Intro terrorism


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Intro terrorism

  1. 1. Introduction To Terrorism
  2. 2. Objectives  (1.1) Describe phases and characteristics of terrorist operations and potential indicators of terrorist activity  (1.2) Identify Iraqi Insurgent Groups  (1.3) Explore the Foreign Jihadist in Iraq  (1.4) Review lessons learned from past terrorist operations.
  3. 3. Terrorist Operations Intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally: Political Religious Ideological
  4. 4. Characteristics Dynamic  Instantaneous media events  Hit and run tactics  Impeccable OPSEC  Multiple targets may be hit  Detailed Planning  Detailed Surveillance Simple  Relatively easy to command, control, and support  Limit numbers to a small group of well trained and dedicated individuals
  5. 5. Types of Cells Operational Intelligence Auxiliary
  6. 6. Potential Indicators  Unusual or prolonged interest in security measures  Starring or quickly looking away from personnel or motorcades entering or leaving  Observation of security drills  Use of cameras, video recorders or note-taking  Attempts to penetrate or test security and response  Rehearsal and dry runs  Mapping out routes  Timing traffic flow or signals  Monitoring key facilities
  7. 7. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Al- Faraq Brigades  Operate in the Al- Anbar province and Ramadi region  Incredibly resourceful, continually evolving tactics Operations  Responsible for numerous attacks on US personnel  Destroyed three armored vehicles in Ramadi, killing ten us personnel  Claimed to have infiltrated port city of Al- Bakr and fired French made missiles at us vessels
  8. 8. “The Jihadi resistance in Iraq is able to use means that do not occur to the Americans. The future holds yet more surprises.”
  9. 9. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Armed Vanguards of Mohammad’s Second Army Mission: To wage holy war on coalition forces in order to force foreigners from their land Goals: “To fight every foreigner until victory or martyrdom and to make every American regret their occupation of Mohammad’s land.” OPS  Claimed responsibility for attack on UN HQ in Baghdad, killing 23 and wounding 100  Multiple attacks on US and Coalition forces
  10. 10. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Iraqi Resistance Islamic Front  Formed by smaller Sunni resistance groups brought together by common political goals OPS  Numerous martyrdom operations  Shelling of coalition commands  Shelling of Mosul Airport  Specifically targeting US Intel members Promised to “Break America’s Back”
  11. 11. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Army of Ansar al –Sunna Sunni Muslim militant group fighting the US led occupation and declared war on Iyad Allawi. OPS  Responsible for beheading of Nepali civilian and shooting death of eleven of his countryman. The deaths were videotaped and sparked Anti-Muslim riots in Nepal  Beheading of Iraqi security force personnel  Responsible for an attack on US dining hall in Mosul which killed 14 US personnel
  12. 12. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Army of Ansar al –Sunna (Continued)  Jan 22, 05 bombing of Shiite wedding, killing 11  Beheaded Iraqi national guardsman in broad daylight and left warning attached to the body in the middle of the road “Emir of the group’ has warned Iraqis not to deal with US forces, and threatens to kill and send to hell all who disobey”
  13. 13. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Ansar al Islam Goal: To seek to transform Iraq’s Kurdish land into an Islamic State  Receives logistic support from Iran and Syria. Provides route into Iraq for foreign jihadist to join Ansar OPS  Seized control of several villages in Northern Iraq and governed according to Sharia Law.  Aug. 7, 2003 bombing of Jordanian Embassy in Baghdad.  Bombing of UN HQ in Baghdad.  Suicide bombings of Shiite Shrines in Baghdad and Karbala.  VBIED Mount Lebanon hotel in Baghdad  Continues to operate as part of Zurqawi network
  14. 14. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Al – Mahdi Army “Americans invaded Iraq to seize and kill the Mahdi”  Little or no formal religious standing  Advised by Iran based cleric
  15. 15. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Al – Mahdi Army (Continued) Goals: To replace the more traditional faction as the voice of Iraq’s Shiite majority  Redress decades of suppression by Sunni Muslims under Saddam’s rule
  16. 16. Iraqi Insurgent Groups OPS  Mob killings of rival clerics  Surrounded the house of Grand Ayatollah Al – Sistani  Target US, British, Italian, and Polish troops  Has occupied police stations and government buildings  Anyone who captured female soldiers could keep them as slaves “ The Army belongs to the Mahdi, and therefore cannot be disbanded ”
  17. 17. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Jamaat al – Tawhid wa’l Jihad Abu Musab Al – Zarqawi  Jordanian citizen, who joined Islamic Mujaheedin in AFG in 1980’s  Contacted AQ to train his Jordanian operatives in AFG in 1990’s
  18. 18. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Jamaat al – Tawhid wa’l Jihad (Continued)  Eventually established his own cell and training camps  Was paid to work with Hizballah to smuggle JTJ operatives into Palestine for follow-on operations in Israel  Additional cells operate in Germany under JTJ banner
  19. 19. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Goals: Originally to overthrow the Jordanian Government  Force withdrawal of US led forces from Iraq, topple the interim government and assassinate collaborators.  Set Iraq’s minority Sunni population against it’s majority Shiites Targets  Beheadings  Kidnapping  Suicide bombings  ISF  Shiite  Kurds  Political / Religious figures  Targeted Assassinations
  20. 20. Iraqi Insurgent Groups Jamaat al – Tawhid wa’l Jihad (Continued) “We deliver to the nation the news that both Jama’at Al – Tawhid wa’l Jihad and soldiers have pledged allegiance to the sheik of the Mujaheedin, Osama bin Laden, and that they will follow his orders in Jihad for the sake of God”
  21. 21. Foreign Insurgents
  22. 22. Foreign Insurgents “We know that the pathway into Iraq for many foreign fighters is through Syria. It’s a fact. We know it. The Syrians know it.” - General Richard Myers Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
  23. 23. Foreign Insurgents Unsponsored Foreign Jihadist  Arab nationalist, religious extremist  Collapse of Iraqi border controls  Mentored by Sunni Imams
  24. 24. Foreign Insurgents Non-State Organizations  Sent in as package team  More formidable than individual foreign jihadist  Create logistical infrastructure for smuggling weapons across borders  Need the support of Iraq fighters to be successful
  25. 25. Foreign Insurgents Salafist in Iraq  Foreign jihadist who adhere to strict interpretation of Sunni Islam  Deliberate campaigns against other muslim communities  Hatred for Iraqi Christians
  26. 26. Foreign Insurgents State Support for the Insurgency  Syria inclined to support former Ba’ath party members  Iran may support Shi’a insurgents  Fear ally regime would be formed in Iraq, facilitating US bases in Iraq  Both countries openly deny being pathway into Iraq
  27. 27. Past Terrorist Operations KEY T T Neutral vehicle Neutral person Terrorist vehicle Terrorist – Dicker [lookout] Terrorist - gunman Hostile gunfire Terrorist - explosion Friendly vehicle B Bandit Victim vehicle (crime) Victim (crime) Source: Blackwater, USA, btw2004/articles/ttp1.ppt
  28. 28. 2. Gunman fires at passing vehicle before escaping to waiting car 1. Dicker gives warning of approaching vehicles to gunman Alley Way Ambush ‘Shoot and Scoot’ style ambush. Dicker warns gun team of approaching target. The gun team fire a burst at the target before escaping to waiting get-away vehicle parked nearby. This tactic has been used in both rural and urban areas. T T Source: Blackwater, USA, btw2004/articles/ttp1.ppt
  29. 29. T 3. When ordered by the controller, the crowd parts, allowing gunman to fire, before escaping to waiting car.. Staged Accident Ambush 2. Crowd controlled by activist 1. Car accident is staged and a crowd gathers. The target vehicle is forced to stop by a staged accident. A crowd gathers, hemming in the target vehicle - the crowd controlled by an activist. On command, the crowd parts, allowing a gunman to fire, before escaping to a waiting vehicle. This tactic has also been used against security forces vehicles/ personnel responding to the accident. T T Source: Blackwater, USA, btw2004/articles/ttp1.ppt
  30. 30. T As target vehicle enters underpass, terrorist waiting on the overhead parapet drop an IED onto roof of vehicle. Overhead IED As an alternative, a dicker on the entry parapet signals that a target vehicle is approaching to a terrorist waiting at the exit parapet. Source: Blackwater, USA, btw2004/articles/ttp1.ppt
  31. 31. Rolling Ambush (choke point) - Assassination T T T T T 1 2 3 4 1. Gunmen on overlooking vantage point initiate ambush. 2. Blocking vehicle moves behind convoy 3. Roadside gunmen rake vehicles as they pass. 4. Blocking vehicle moves in front of convoy to prevent escape from killing area. Source: Blackwater, USA, btw2004/articles/ttp1.ppt
  32. 32. Place of Residence – Assassination (Dr. Akila Hashimi) T T T T 1 2 3 4 1. Dickers posing as road sweepers warn gun-group in pick up truck that entourage is leaving residence. 2. Ambush initiated by RPG (misses target) 3. Pick-up overtakes convoy, rakes second vehicle with Dr Hashimi, fatally wounding her. 4. Overtakes second vehicle and rakes with gunfire before speeding away T Source: Blackwater, USA, btw2004/articles/ttp1.ppt
  33. 33. Introduction To Terrorism: Review  Describe phases and characteristics of terrorist operations and potential indicators of terrorist activity  Identify Iraqi Insurgent Groups  Explore the Foreign Jihadist in Iraq  Review lessons learned from past terrorist operations
  34. 34. Introduction To Terrorism QUESTIONS?