National guideline for pediatric tb

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National guideline for pediatric tb

  1. 1. Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric TB – Recent Developments Dr. Pratik Kumar 1
  2. 2. • The National guidelines on Pediatric TB diagnosis and management were updated based on the recent evidence and advances in pediatric TB diagnosis and treatment in consultation with Indian Academy Pediatrics during January- February 2012. 2
  3. 3. DIAGNOSIS OF PEDIATRIC TB • All efforts should be made to demonstrate bacteriological evidence in the diagnosis of pediatric TB. • Alternative specimens : (Gastric lavage, Induced sputum, broncho-alveolar lavage). 3
  4. 4. • Optimal strength of tuberculin : 2 TU (RT 23 or equivalent) to be used for diagnosis in children. • A positive Tuberculin skin test / Mantoux positive >=10 mm induration. 4
  5. 5. • No role for inaccurate/inconsistent diagnostics like serology (IgM, IgG, IgA antibodies against MTB antigens), various in-house or non- validated commercial PCR tests and BCG test. • Loss of weight was defined as a loss of > 5% of the highest weight recorded in the past three months. 5
  6. 6. • Persistent Fever or Cough > 2 weeks …….And / Or • Loss of weight / No weight gain …… And / Or • History of Contact with Infectious TB Case DIAGNOSTIC ALGORITHM FOR PTB (page 1) SPUTUM EXAMINATION Sputum Smear +ve Sputum Smear negative / Sputum Not Available for Examination • Smear Positive Pulmonary TB • Treat according to Guidelines • Already received a complete course of antibiotics or • Sick Look or • Severe Respiratory Distress or • Any other reason for X-ray Chest 6
  7. 7. DIAGNOSTIC ALGORITHM FOR PTB (page 2) • Smear Positive Pulmonary TB • Treat according to Guidelines • Already received a complete course of antibiotics or • Sick Look or • Severe Respiratory Distress or • Any other reason for X-ray Chest (XRC) Yes No XRC & TST A 7 day course using antibiotic which has no anti TB activity eg Amoxicillin. (Do not use Quinolones) No Response XRC suggestive of TB and TST positive GL / IS / BALSmear +ve Smear negative Either or both negative • Smear Negative Pulm. TB • Treat according to Guidelines Smear negative Follow Flow Chart TWO 7
  8. 8. Further investigations in Pediatric pulmonary TB suspect who HAS PERSISTENT SYMPTOMS and does not have highly suggestive Chest skiagram (page 1) 8 XRC Normal TST Negative XRC – Nonspecific Shadows TST Positive/ Negative XRC Normal TST positive Review for an alternative diagnosis Repeat X-Ray Chest after a course of Antibiotic (if not already received) Review for alternate diagnosis • XRC – persistent nonspecific shadows • TST positive/ Negative Alternate Diagnosis Established YES, Give Specific therapy NO
  9. 9. Further investigations in Pediatric pulmonary TB suspect who HAS PERSISTENT SYMPTOMS and does not have highly suggestive Chest skiagram (page 2) 9 GL/ IS/ BAL • Look for extra pulmonary site TB, • If no then: Seek Expert help, CT Chest & other investigations may be needed Smear positive Smear negative Smear positive Pulmonary TB Treat according to Guidelines • Look for alternative diagnosis • If no alternative diagnosis found -Treat as Smear negative Pulmonary TB
  10. 10. Diagnostic Algorithm for Lymph Node TB Enlarged lymph node - Matted, cold abscess with or without a discharging Sinus Lymph node enlargement of > 2 cm in one or more sites • Prescribe a course of antibiotics for 7 days(Do not use Quinolones). • Review after 2 weeks In case of non-response, suspect TB as the cause for lymphadenitis • Smear examination for AFB by ZN Staining of the pus from discharging sinus / aspirate from lymph node • Aspirate for fine needle aspiration for cytology (FNAC), where facilities exist. Diagnosis confirmed if the pus /aspirate from FNAC show: (i) ZN stain +ve for AFB, and/or (ii) granulomatous changes • If no granulomatous changes and no AFB, consider alternative diagnosis; • Go for lymph node biopsy. • Isolated Mantoux test positivity without suggestive findings on FNAC should not be treated with ATTTreat as Case 10
  11. 11. Intermittent versus Daily Regimen: • The intermittent therapy will remain the mainstay of T/t • However, Among seriously ill, severe disseminated disease or neurotuberculosis, the chances of vomiting or non-tolerance of oral drugs is high in the initial phase. - should be given daily supervised therapy during hospital stay. 11
  12. 12. Daily doses (mg per kg/day) • Rifampicin : 10-12 mg/kg (max 600 mg/day) • Isoniazid :10 mg/kg (max 300 mg/day) • Ethambutol :20-25mg/kg (max 1500mg/day) • PZA :30-35mg/kg (max 2000 mg/day) • Streptomycin: 15 mg/kg (max 1gm/day). 12
  13. 13. • After discharge : - thrice weekly DOT regimen 13
  14. 14. Newer Case definitions for pediatric TB patients A. Failure to respond: • Who fails to have bacteriological conversion to negative status or fails to respond clinically or deteriorates after 12 weeks of compliant intensive phase. • Alternative diagnoses/ reasons for non- responsiveness should be ruled out. 14
  15. 15. B .Relapse : - A case of pediatric TB declared cured or completed therapy in past and now has (clinical or bacteriological) evidence of recurrence. C. Treatment after default : - A case of pediatric TB who has taken treatment for at least 4 weeks and comes after interruption of treatment for 2 months or more and has active disease (clinical or bacteriological). 15
  16. 16. D. Others : - For programmatic purposes of reporting, all types of retreatment cases where bacteriological evidence could not be demonstrated but decision to treat again was taken on clinical grounds would continue to be recorded and reported as “OTHERS” for surveillance purposes. 16
  17. 17. TREATMENT CATEGORIES: • There will be only two treatment categories – 1. For treating ‘new’ cases 2. For treating ‘previously treated cases’. 17
  18. 18. TREATMENT CATEGORIES AND REGIMENS Treatment Groups Type of Patient Regimen Intensive Phase (IP) Continuation Phase (CP) New (78 doses) 1.Sputum smear positive 2.Sputum smear negative 3.Extra-pulmonary 2 H³ R³ Z³ E³ (24 doses) 4 H³ R³ (54 doses) Previously Treated (102 doses) 1.Sputum positive relapses 2.Sputum positive failure 3.Sputum positive treatment after default 4.Others 2 H³ R³ Z³ E³ S³ + 1 H³ R³ Z³ E³ (24+12 doses) 5 H³ R³ E³ (66 doses) 18
  19. 19. Till , the newer drugs are procured programme will continue using the existing drugs for at least two years 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Product Code 13 Treatment box for Pediatric TB Anti - TB Schedule 5 (24 blisters of IP each containing) Pyrazinamide Tablet 250 mg 1 Tablet Ethambutol Tablet 200 mg 1 Tablet Isoniazid Tablet 75 mg 1 Tablet Rifampicin Tablet 75 mg 1 Tablet Each box containing 24 Combi-packs of Schedule-5 in the Intensive Phase and 18 multi-blister calendar Combi-pack of Schedule-6 in the Continuation Phase Anti TB Schedule 6 (18 blisters of CP containing) Isoniazid Tablet 75 mg 3 Tablets Rifampicin Tablet 75 mg 3 Tablets Pyridoxine Tablet 5 mg 4 Tablets 21
  22. 22. Product Code 14 Treatment box for Pediatric TB Anti-TB Schedule 7 (24 blisters of IP each containing) Pyrazinamide Tablet 500 mg 1 Tablet Ethambutol Tablet 400 mg 1 Tablet Isoniazid Tablet 150 mg 1 Tablet Rifampicin Tablet 150 mg 1 Tablet Each box containing 24 Combi-packs of Schedule-7 in Intensive Phase and 18 multi-blister calendar Combi-pack of Schedule-8 in Continuation Phase Anti-TB Schedule 8 (18 blisters of CP each containing) Isoniazid Tablet 150 mg 3 Tablets Rifampicin Tablet 150 mg 3 Tablets Pyridoxine Tablet 5 mg 4 Tablets22
  23. 23. • Smear positive: Any sample (sputum, induced sputum, gastric lavage, broncho‐alveolar lavage) positive for acid fast bacilli. • New Case: A patient who has had no previous ATT or for less than 4 weeks. • Relapse: Patient declared cured/completed therapy in past and has evidence of recurrence. 23
  24. 24. • Treatment after Default: A patient who has taken treatment for at least 4 weeks and comes after interruption of treatment for 2months and has active disease. • Failure to respond: A case of pediatric TB who fails to have bacteriological conversion to negative status or fails to respond • Default : which do not fit the above definitions. 24
  25. 25. • TB Meningitis: During intensive phase of TB Meningitis, Injection Streptomycin is to be replaced byTab. Ethambutol • Extending intensive and continuation phase: Children who show poor or no response at 8 weeks of intensive phase should be given extension of IP for one more month. . 25
  26. 26. - In patients with TB Meningitis, spinal TB, miliary/disseminated TB and osteoarticular TB, the continuation phase shall be extended by 3 months making the total duration of treatment to a total of 9 months. - A further extension may be done for 3 more months in continuation phase (making the total duration of treatment to 12 months) on a case to case basis in case of delayed response and as per the discretion of the treating physician/ pediatrician 26
  27. 27. • TB preventive therapy: The dose of INH for chemoprophylaxis is 10 mg/kg (instead of currently recommended dosage of 5 mg/kg) administered daily for 6 months. • TB preventive therapy should be provided to: a. All asymptomatic contacts (under 6 years of age) of a smear positive case, after ruling out active disease and irrespective of their BCG or nutritional status. 27
  28. 28. b. Chemoprophylaxis is also recommended for all HIV infected children who either had a known exposure to an infectious TB case or are Tuberculin skin test (TST) positive (>=5mm induration) but have no active TB disease. 28
  29. 29. c. All Tuberculin positive children who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy (e.g.Children with nephrotic syndrome, acute leukemia, etc.) d. A child born to mother who was diagnosed to have TB in pregnancy should receive prophylaxis for 6 months, provided congenital TB has been ruled out. BCG vaccination can be given at birth even if INH chemoprophylaxis is planned. 29
  30. 30. When to suspect pulmonary TB? • Fever and / or cough of recent onset lasting for > 2 weeks should arouse suspicion of tuberculosis. • Cough persisting beyond 2 weeks • Recent unexplained loss of weight • In a symptomatic child, contact with a person with any form of active tuberculosis within last two years. 30
  31. 31. • Pneumonia not responding to antibiotic therapy . • Diagnosis is also more likely in presence of risk factors such as recent history of measles or whooping cough and immuno-compromised state including steroid therapy. • Significant superficial lymphadenopathy 31
  32. 32. Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis TB lymphadenitis • Progressive enlargement of lymph node for more than 2 weeks, firm, minimally tender or not tender, sometimes fluctuating, may be matted and may have chronic sinus formation. • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is usually adequate for accurate diagnosis and it correlates well with biopsy in >90% of cases. 32
  33. 33. • Histopathology typically shows necrosis and epitheloid granuloma. • When FNAC is inconclusive, biopsy is necessary for confirmation of diagnosis. • In children, lymphadenopathy is common due to recurrent tonsillitis and URIs as well. • Such reactive lymphadenitis may clinically mimic tuberculosis but does not warrant anti- TB drugs. • Anti-TB drugs should not be given unless the diagnosis of TB is confirmed by FNAC or histopathology. 33
  34. 34. Pleural Effusion • If chest X-ray is suggestive of pleural effusion, pleural aspiration should always be performed for biochemical, cytological and smear examination by ZN stain to confirm the diagnosis. 34
  35. 35. • Typically, a tubercular effusion fluid is straw colored (pus, if aspirated, is very rarely due to TB etiology) has large numbers of cells (predominantly mononuclear), with high proteins (>3g/dL). • Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) levels over 60 IU/L may be suggestive of tuberculousis. • Pleural biopsy may be performed, where available, particularly when the fluid aspirate findings are inconclusive. 35
  36. 36. Tubercular meningitis (TBM) • Longer (>1 week) duration of fever, with vague CNS symptoms such as behavior changes, irritability, drowsiness, headache, vomiting and seizures. • Physical examination reveals typically global encephalopathy with focal deficits, hydrocephalus and movement disorder. • Risk factors for TBM include age < 5 years, contact with an adult suffering from tuberculosis, PEM grade III and IV, and HIV infection. 36
  37. 37. Tuberculoma • Often seen in older children, it may present as a focal seizure or • Symptoms and signs of raised intracranial tension with multiple localizing signs 37
  38. 38. Abdominal tuberculosis • Mesenteric lymphadenopathy, intestinal disease,peritoneal involvement or systemic disseminated disease presenting as hepatosplenomegaly. • Large matted lymph node mass 38
  39. 39. • There are no standard guidelines for sonography diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. • Corroborative evidence includes: echogenic thickened mesentery with lymph nodes > 15mm in size; dilated and matted bowel loops; thickened omentum, and ascites. • None of these findings, however, is specific to TB alone. 39
  40. 40. • Barium follow-through examination may be suggestive of intestinal disease but is not confirmatory. • Exudative peritoneal disease presents as ascites that is often clinically evident. • The ascitic tap should always be done in such situations. • The fluid tapped is an exudate, typically showing lymphocytic predominant cellular response with high proteins (>3g/dL). 40
  41. 41. Thank You 41

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