6. Formulation of a toothpaste
Cleaning agent i.e. the “detergent" that is going
to remove food particles and clean the teeth,
Abrasives to assist in the cleaning process.
Flavor, must be pleasant, and must be
associated with a "clean" feeling. (mint flavors
are so popular)
7. Formulation of Toothpaste
9. Active Ingredients Inactive Ingredients
Antibacterial agents, most often
Triclosan is used to control plaque
Sodium bicarbonate (baking
Enzymes, to enhance the
antibacterial properties of saliva
Xylitol, a non-sugar sweetener,
which reduces levels of cariogenic
(decay causing) bacteria in the
mouth and enhances
Detergents, to make the
Humectants to retain moisture
Flavoring, sweetening, and
coloring agents like peppermint,
spearmint, cinnamon, wintergreen,
Abrasives for cleaning and
Also called as polishing agents
Cleaning and polishing (function)
Solid, insoluble particles
Potential for fluoride interaction
Used in dentistry for abrading, grinding, polishing
Remove debris & residual strain from teeth
11. Types and examples of Abrasives
help the product to leave the teeth looking white and feeling clean
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate
have been used for nearly 100 years to make a variety of products
and environments fresh-smelling, in addition to their abrasive
Sodium bicarbonate: baking soda.
Calcium carbonate: chalk
are one of many products in the hydrated silica family, available in
many particle sizes & characteristics
To provide consistency and shape.
Binders keep the solid phase properly suspended
in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the
liquid phase out of the toothpaste.
They also provide body to the dentifrice, especially
after extrusion from the tube onto the toothbrush.
A binder or thickener can prevent the toothpaste
from drying out.
They control the viscosity and contribute to give the
toothpaste a creamy consistency.
Used in toothpaste to prevent loss of water and subsequent
hardening of the product upon exposure to air.
Affect taste perception
Proper usage level produce a clear translucent toothpaste
An important part of toothpaste flavoring
Improve taste of toothpaste
One of the most important factors for consumer
A mixture of flavoring agents
Produce foam and aid in the removal of
Emulsifies flavoring agents
May react with other toothpaste components
High level may cause mucosal irritation
19. FLUORIDE ACTIVES
Increase resistance to enamel solubility
Regulated by Government
Restricted usage level
Soluble fluoride ion is essential for activity
Sodium Fluoride NaF
Sodium Monofluorophosphate MFP
Stannous Fluoride SnF2
Prevent the growth of micro-organisms in
Non-irritating, compatible with other ingredients,
Should be used in combination.
Water is the most common solvent used
It dissolves the ingredients and allows
them to be mixed.
Alcohol is used in mouth rinses as a
solvent and taste enhancer.
22. THERAPEUTIC AGENTS
One or more therapeutic agents are usually added to
Most toothpaste today contain fluorides to prevent
Recently there has been a development of 8 different
toothpastes with additional purposes, such as stain
and calculus removal, and prevention of gingivitis,
sensitive teeth and gum problems.
24. Herbals used in Toothpaste
Toothache Tree Seeds (Zanthoxylum armatum,
25. EVALUATION OF TOOTHPASTE
Test for abrasiveness
Test for fluoride
pH of the product
Foaming character & stability of foam
Limit test for arsenic & lead
Volatile matters & moisture
Test for net content (commercial basis)
Effect of special ingredients
Test for active or therapeutic ingredients
Non-sterile aqueous solution.
Used mostly for its:
Mouthwashes or rinses are designed to:
reduce oral bacteria,
remove food particles,
temporary reduce bad breath and
provide a pleasant taste
Combination of both
commercial OTC products
help to remove oral debris before or after brushing,
temporary suppress bad breath,
diminish bacteria in the mouth and
refresh the mouth with a pleasant taste.
may be sold as OTC product
have the benefits of their cosmetic counterparts
help remove oral debris before or after brushing
temporarily suppress bad breath
diminish bacteria in the mouth
refresh the mouth with a pleasant taste
contain an added active ingredient that helps protect against
some oral diseases
e.g. fluoride or chlorhexidine, that help protect against some
The amount of the different components in mouthwashes
varies from product to product.
Some practically have the same composition as
toothpastes, although they do not contain abrasives.
Distinct from toothpastes most mouth rinses contain
alcohol, as a preservative and a semi-active ingredient.
The amount of alcohol is usually ranging from 10 – 20%
34. Components of Mouthwash
present in the range of 10%-20%.
enhances the flavour, provides sharpness to the
taste, aids in masking.
unpleasant taste of active ingredients,
functions as a solubilizing agent for some flavoring
acts as a preservative.
35. Components of Mouthwash
glycerin & sorbitol
5% to 20% of the mouthwash.
these agents increases the viscosity of the
preparation & enhances the sweetness of
They aid in the solublization of flavors & in the
removal of debris by providing foaming action.
Poloxamer 407 & 338, Polysorbate 80.
Level 0 to 1%
They are used to overcome disagreeable tastes.
These are also used in these products.
Components of Mouthwash
38. DIRECTION FOR LABELLING
For external use only.
Not to be swallowed in large amount.
Rinse vigorously around teeth & gums & then spit out.
Mouthwash remains in contact with oral mucosa for a short period
Store below 250
C & protect from light.
Mouthwashes are dispensed in (white) fluted bottles.
40. Marketed Products
Clohex (Chlorhexidine Mouthwash B.P.) ByClohex (Chlorhexidine Mouthwash B.P.) By
Senquel – ad (Potassium nitrate with SodiumSenquel – ad (Potassium nitrate with Sodium
fluoride mouthwash) By DRLfluoride mouthwash) By DRL
Listerine Mouthwash By Pfizer.Listerine Mouthwash By Pfizer.
Colgate Plax Mouthwash By P & G.Colgate Plax Mouthwash By P & G.