern
Greek just "lesson." The word máthēma is
derived from μανθάνω (manthano), while
the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω
(mathaino), both of which mean "to learn.”
Mathematics can, broadly
speaking, be subdivided into
the study of
quantity, structure, space, and
(i.e. arithmetic, algebra, geomet
Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the
people of Mesopotamia from the days of the
early Sumerians through theHellenistic period almost to the
dawn of Christianity. It is named Babylonian mathematics
due to the central role of Babylon as a place of study. Later
under the Arab
Empire, Mesopotamia, especially Baghdad, once again
became an important center of study for Islamic
mathematics.In contrast to the sparsity of sources
in Egyptian mathematics, our knowledge of Babylonian
mathematics is derived from more than 400 clay tablets
unearthed since the 1850s. Written in Cuneiform
script, tablets were inscribed whilst the clay was moist, and
baked hard in an oven or by the heat of the sun.
Babylonian mathematics were written using
a sexagesimal (base-60) numeral system. From this derives
the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes
in an hour, and 360 (60 x 6) degrees in a circle, as well as the
use of seconds and minutes of arc to denote fractions of a
degree. Babylonian advances in mathematics were facilitated
by the fact that 60 has many divisors. Also, unlike the
Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, the Babylonians had a true
place-value system, where digits written in the left column
represented larger values, much as in the decimalsystem.
They lacked, however, an equivalent of the decimal
point, and so the place value of a symbol often had to be
inferred from the context. On the other hand, this "defect" is
equivalent to the modern-day usage of floating point
arithmetic; moreover, the use of base 60 means that any
reciprocal of an integer which is a multiple of divisors of 60
necessarily has a finite expansion to the base 60. (In decimal
arithmetic, only reciprocals of multiples of 2 and 5 have finite
decimal expansions.) Accordingly, there is a strong argument
that arithmetic Old Babylonian style is considerably more
sophisticated than that of current usage.
The most extensive Egyptian mathematical text is the Rhind
papyrus (sometimes also called the Ahmes Papyrus after its
author), dated to c. 1650 BC but likely a copy of an older document
from the Middle Kingdom of about 2000-1800 BC. It is an instruction
manual for students in arithmetic and geometry. In addition to giving
area formulas and methods for multiplication, division and working
with unit fractions, it also contains evidence of other mathematical
knowledge, including composite and primenumbers; arithmetic, geom
etricand harmonic means; and simplistic understandings of both
the Sieve of Eratosthenes and perfect number theory (namely, that of
the number 6). It also shows how to solve first order linear
equations as well as arithmetic and geometric series.
Another significant Egyptian mathematical
text is the Moscow papyrus, also from
the Middle Kingdom period, dated to c.
1890 BC. It consists of what are today
called word problems or story problems,
which were apparently intended as
entertainment. One problem is considered
to be of particular importance because it
gives a method for finding the volume of
a frustum: "If you are told: A truncated
pyramid of 6 for the vertical height by 4 on
the base by 2 on the top. You are to square
this 4, result 16. You are to double 4, result
8. You are to square 2, result 4. You are to
add the 16, the 8, and the 4, result 28. You
are to take one third of 6, result 2. You are
to take 28 twice, result 56. See, it is 56. You
will find it right."
Greek mathematics is thought to have begun with Thales
of Miletus (c. 624–c.546 BC) and Pythagoras of Samos (c.
582–c. 507 BC). Although the extent of the influence is
disputed, they were probably inspired
by Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics. According to
legend, Pythagoras traveled to Egypt to learn
mathematics, geometry, and astronomy from Egyptian
priests.One of the oldest surviving fragments of
Euclid's Elements, found at Oxyrhynchusand dated to
circa AD 100. The diagram accompanies Book
II, Proposition 5.Thales used geometry to solve
problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and
the distance of ships from the shore. He is credited with
the first use of deductive reasoning applied to
geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem.
As a result, he has been hailed as the first true
mathematician and the first known individual to whom a
mathematical discovery has been attributed. Pythagoras
established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it
was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose
motto was "All is number". It was the Pythagoreans who
coined the term "mathematics", and with whom the study
of mathematics for its own sake begins. The
Pythagoreans are credited with the first proof of
the Pythagorean theorem, though the statement of the
theorem has a long history, and with the proof of the
existence of irrational numbers.
Following a period of stagnation after Ptolemy, the period
between 250 and 350 AD is sometimes referred to as the "Silver
Age" of Greek mathematics. During this
period, Diophantus made significant advances
in algebra, particularly indeterminate analysis, which is also known
as "Diophantine analysis". The study of Diophantine
equations and Diophantine approximations is a significant area of
research to this day. His main work was the Arithmetica, a
collection of 150 algebraic problems dealing with exact solutions
to determinate and indeterminate
equations. TheArithmetica had a significant influence on later
mathematicians, such as Pierre de Fermat, who arrived at his
famous Last Theorem after trying to generalize a problem he had
read in theArithmetica (that of dividing a square into two
squares). Diophantus also made significant advances in
notation, the Arithmetica being the first instance of algebraic
symbolism and syncopation.
Of particular note is the use in Chinese
mathematics of a decimal positional
notation system, the so-called "rod
numerals" in which distinct ciphers were
used for numbers between 1 and 10, and
additional ciphers for powers of
ten.Thus, the number 123 would be written
using the symbol for "1", followed by the
symbol for "100", then the symbol for "2"
followed by the symbol for "10", followed by
the symbol for "3". This was the most
advanced number system in the world at the
time, apparently in use several centuries
before the common era and well before the
development of the Indian numeral system.
The high-water mark of Chinese mathematics
occurs in the 13th century (latter part of
the Sung period), with the development of
Chinese algebra. The most important text from
that period is the Precious Mirror of the Four
Elements by Chu Shih-chieh (fl. 12801303), dealing with the solution of
simultaneous higher order algebraic equations
using a method similar to Horner's
method. The Precious Mirror also contains a
diagram of Pascal's triangle with coefficients of
binomial expansions through the eighth
power, though both appear in Chinese works as
early as 1100. The Chinese also made use of
the complex combinatorial diagram known as
the magic square and magic circles, described in
ancient times and perfected by Yang Hui (AD
The oldest extant mathematical records from India
are the Sulba Sutras (dated variously between the
8th century BC and the 2nd century
AD), appendices to religious texts which give
simple rules for constructing altars of various
shapes, such as
squares, rectangles, parallelograms, and others.As
with Egypt, the preoccupation with temple
functions points to an origin of mathematics in
religious ritual. The Sulba Sutras give methods for
constructing a circle with approximately the same
area as a given square, which imply several
different approximations of the value of π.
In addition, they compute the square root of 2
to several decimal places, list Pythagorean
triples, and give a statement of
the Pythagorean theorem
In the 5th century AD, Aryabhata wrote
the Aryabhatiya, a slim volume, written in
verse, intended to supplement the rules of
calculation used in astronomy and
mathematical mensuration, though with no
feeling for logic or deductive methodology.
Though about half of the
entries are wrong, it is in
the Aryabhatiya that the decimal place-value
system first appears. Several centuries
later, the Muslim mathematician Abu Rayhan
Biruni described the Aryabhatiya as a "mix of
common pebbles and costly crystals".
The Islamic Empire established across Persia,
the Middle East, Central Asia, North
Africa, Iberia, and in parts of India in the 8th
century made significant contributions towards
mathematics. Although most Islamic texts on
mathematics were written in Arabic, most of
them were not written byArabs, since much like
the status of Greek in the Hellenistic world,
Arabic was used as the written language of nonArab scholars throughout the Islamic world at
the time. Persians contributed to the world of
Mathematics alongside Arabs.
In the 9th century, the Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī wrote several important books on the Hindu-Arabic numerals and on
methods for solving equations. His book On the Calculation with Hindu
Numerals, written about 825, along with the work of Al-Kindi, were instrumental in
spreading Indian mathematics and Indian numerals to the West. The
word algorithm is derived from the Latinization of his name, Algoritmi, and the
wordalgebra from the title of one of his works, Al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī hīsāb alğabr wa’l-muqābala . He gave an exhaustive explanation for the algebraic solution of
quadratic equations with positive roots, and he was the first to teach algebra in
an elementary form and for its own sake. He also discussed the fundamental method
of "reduction" and "balancing", referring to the transposition of subtracted terms to
the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides
of the equation. This is the operation which al-Khwārizmī originally described as aljabr.
Other achievements of Muslim mathematicians during this
period include the addition of the decimal point notation to
the Arabic numerals, the discovery of all the
modern trigonometric functionsbesides the sine, al-Kindi's
introduction of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis, the
development of analytic geometry by Ibn al-Haytham, the
beginning of algebraic geometry by Omar Khayyamand the
development of an algebraic notation by al-Qalasādī.
During the time of the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Empire from
the 15th century, the development of Islamic mathematics
During the centuries in which
theChinese, Indian and Islamicmathematicians had
been in the ascendancy, Europe had fallen into the
Dark Ages, in which science, mathematics and almost
all intellectual endeavour stagnated. Scholastic
scholars only valued studies in the humanities, such as
philosophy and literature, and spent much of their
energies quarrelling over subtle subjects in
metaphysics and theology, such as "How many angels
can stand on the point of a needle?"
From the 4th to 12th Centuries, European knowledge
and study of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and
music was limited mainly to Boethius’ translations of
some of the works of ancient Greek masters such as
Nicomachus and Euclid. All trade and calculation was
made using the clumsy and inefficient Roman numeral
system, and with an abacus based
on Greekand Roman models.
By the 12th Century, though, Europe, and particularly Italy, was beginning to trade with the
East, and Eastern knowledge gradually began to spread to the West. Robert of Chester
translated Al-Khwarizmi's important book on algebra into Latin in the 12th Century, and the
complete text of Euclid's “Elements” was translated in various versions by Adelard of
Bath, Herman of Carinthia and Gerard of Cremona. The great expansion of trade and
commerce in general created a growing practical need for mathematics, and arithmetic
entered much more into the lives of common people and was no longer limited to the
The advent of the printing press in the mid-15th Century also had a huge impact. Numerous
books on arithmetic were published for the purpose of teaching business people
computational methods for their commercial needs and mathematics gradually began to
acquire a more important position in education.
and astronomer whose
introduced HinduArabic numeralsand
of algebra into
Latinized versions of his
name and of his most
famous book title live
on in the
terms algorithm and al
Leonardo Pisano Bigollo
(c. 1170 – c. 1250)
Europe’s first great medieval
mathematician was the
Italian Leonardo of Pisa, better
known by his
best known for the so-called
Fibonacci Sequence of
numbers, perhaps his most
important contribution to
European mathematics was his
role in spreading the use of the
Hindu-Arabic numeral system
throughout Europe early in the
13th Century, which soon made
the Roman numeral system
obsolete, and opened the way
for great advances in European
Throughout the 19th century
mathematics became increasingly
abstract. In the 19th century lived Carl
Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855). Leaving
aside his many contributions to
science, in pure mathematics he did
on functions of complex
variables, in geometry, and on the
convergence of series. He gave the first
satisfactory proofs of the fundamental
theorem of algebra and of the quadratic
This century saw the development of the two forms of nonEuclidean geometry, where the parallel postulate of Euclidean
geometry no longer holds. The Russian mathematician Nikolai
Ivanovich Lobachevsky and his rival, the Hungarian
mathematician János Bolyai, independently defined and
studied hyperbolic geometry, where uniqueness of parallels no
longer holds. In this geometry the sum of angles in a triangle
add up to less than 180°. Riemann also developed Riemannian
geometry, which unifies and vastly generalizes the three types of
geometry, and he defined the concept of a manifold, which
generalizes the ideas of curves and surfaces.
The 19th century saw the beginning of a great deal of abstract
algebra. Hermann Grassmann in Germany gave a first version
of vector spaces, William Rowan Hamilton in Ireland
developed noncommutative algebra. The British
mathematician George Boole devised an algebra that soon
evolved into what is now called Boolean algebra, in which the
only numbers were 0 and 1. Boolean algebra is the starting point
of mathematical logic and has important applications
in computer science.
The 19th century saw the founding of a
number of national mathematical societies:
the London Mathematical Society in
1865, the Société Mathématique de France in
1872, the Circolo Matematico di Palermo in
1884, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in
1883, and the American Mathematical
Society in 1888. The first
society, the Quaternion Society, was formed in
1899, in the context of a vector controversy.
In 1897, Hensel introduced p-adic numbers.
The 20th century saw mathematics become a major
profession. Every year, thousands of new Ph.D.s in
mathematics were awarded, and jobs were available in
both teaching and industry. An effort to catalogue the
areas and applications of mathematics was undertaken
in Klein's encyclopedia.
In a 1900 speech to the International Congress of
Mathematicians, David Hilbert set out a list of 23
unsolved problems in mathematics. These
problems, spanning many areas of
mathematics, formed a central focus for much of 20thcentury mathematics. Today, 10 have been solved, 7
are partially solved, and 2 are still open. The remaining
4 are too loosely formulated to be stated as solved or
Differential geometry came into its own when Einstein used it in general
relativity. Entire new areas of mathematics such as mathematical
logic,topology, and John von Neumann's game theory changed the kinds
of questions that could be answered by mathematical methods. All kinds
ofstructures were abstracted using axioms and given names like metric
spaces, topological spaces etc. As mathematicians do, the concept of an
abstract structure was itself abstracted and led to category
theory. Grothendieck and Serre recast algebraic geometry using sheaf
theory. Large advances were made in the qualitative study of dynamical
systems that Poincaré had begun in the 1890s. Measure theory was
developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Applications of
measures include the Lebesgue integral, Kolmogorov's axiomatisation
of probability theory, and ergodic theory. Knot theory greatly
expanded. Quantum mechanics led to the development of functional
analysis. Other new areas include, Laurent Schwartz'sdistribution
theory, fixed point theory, singularity theory and René
Thom's catastrophe theory, model theory, and Mandelbrot's fractals. Lie
theory with its Lie groups and Lie algebras became one of the major
areas of study.
One of the more colorful figures in 20th-century mathematics
was Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan (1887–1920), an
Indian autodidact who conjectured or proved over 3000
theorems, including properties of highly composite
numbers, the partition function and its asymptotics, and mock
theta functions. He also made major investigations in the areas
of gamma functions, modular forms, divergent
series, hypergeometric series and prime number theory.
Paul Erdős published more papers than any other
mathematician in history, working with hundreds of
collaborators. Mathematicians have a game equivalent to
the Kevin Bacon Game, which leads to the Erdős number of a
mathematician. This describes the "collaborative distance"
between a person and Paul Erdős, as measured by joint
authorship of mathematical papers.
In 2000, the Clay Mathematics
Institute announced the seven Millennium
Prize Problems, and in 2003 the Poincaré
conjecture was solved by Grigori
Perelman (who declined to accept an award
on this point).
Most mathematical journals now have online
versions as well as print versions, and many
online-only journals are launched. There is an
increasing drive towards open access
publishing, first popularized by the arXiv.
Mathematics is creative. Mathematics
is exciting and multifaceted.
Mathematics is the future. Without
mathematics, modern key
technologies would be unimaginable.
In fact, without mathematics, the
entire universe would most likely
remain a complete mystery to us.
Many mathematicians have been expecting
a great rise of the mathematical inventions
in future.A lot assumtions have been taken
Many have been trying to create a
pyramid using the theorems like that
of Pythagoras .
Also many expect to create
a formula as to drive rockets
to such a speed which can
even cross the universe.
The army forces of many
nations are trying to create a
helicopter using formula of
Many applications of exploring
trigonometric identities have been
done and many more are in
Also using the knowledge of
volumes and areas of objects like
FRUSTUM ,CONE,CUBOIDetc many
more styles ,shapes and textures
are expected to be founded.
Nasa also expects to create a
telescope as to see more than
distance of 10 billion kilometers!
The flying car i.e. the one which
has a air cusion has been
invented using maths.
Also more and more super
computers are being created
These kind of
supercomputers can do
calculations in around 12.3
Which humans can do in
around 1 million years !!
Also many new chapters
and theorems can be
Childhood And Early Life
Euclid of ‘Alexandria’ was born around 330 B.C, presumably
at Alexandria. Certain Arabian authors assume that Euclid
was born to a wealthy family to ‘Naucrates’. It is said that
Euclid was possibly born in Tyre and lived the rest of his life
in Damascus. There have been certain documents that
suggest that Euclid studied in Plato’s ancient school in
Athens, where only the opulent studied. He later shifted to
Alexandria in Egypt, where he discovered a well-known
division of mathematics, known as ‘geometry’.
The life of Euclid of Meguro has often been confused with
the life of Euclid of Alexandria, making it difficult to believe
any trustworthy information based on the life of the
mathematician. He inculcated an interest in the field of
mathematics and took the subject to a whole new level with
path breaking discoveries and theorems. Alexandria was
once, the largest city in the Western World and was also
central to the great, flourishing, Papyrus industry. It was in
this city where Euclid developed, imparted, and shared his
knowledge on mathematics and geometry with the rest of
He was responsible in connoting Geometrical
knowledge and also wrote the famous Euclid's Elements
and framed the skeleton for geometry that would be
used in mathematics by the Western World for over
Although little is known about Euclid's early and personal
life, he was known as the forerunner of geometrical
knowledge and went on to contribute greatly in the field
of mathematics. Also known as the 'father of
Geometry', Euclid was known to have taught the subject
of mathematics in Ancient Egypt during the reign of
Ptolemy I. He was well-known, having written the most
permanent mathematical works of all time, known as the
'Elements' that comprised of the 13 gigantic volumes
filled with geometrical theories and knowledge.
Euclid stated that axioms were statements that were
just believed to be true, but he realized that by blindly
following statements, there would be no point in
devising mathematical theories and formulae. He
realized that even axioms had to be backed with solid
proofs. Therefore, he started to develop logical
evidences that would testify his axioms and theorems
in geometry. In order to further understand these
axioms, he divided them into groups of two called
‘postulates’. One group would be called the ‘common
notions’ which were agreed statements of science. His
second set of postulates was synonymous with
Childhood And Early Life
Euler was born on April 15, 1707, in Basel, Switzerland. His father Paul Euler was a
pastor of the Reformed Church. His mother, Marguerite Brucker was a pastor's
daughter. Euler had two younger sisters - Anna Maria and Maria Magdalena. Soon
after Euler was born, his family relocated to the town of Riehen. Euler’s father was a
friend of Johann Bernoulli, who was a renowned European mathematician and had a
great influence on Euler. At thirteen, Euler entered the University of Basel and
received his Master of Philosophy in 1723. He prepared a thesis that compared the
philosophies of Newton and Descartes.
Contributions To Mathematics
Among his diverse works, the most notable was the introduction of the
concept of functions. Euler also pioneered in writing f(x) to signify the
function ‘f’ applied to the argument ‘x’. He also defined the
contemporary notation for the trigonometric functions, the letter ‘e’, for
the base of the natural logarithm (known as Euler's number), the Greek
letter ‘Σ' for summations and the letter ‘i’ to signify the imaginary unit.
Euler defined the use of the exponential functions and logarithms in
analytic proofs. He discovered ways to state various logarithmic
functions using power series, and he effectively defined logarithms for
negative and complex numbers. Through these accomplishments, he
enlarged the scope of mathematical applications of logarithms to a great
Euler proved Fermat's little
theorem, Newton's identities, Fermat's
theorem on sums of two squares, and he also
distinctively contributed to Lagrange's foursquare theorem. He supplied significant value
addition to the theory of perfect
numbers, which had always been a captivating
topic for several mathematicians.
LEONHARD EULER TIMELINE
1707:Was born on April 15, in Basel, Switzerland
1723:Received his Master of Philosophy with a thesis that compared the
philosophies of Descartes and Newton.
1726:Finished a dissertation on the propagation of sound titled ‘De Sono’.
1727:Entered the Paris Academy Prize Problem competition and won second place.
1731:Was made a professor of physics.
1734:On 7 January, he married Katharina Gsell.
1735:Became almost blind in his right eye.
1741:Left St. Petersburg on 19 June to take up a post at the Berlin Academy.
1748:Published the ‘Introductio in analysin infinitorum’, a manuscript on functions.
1783:Suffered a brain hemorrhage and died a few hours later in Saint Petersburg.
1785:The Russian Academy of Sciences placed a marble bust of Leonhard Euler on a
pedestal next to the Director's seat.
1837:The Russian Academy of Sciences placed a headstone on Euler's grave.
Pythagoras was born in the island
of Samos in around 569 BC. His
father, Mnesarchus, was a
merchant and his mother
Pythais, was a native of Samos.
Young Pythagoras spent most of
his early years in Samos but
travelled to many places with his
father. He was intelligent, welleducated. Pythagoras was also
fond of poetry and recited the
poems of Homer.
Pythagoras studied properties of numbers and classified them
as even numbers, odd numbers, triangular numbers and perfect
numbers etc. The ‘Pythagoras theorem’ is one of the earliest
theorems in geometry, which states that in right-angle
triangles, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of
square the other two sides. This theorem was already proposed
during the reign of the Babylonian King Hammurabi, but
Pythagoras applied it to mathematics and science and refined
the concept. Pythagoras also asserted that dynamics of the
structure of the universe lies on the interaction of the contraries
or the opposites, such as, light and darkness, limited and
unlimited, square and oblong, straight and crooked, right and
left, singularity and plurality, male and female, motionless and
movement and good and bad.
570 BC:Pythagoras was born in Samos, Greece.
535 BC:He left Samos and travelled to Egypt
when Polycrates took control over Samos.
525 BC:He was made prisoner by the King of
Persia and was taken to Babylon.
520 BC:Obtained freedom and returned to
518 BC:Travelled to Italy.
495 BC:Pythagoras died in Metapontum, Italy.
Srinivasa Ramanujan was born at his grandmother’s house in Erode, a small town
located about 400 km towards southwest Madras. His father was a clerk in a textile
shop in Kumbakonam. Young Ramanujan contracted small pox in 1889 December.
However, unlike many other people in that town, Ramanujan overcame the epidemic
invasion even thoughhis family his father’s income was barely sufficient to meet extra
medical expenses. When he was five, he was sent to a primary school in Kumbakonam.
Before he entered the Town High school in Kumbakonam in 1898 January, he went to
several other private schools. While in school, he excelled in all the subjects and was
considered as an all-rounder. Towards 1900, he began to work towards developing his
mathematical ability, dealing with geometrics and arithmetic series. His talent was
exposed to the world very early in 1902, when he showed how to solve cubic
equations and also sought a method to solve quartic. While in Town High School, he
read a book ‘Synopsis of elementary results in mathematics’, which was very concise
that he could teach himself without taking help from any tutor. In this book, various
theorems were mentioned in the book, along with shortcuts and formulas to solve
them. During this time, Ramanujan engaged himself in deep research in 1904 and
during this time he investigated the series ‘sigma 1/n’ and also extended Euler’s
constant to 15 decimal points. Because of his great work in school studies, he was
awarded a scholarship to attend Government College in Kumbakonam, in 1904
When Ramanujan fell ill, Hardy came to his
residence to visit Ramanujan in a cab with a
number 1729. That day, he made a comment to
Ramanujan saying that the number appeared
to be very dull number. Ramanujan corrected
him instantly saying that is an interesting
number and explained that it is the smallest
natural number that could be expressed as the
sum of two positive cubes, in two different
ways (i.e., 13 + 123 and 93 + 103.)
SRINIVASA RAMANUJAN TIMELINE
Srinivasa Ramanujan was born in Erode on 22 December.
He contracted small pox and fortunately, recovered from the infection.
He entered the Town High School in Kumbakonam.
He began developing his mathematical ability by dealing with geometrics and arithmetic
He showed how to solve cubic equations and also sought a method to solve quartic.
He went to London
16 March, he graduated from Cambridge and acquired a degree, Bachelor of Science by
He went back to India.
He passed away on 26 April.
Aryabhatta is the first of the great astronomers of the
classical age of India. He was born in Kerala, South
India in 476 AD but later lived in Kusumapura, which
his commentator Bhaskara I (629 AD) identifies with
pataliputra (modern Patna) in Bihar. His first name
“Arya” is hardly a south Indian name while “Bhatt” (or
Bhatta) is a typical north Indian name even found
today specially among the trader community.
Aryabhatta was the first to explain how the Lunar Eclipse and the Solar
Eclipse happened. Aryabhatta also gave close approximation for Pi. In
the Aryabhatiya, he wrote-“Add 4 to 100, multiply by 8, then add 62000
and then divided by 20000. The result is approximately the
circumference of a circle of diameter twenty thousand. By this rule the
relation of the circumference to diameter is given.” In other words, p ~
62832/20000= 3.1416, correct to four rounded – off decimal places.
Aryabhatta was the first astronomers to make an attempt at measuring
the earth’s circumference. Aryabhata accurately calculated the earth’s
circumference as 24835 miles, which was only 0.2 % smaller than the
actual value of 24,902 miles. This approximation remained the most
accurate for over a thousand years.