Glass

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Glass

  1. 1. GLASS<br />Dr. Prashant Mehta<br />Assistant Professor<br />National Law University, Jodhpur<br />
  2. 2. Glass<br />Definition<br />Preparation<br />Composition<br />Variety<br />Uses<br />
  3. 3. Definition<br /> Glass is an amorphous, hard, brittle, transparent or translucent super cooled liquid of infinite viscosity, having no definite melting point obtained by fusing a mixture of a number of metallic silicates or borates of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Lead. <br /> I<br />It possess no definite formula or crystalline structure.<br />“An inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing” <br />Does not have a specific melting point<br />Softens over a temperature range<br />
  4. 4. Properties of glass<br />Glass is:<br />Amorphous<br />Brittle<br />Transparent / Translucent<br />Good electrical insulator<br />Unaffected by air, water, acid or chemical reagents except HF<br />No definite crystal structure means glass has high Compressive strength<br />Can absorb, transmit and reflect light<br />
  5. 5. Raw materials used in manufacturing glass<br />Raw Materials<br />Sodium as Na2Co3 (used in soft glass).<br />Potassium as K2Co3 (used in Hard Glass).<br />Calcium as lime stone, chalk and lime.<br />Lead as litharge, red lead (flint glass).<br />Silica arc quartz, white sand and ignited flint.<br />Zinc is zinc oxide (Heat and shock proof glass).<br />Borates are borax, Boric acid (Heat and shock proof glass).<br />Cullets or pieces of broken glass to increase fusibility.<br />
  6. 6. Glass Components<br />Formers – Network Formation<br />SiO2, B2O3, P2O5, GeO2, V2O5, As2O3, Sb2O5<br />Fluxes – Softeners<br />Na2O, K2O, LiO, Al2O3, B2O3, Cs2O<br />Stabilizers – Provide Chemical Resistance<br />CaO, MgO, Al2O3, PbO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, ZrO<br />
  7. 7. Manufacturing steps<br /><ul><li>Melting
  8. 8. Forming and Shaping
  9. 9. Annealing
  10. 10. Finishing</li></li></ul><li>Melting process<br /> Raw materials in proper proportions are mixed with cullets. It is finely powdered and intimate mixture called batch is fused in furnace at high temperature of 1800°C this charge melts and fuses into a viscous fluid.<br />CaCO3 + SiO2  CaSiO3 + CO2  <br /> Na2CO3 + SiO2 Na2SiO3 + CO2<br />After removal of CO2 decolorizes like MnO2 are added to remove traces of ferrous compounds and Carbon. Heating is continued till clear molten mass is free from bubbles is obtained and it is then cooled to about 800°C.<br />
  11. 11. Forming, shaping, and annealing<br />Forming and Shaping<br /> The viscous mass obtained from melting is poured into moulds to get different types of articles of desired shape by either blowing or pressing between the rollers.<br />Annealing<br /> Glass articles are then allowed to cool gradually at room temperature by passing through different chambers with descending temperatures. This reduces the internal Strain in the glass.<br />
  12. 12. finishing<br /> Finishing is the last step in glass manufacturing. It involves following steps.<br /><ul><li>Cleaning
  13. 13. Grinding
  14. 14. Polishing
  15. 15. Cutting
  16. 16. Sand Blasting</li></li></ul><li>Varieties of glass<br />
  17. 17. Sodalime or soft glass<br />About 90% of all glass is soda-lime glass made with silica (sand), Calcium carbonate and soda ash. <br />The approximate composition is Na2CO3.CaO.6SiO2. <br />They are low cost, resistant to water but not to acids. <br />They can melt easily and hence can be hot worked. <br />Uses: <br />Window glass, Electric bulbs, Plate glass, Bottles, Jars, cheaper table wares, test tubes, reagent bottles etc <br />
  18. 18. Potash lime or hard glass<br />Potash lime glass is made with silica (sand), Calcium carbonate and potassium carbonate. <br />The approximate composition is K2CO3.CaO.6SiO2. <br />They posses high melting point, fuse with difficulty and are less acted upon by acids, alkaline and other solvents than ordinary glass.<br />Uses: <br />These glasses are costlier than soda lime glass and are used for chemical apparatus, combustion tubes and glassware which are used for heating operations.<br />
  19. 19. Lead glass or flint glass<br />It is made up of lead oxide fluxed with silica and K2CO3 is used instead of sodium oxide. <br />Its approximate composition is K2Co3.PbO.SiO2. <br />To get dense optical glasses about 80% lead oxide is used. Lead glasses has a lower softening temperature than soda glass and higher refractive index and good electrical properties. It is bright lustrous and possess high specific gravity.<br />Uses: <br />High quality table wares, optical lenses, neon sign tubing, cathode ray tubes, electrical insulators, crystal art objects or cut glass, Windows and Shields for protection against X-rays and Gamma rays in medical and atomic energy fields etc. <br />
  20. 20. Borosilicate / pyrex / jena glass<br />It is common hard glass containing silica and boron with small amount of alumina and less alkaline solids. <br />It contains SiO2(80.5%), B2O3(13%), Al2O3(03%), K2O(3%) and Na2O(0.5%). These glass have low thermal coefficient of expansion, and high chemical resistance i.e..shock proof.<br />Uses: <br />Industrially used for pipeline of corrosive liquids, gauge glasses, superior laboratory apparatus, kitchen wares, chemical plants, television tubes, electrical insulators etc. <br />
  21. 21. Alumino-silicate glass<br />The typical approximate composition of this type of glass is SiO2(55%), Al2O3(23%), MgO(09%), B2O3(07%), CaO(05%) and Na2O, K2O(01%). <br />This type of glass possess exceptionally high softening temperature.<br />Uses: <br />It is used for high pressure mercury discharge tubes, chemical combustion tubes and certain domestic equipments.<br />
  22. 22. 96% silica glass<br />It contains 96% Silica, 03% B2O3 and traces of other materials. <br />It is translucent, the coefficient of thermal expansion is very low hence it has high resistance to thermal shock, have high chemical resistance to corrosive agents and are corroded only by Hydrofluoric acid, hot phosphoric acids and concentrated alkaline solutions.<br />Uses: <br />Used only where high temperature resistance is required (800°C). They are used in construction of chemical plants, laboratory crucibles, induction furnace lining and electrical insulators. <br />
  23. 23. 99.5% silica glass / vitreosil<br />It contains pure silica heated to its melting point. It is translucent, the coefficient of thermal expansion is very low hence it has high resistance to thermal shock, have high chemical resistance to corrosive agents. <br />If Vitreosil glass is heated above its melting point, it becomes transparent and is known as clear silica glass.<br />Uses: <br />They are used in construction of chemical plants, laboratory crucibles, induction furnace lining, electrical insulators and heaters and have high light transmission properties.<br />
  24. 24. Safety glass<br />It is made by fusing two to three flat sheets of glass and in between them alternate thin layer of vinyl plastic is introduced. It is heated where both the layers merge together and glass is toughened.<br />Uses: <br /> It is used as wind shield in automobiles and airplanes. On breaking it pieces does not fly apart because of the presence of the plastic layer in between the glass layers.<br />
  25. 25. Optical or crook’s glass<br />It contains Phosphorus, PbCO3, silicates and Cerium oxide which has the property to absorb harmful ultra-violet light. This glass is given through homogeneity by heating it for a prolonged period of time. These glasses have low melting point and are relatively soft.<br />Uses: <br />They are used for making optical lenses.<br />
  26. 26. Poly-crystalline glass<br />It is new type of glass which is produced by adding nucleating agents to a conventional glass batch and then shaped into desired form. It is then subjected to heating where nucleating agents forms large number of micro crystallites. It is not ductile. It exhibits high strength and considerable hardness.<br />Uses: <br />For making specialized articles.<br />
  27. 27. Toughened glass<br />It is made by dipping articles still hot in an oil bath, so that chilling takes place. This results in outer layer of articles shrink and acquire a state of compression while inner layer are in state of tension. Such glass is more elastic to mechanical and thermal shock. It breaks into a fine powder.<br />Uses: <br />For making window shields of fast moving vehicles, windows of furnace and automatic opening doors. <br />
  28. 28. Coloured glass<br />
  29. 29. Wired glass<br />Wired glass does not fall apart into splinters when it breaks and is fire resistant. It is made by fusing wire in between the two glass layers. <br />Uses: <br />For making fire resistant doors, roofs, skylights and windows<br />
  30. 30. Fibre glass<br />It is transformed into a fine thread of filament and has got a high tensile strength.<br />Uses: <br /> Found extensive use for the manufacture of fabric, reinforcing plastics and production of thermal insulation materials etc<br />
  31. 31. Photosensitive glass<br />These are glasses by which a colored picture may be developed by exposing the glass to black and white negative in ultra violet light. The appropriate proportions of potash-alumina glass, mixed with LiSO3, cerium and Silver salts have also been used as photosensitive glass.<br />Uses: <br />Photographic development<br />
  32. 32. Glass wool<br />Glass wool consists of tiny fibers formed by action of steam jets on dripping molten glass down from very fine hole.<br />Uses: <br />Heat Insulation, for filtration of Corrosive chemicals, sound insulation etc<br />
  33. 33. Photo-chromic glass<br />The three dimensional silicate network contains large no. of microscopic particles of silver halide which on exposure to light produce color.<br />Uses: <br />In making tinted car glasses and goggles.<br />
  34. 34. Neutral glass<br />These glasses are highly resistant to chemical attacks and they are specialized soda lime glass where alkali has been replaced by alumina, boron oxide and zinc oxide.<br />Uses: <br /> Making Syringes, Injection Ampoules and vials etc.<br />
  35. 35. Laminated glass<br />The sheets of glass fiber or glass wool are soaked in a solution of thermosetting plastic like phenol formaldehyde resin and placed one above the other and then cured under heat or pressure. It is strong as steel. Non flammable and insulating. In bullet resistant glass vinyl resins are added in alternate layers.<br />Uses: <br />Shatter, shock and Bullet proof Glass<br />
  36. 36. Insulating glass<br />Two or more plates of glass are filled with dehydrated air and the edges are sealed air-tightly.<br />Uses: <br />Provides thermal insulating and so houses remain cool in summer and warm in winter.<br />
  37. 37. Fracture / failure of glass<br />Glass does not have crystal lattice structure hence it breaks. Fracture is caused by small imperfections, flaws and irregularity on the surface of the glass. Flaws are very fine cracks cause concentration of stress and the crack proceeds quickly causing a fracture.<br />
  38. 38. Major Forensic Glass Sources<br />Flat Glass – Soda lime silicate<br /> Drawing, Rolling, or Floating<br />Tempered: Rapid Cooling<br />Adds Strength<br />Dices when broken<br />Automotive windows & security windows<br />Float Glass floresces when excited at 254 nm.<br />Coated: Surface modification<br />Mirrors<br />Laminated: Sandwiched around plastic<br />Automotive windshields<br />Headlights: Sometimes borosilicate<br />Light bulbs: Soda lime glass<br />Heat absorbing/ UV filtering<br />Tinted<br />Photochromic (Light Sensitive)<br />Eyeglasses<br />Container Glass<br />Lower magnesium, higher sodium<br />Clear vs. greenish (window)<br />Glass Fibers<br />Fiberglass insulation<br />Alumino-borosilicate<br />Binder (red or yellow) to hold fibers in bundles<br />
  39. 39. Glass Fractures<br />GLASS FRACTURES    First bends in the direction of the force splintering and cracking and breaking.     Radial cracks -   Concentric cracks. 3 Rs - RADIAL - RIGHT ANGLES - REVERSEPROJECTILES AND BULLETS    If does not penetrate get the ejection of a small cone of the glass <br />  Bullets edge will be wedged hole wider in the direction of travel     size of the bullet holes     laminated glass and plastic sheet     size of bullet and distances<br />Glass breaks in a characteristic manner which indicates the direction of travel of the impacting object.  Conchoidial striations are ripples seen through the cross section of broken glass. They are always at right angles to the impacted surface.   <br />Radial fractures emanating from high velocity projectile entry points indicate the sequence in which guns shots were fired. The radial cracks will stop where an earlier crack already exists, so it must have come later in the sequence.  <br />
  40. 40. Glass<br />Glass is found in many types of cases. Like paint, it is often involved in burglaries and hit-and-runs. Glass fragments easily embed in shoes, hair and clothing of people involved in the breakage of glass. Sometimes glass fragments can be reconstructed to yield evidence. Reconstruction.<br /> Collection of evidence<br />It is best to take a representative sample of the glass - this could be the four corners of a broken window, or all the glass available if the glass broken is not a window. If more than one type of glass is broken, collect representative samples of each different type.<br /> Analysis of evidence<br /> <br />Most glass analyses consist of comparing the refractive indices, elemental compositions and densities of two or more samples.<br /> <br />
  41. 41. Glass<br />The forensic scientist will first of all assess the physical characteristics of the glass:<br /><ul><li>Refractive index. This is a measure of how much the light is bent, or refracted, as it passes through the glass.</li></ul>If a colourless piece of glass is put into water, you can still see it because the water and glass have different refractive indices. The refractive index of glass does not vary significantly with temperature, but those of liquids do. If a piece of glass is placed in a liquid which is then heated, at some point the refractive indices will be identical and you will no longer be able to see the piece of glass. If the two pieces of glass – one the suspect and one from the scene of crime, have identical refractive indices, then they are from the same source. Nowadays, refractive index methods are semi-automatic – the GRIM2 instrument measures the refractive index of glass fragments by reference to calibrated immersion oils and automatically identifies the glass.<br /><ul><li> Elementalcomposition. The elements investigated are usually sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, calcium, barium and iron.
  42. 42. Density measurements. The density of glass can be measured by flotation measurements, though this technique is rarely used these days. </li></ul> <br />
  43. 43. Glass Gallery<br />                                                             <br />

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