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  1. 1. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AS VEHICLE FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Dr. Prashant Mehta Assistant Professor, Faculty of Science, National Law University, Jodhpur Email:
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understanding different energy sources (both Non Renewable and Renewable) with respect to their advantages and disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how switching form Non Renewable to Renewable Sources (Alternative Energy) help in environment protection and long term sustainable development. </li></ul>Acknowledgement: ©2001/Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP
  3. 3. Definition: Sustainable Development <ul><li>The original definition of sustainable development was that given by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987: “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development' usually refers to some form of modern technological society, with business taking responsibility for its impact on society and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a process that can be maintained in its current state of productivity over long period of time . </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development is about growth .  </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability is about costs and benefits of Today’s actions against costs and benefits of Tomorrow’s actions . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Energy & Environment <ul><li>But sustainable development is about more than the energy and environment. It is based on four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and prudent use of Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Growth and Social Progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The target is a better quality of life for everyone now and for generations to come. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Energy Problem <ul><li>Energy problems are back at the top of the world's agenda due to combination of factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising oil and Gas Prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospect of Diminishing Fossil Fuel Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising Atmospheric Pollution (oil and gas emissions & burning of domestic fuels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change with evident effects on Global Warming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing concern about security of supply, thereby underlining the vulnerability of all industrial countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Two Principle Problems with Energy Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Failure for policy makers to understand the concept of exponential growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure for legislation to be formulated and passed to give us a long term energy strategy </li></ul>
  6. 8. World Energy Consumption
  7. 9. Where do we get our energy?
  8. 10. Non Renewable Energy Sources <ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Fission </li></ul>
  9. 11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Oil as an Energy Resource
  10. 12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Gas as an Energy Resource
  11. 13. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Nuclear Energy as an Energy Resource
  12. 14. Impact <ul><li>Many of our sources of energy generation influence the health of the environment . The burning of any of these resources produces some form of atmospheric pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>The combustion of coal releases large amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide and small amounts of highly toxic uranium, lead, cadmium, mercury, rubidium, thallium, and zinc. These chemicals contribute to enhancement of the green house effect, photochemical smog, acid deposition. </li></ul><ul><li>The burning of petroleum fuels emits about 30% of the carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere annually. Carbon dioxide is one of the dominant green house gas and its increase in the atmosphere may bring about a warming of the Earth's climate. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of oil for energy also releases hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally, transported oil is spilled into the environment where it takes its toll on wildlife / aquaticlife . </li></ul>
  13. 15. Burning any fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thus promotes global warming. Comparison of CO2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power.
  14. 16. Impact
  15. 17. Renewable Energy <ul><li>Energy can also be derived from several other sources that are infinite in their supply. These renewable sources of energy include: the sun, moving water, biomass, wind, and geothermal energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Energy – Sun Energy / Photovoltaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric Power - Potential energy of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Power – Energy of Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy from Biomass – Plant materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal Energy - Earth’s internal heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal Energy - Tidal rise and fall / Wave Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen – Fuel of Future </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Solar Energy
  17. 19. Hydroelectric Power
  18. 20. Wind Power Wind Power
  19. 21. Biomass
  20. 23. Fashion Terminology <ul><li>Smart Power </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Green Power </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Power Max </li></ul>REDESIGN  REDUCE  REUSE  RECYCLE
  21. 24. Picture Perfect
  22. 25. Sustainable Energy Use <ul><li>From an environmental stand point, our current patterns of energy use are plagued with three major problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Energy derived from the combustion of fossil fuels creates large scale environmental degradation in the form of global warming, acid deposition and various forms of atmospheric pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies of fossil fuels are finite. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of human processes that require energy use this resource in a highly inefficient manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Projections of energy use into the middle of the next century suggest that demand for this resource will increase by approximately 400%. This increase in consumption will be driven by population and economic growth. However, environmental degradation and constraints on supplies of fossil fuels will force the human population to modify the way it uses and consumes energy. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Suggestions to make the transition to a more sustainable energy future
  24. 27. Future Trends <ul><li>Reduced use of fossil fuels because of the need for environmental protection and increases in resource costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of technologies that make the burning of fossil fuels safer for the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of more efficient human systems of energy use. Studies suggest that industrialized economies can significantly reduce their use of energy through conservation and technological innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase reliance on renewable energy resources like biomass, solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of new technologies for the production of energy. Some scientists predict that fusion may become a major source of energy for human needs within 50 years. Fusion produces far less dangerous radiation than fission and very little waste. Its fuel, deuterium, is also virtually inexhaustible. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Summary <ul><li>Conservation is king </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative energy can provide a good deal of our energy needs and costs are decreasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind power, solar and biomass systems appear to be increasingly feasible. </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming may encourage development </li></ul><ul><li>A consistent and sustained national energy policy is required to promote development of alternative energy sources. </li></ul>