Extra note: These drugs do not target a specific pathophysiologic aspect of diabetes. It works primarily on a-glucosidase, which is found predominantly in the proximal half of the small intestine. The intestinal absorption of carbohydrates is therefore delayed and shifted to more distal parts of the small intestine and colon. This retards glucose entry into the systemic circulation and lowers postprandial glucose levels. α -Glucosidase inhibitors act locally at the intestinal brush border and are not absorbed. They are excreted in feces.
• A 30 yrs old M was brought in ERD in the state of unconsciousness.
(Note: Coma is a symptom, not a diagnosis.)
Pic taken from http://censorbugbear-reports.blogspot.com/2010/03/shocking-neglect-of-comatose-patient-at.html
RECAP OF PREVIOUS PARTS
• Causes of patient in state of coma
• Definition of terms related to consciousness
• Causes of Coma in a Diabetic Patient
• Insulin Synthesis/ Secretion
• Regulation of Glucose hemostasis
• Response of hypoglycemia in normal & DM
• Hypoglycemia & symptoms
• DKA /HHS
• Abnormal respiration patterns
• DM- introduction, diagnosis, classification, prediabetes, GDM
• Consider aspirin therapy (75–162 mg/ day) as a primary
prevention strategy in those with type 1 or type 2 diabetes at
increased cardiovascular risk . C
• This includes most men aged >50 years or women aged >60 years
who have at least one additional major risk factor (family history of
CVD, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, or albuminuria).
• Statin therapy should be added to lifestyle therapy,
regardless of baseline lipid levels, for diabetic patients:
1. with overt CVD
2. without CVD who are over the age of 40 years and have
one or more other CVD risk factors (family history of
CVD, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia,or
• An ACE inhibitor or ARB for the primary prevention of diabetic
kidney disease is not recommended in diabetic patients with
normal blood pressure and albumin excretion <30 mg/24 h. B
• Either ACE inhibitors or ARBs (but not both in combination) are
recommended for the treatment of the nonpregnant patient with
modestly elevated (30–299 mg/24 h) C or higher levels (.300
mg/24 h) of urinary albumin excretion. A
1. ↑ glycolysis and glucose removal from blood
2. ↓ hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis
3. ↓ glucose absorption in GI tract
4. ↓ reduce plasma glucagon levels
5. Can be used as monotherapy or dual therapy
6. Dosage: should be taken with meals and should be started at a low dose to avoid intestinal
side effects. The dose can be increased slowly as necessary to a maximum of 2550 mg/day
(850 mg TID).
7. Advantage: doesnot cause hypoglycemia , weight gain and also act as lipid loweirng agent
8. Disadvantage: GI side effects, lactic acidosis, B12 deficiency
Joint guidelines from the AACE and ACE recommend that metformin be initiated as first line monotherapy unless a contraindication such as renal disease, hepatic disease,
gastrointestinal intolerance or risk of lactic acidosis coexists.
1.Rodbard HW, Jellinger PS, Davidson JA et al. Statement by an American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus panel
on Type 2 diabetes mellitus: an algorithm for glycemic control. Endocr. Pract. 15(6), 540–559 (2009).
• MOA: stimulate insulin secretion. bind co-receptor of B cell K+channel,
result in depolarization of cell, ↑[Ca+2] stimulates insulin secretion. ↓
• Tolbutamide, chlorpropamide: 1st gen
• Glyburide, glipizide and glimiperide: 2nd gen
• Can be used as monotherapy or dual therapy
• Advantage: Hypoglycemia effects
• Disadvantage: Hypoglycemia, weight gain, nausea, skin reactions,
photosensitivity, abnl LFTS , leucopenia
• Glimiperide: Initial: 1-2 mg PO qAM before meal; may increase dose by
1-2 mg every 1-2 weeks; not to exceed 8 mg/day
• Glipizide: 2.5-20 mg PO qDay or q12hr; not to exceed 40 mg/day
MEGLITINIDES: REPAGLINIDE AND NATEGLINIDE
• Non sulphonylurea Insulin secretagogues
• Short-acting drugs similar to SU’s in mechanism
• OOA is faster and the half-life is shorter. Fast acting, taken just prior to meals
• Start at 0.5 mg before each meal ,3-4 times a day
• Minimal renal clearance; may be useful in renal pts (especially repaglinide)
• A/E: Hypoglycemia a risk if meals delayed, avoid in liver failure and caution in
• Monotherapy or combined BUT NOT WITH SULPHONYLUREAS
• Repaglinide: Initial dose 0.5 mg PO with no prior treatment, or 1-2 mg with prior
• MOA: They act by binding to the Peroxisome Proliferative insulin activated
receptors enhancing Sensitizing effects of insulin at liver, muscle as well as fat
tissues also by inhibiting glucose formation by liver.
• Decrease insulin resistance, Major site of action-adipose tissue
• A/E: weight gain, edema, anemia, pulmonary edema and congestive heart
failure, liver toxicity, slow OOA
• Advantage: relatively safe in patients with impaired renal function because they
are highly metabolized by the liver and excreted in the feces; doesnot cause
• Pioglitazone: 15-30 mg PO with meal qDay initial; titrate to 45 mg qDay
ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS: ACARBOSE,
• Inhibits enzymes in the small intestinal brush border that are
responsible for the breakdown of oligosaccharides and
disaccharides into monosaccharide suitable for absorption.1
• Less effective than SU’s, metformin, used mainly as added
agent when needed
• SE: flatulence, diarrhea
• Doses over 50 TID increase SE with little added benefit
1. Lebovitz HE. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1997;26:539-51
DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE IV INHIBITORS
Pic taken from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incretin
• A group of GI hormones that stimulate a ↓ in BG levels.
• Do so by causing an ↑ in the amount of insulin released from the b
cells of IOL after eating.
• They also slow the rate of absorption of nutrients into the blood
stream by reducing gastric emptying .
• They also inhibit glucagon release from the a cells of IOL.
• Eg: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide .
• Both GLP-1 and GIP are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme
dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).
DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE IV INHIBITORS
• The first agent of the class - sitagliptin - was approved by the FDA in
• MOA: to ↑ incretin levels (GLP-1 and GIP), which ↓ glucagon release,
which in turn ↑ insulin secretion, ↓ gastric emptying, and ↓ BG levels.
• Dont use with insulin or SU. Use with caution in Renal impairment
• Eg: sitagliptin, vildagliptin ,linagliptin
• Sitagliptin : 25,50,100 mg PO OD with or without food
• A/E: nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity and skin
reactions, Heart failure, Pancreatitis and pancreas cancer risk.
1. "FDA Approves New Treatment for Diabetes" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. October 17, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-17.
2. McIntosh, C; Demuth, H; Pospisilik, J; Pederson, R (2005). "Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: How do they work as new antidiabetic agents?". Regulatory Peptides 128 (2): 159–65.
GLP-1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS
• GLP-1 receptor agonists enhance glucose-dependent insulin
secretion by the pancreatic beta-cell, suppress
inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, and slow gastric
• Disadvantages :GI A/E , their administration by injection,
from 2 times/d- 1 time/wk .
• Hypoglycaemia, especially when associated with SU.,
pancreatitis, nausea, vomiting n diarrhea.
• Eg: exenatide (5-10 mg sc before meal),liraglutide
Shyangdan, DS; Royle, P; Clar, C; Sharma, P; Waugh, N; Snaith, A (Oct 2011). "Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (
SGLT2 is a protein that facilitates glucose
reabsorption in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibitors
block the reabsorption of glucose in the kidney,
increase glucose excretion, and lower BG levels
EG: empagliflozin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, ipragliflozin
Pic taken from : http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/images/sglt2/sglt2-1hdiw.png
Canagliflozin: 100 mg Po od before meal
• Cosecreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells.
• Plays a role in glycemic regulation by slowing gastric emptying
and promoting satiety, thereby preventing post-prandial spikes
in blood glucose levels.
• Pramlintide , was recently approved for adult use in patients
with both DM T1 and T2.
• Insulin and pramlintide, injected separately but both before a
meal, work together to control the post-prandial glucose
1. Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2006. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
INSULIN: CLINICAL USES
1. T1 diabetes mellitus
2. Insulin-independent patients: failure to other drugs
3. Diabetic complications: DKA , HHS
4. Critical situations of diabetic patients: fever, severe
infection, pregnancy, trauma, operation
SIDE EFFECTS OF INSULIN THERAPY
• Weight gain
• Peripheral oedema (insulin treatment causes salt and
water retention in the short term)
• Insulin antibodies (animal insulins)
• Local allergy (rare)
• Lipodystrophy at injection sites
Reference: L BEATRIZ, F MARK. Oral Agents in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Am Fam Physician. 2001 May 1;63(9):1747-1757.
END OF SLIDES
1.Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition
2.Davidson Practice of Medicine
4.Standards of Medical Care in Diabetesd 2014. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care
Volume 37, Supplement 1, January 2014
• 30 yrs old male ,thinly built .
• H/o significant loss of weight
• Presentation : coma .H/o fever
• Kussmaul breathing , signs of dehydration , dry
skin ,hypotension, tachycardia, weak rapid pulse
• Raised blood sugar and Urice