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NON -VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
Prashant Bhati
FMS (University of Delhi)
Definition and Forms
• Body Language
• Space Proximities
• Touch
• Time
• Voice Issues
• Office,Environment
Non-verbal com...
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Body Language
Body Language
• Palms
• Handshake
• Arms
• Thumb
• Eyes
• Legs
• Mirroring
Open palms-Honest
Hiding palms-Lying or Concealing
Palms-Up,Down,Pointing
Palm up- Submissive,Non Threatening
Palm Down-Authority
Palm closed –Finger Pointed
Cross Arms-
Negative,Nervous,Defensive
Clenched Arms-Frustration/Negative
attitude
The person would be more difficult to handle when the hands are held high, tha...
Steeple –Raised,Lowered
Give the opinion or
ideas and is doing
the talking.
Listening rather than
speaking.
Rubbing Palms Together-Positive
Expectancy
Gripping Hand ,Arm And Wrists
A position of
authority
The further the hand is
moved up the back,
the more angry the
person...
Handshake
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3zM23Hd7lo
Thumb
Another show of confidence and feeling superior is by showing the thumbs. It could be as
shown here, but any positio...
Eyes
Standard Leg-Cross Position
A nervous, reserved or defensive
attitude.
Leg-Lock Position
An argumentative
or competitive
attitude
Standing Leg Cross Gestures
Cigarettes
Mirroring
Space Proximities
Space Proximities(Proxemics)
Intimate space
• 2 fists away from your body.
• People emotionally close to you are allowed to enter this zone
Personal space
• A handshake away
• The distance you should stand in friendly gathering
Social space
• About two arm length away
• The distance you should stand with people you don’t know
Public space
• Over 3.6 m away
• The distance you feel comfortable when addressing people
Touch
Touch(Haptic Communication)
Functional/professional: This is touch between colleagues and professionals.
For example, a ha...
Social/polite: This is used with acquaintances, or with people in a group
who are friends, but not necessarily close frien...
Friendship/warmth: Touch here includes many of the lighthearted
gestures that show you like, and understand, each other. F...
Love/intimacy: This type of touch is associated with emotional closeness,
trust and vulnerability. For example, we see thi...
Time
Time(Chronemics)
Chronemics is the study of how we refer to and
perceive time. The way that one perceives and values
time,...
Monochronic/Polychronic
• Monochronic-where things are typically done one at a time, where
time is segmented into precise,...
Monochronic/Polychronic
Voice
Voice(Paralanguage)
Paralanguage involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech
that influence meaning, including tone, i...
Voice(Paralanguage)
• Volume Quality:articulation, nasality, accent, pitch, range
of voice and resonance.
• Vocal characte...
Office
Office & Environment
Environment involves the physical and psychological
aspects of the communication context. More than t...
Chair Size and Accessories:
The higher the back of
the chair, the more
power and status the
person sitting in it is
percei...
The ATTENTION ZONE
Those sitting in the 'funnel' gave the most amount of participation, interacted most
with the presenter...
Seating Arrangement
The corner position
This position is used by people who are engaged in friendly, casual conversation.
Seating Arrangement
The Co-Operative Position
This is one of the best positions for presenting your case and having it acc...
Seating Arrangement
The Co-Operative Position(introducing a third person)
This allows the salesperson to
be'on the client'...
Seating Arrangement
The Competitive & Defensive position
Sitting across the table from a person can create a defensive, co...
Seating Arrangement
The Independent Position
This is taken by people when they don't want to interact with each other.
Seating Arrangement
The Square Table
Square tables are ideal for having short, to-the-point conversations or for creating
...
Seating Arrangement
Keeping two people involved
This technique lets B feel involved in the conversation and is particularl...
GIFTS
Giving Gifts
CHINA
• In general gifts are given at Chinese new year ,weddings,
births & birthdays
• The Chinese like food ...
Giving Gifts
Australia
• Small gifts are generally acceptable on birthdays & Christmas
• If invited to someone’e home for ...
Giving Gifts
Japan
• Giving a gift is highly ritualistic and meaningful
• The ceremony of presenting a gift and the way it...
Giving Gifts
Germany
• If you are invited to a german house ,carry a gift such as
chocolates or flower
• Yellow rose and t...
Giving Gifts
India
• Gift giving is customary in India, and is seen as a sign of friendship.
However, it is generally not ...
Non Verbal Communication
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Non Verbal Communication

This presentation contains forms of Non verbal Communication:
Body Language & Gestures
Chronemics
Haptic Comm.
Proxemics
Paralanguage
Office & Environment
Seating Arrangements
Gifts

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Non Verbal Communication

  1. 1. NON -VERBAL COMMUNICATION Prashant Bhati FMS (University of Delhi)
  2. 2. Definition and Forms • Body Language • Space Proximities • Touch • Time • Voice Issues • Office,Environment Non-verbal communication includes pitch, speed ,tone, and volume of voice, gestures and facial expressions, body posture, stance, and proximity to the listener, eye movements and contact .
  3. 3. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
  4. 4. Body Language
  5. 5. Body Language • Palms • Handshake • Arms • Thumb • Eyes • Legs • Mirroring
  6. 6. Open palms-Honest
  7. 7. Hiding palms-Lying or Concealing
  8. 8. Palms-Up,Down,Pointing
  9. 9. Palm up- Submissive,Non Threatening
  10. 10. Palm Down-Authority
  11. 11. Palm closed –Finger Pointed
  12. 12. Cross Arms- Negative,Nervous,Defensive
  13. 13. Clenched Arms-Frustration/Negative attitude The person would be more difficult to handle when the hands are held high, than he would be with the person whom hands resting on the desk position. Like all negative gestures, some action needs to be taken to unlock the person’s fingers to expose the palms and the front of the body, or the hostile attitude will remain
  14. 14. Steeple –Raised,Lowered Give the opinion or ideas and is doing the talking. Listening rather than speaking.
  15. 15. Rubbing Palms Together-Positive Expectancy
  16. 16. Gripping Hand ,Arm And Wrists A position of authority The further the hand is moved up the back, the more angry the person has become A signal of frustration and an attempt at self- control
  17. 17. Handshake Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3zM23Hd7lo
  18. 18. Thumb Another show of confidence and feeling superior is by showing the thumbs. It could be as shown here, but any position where the thumbs are visible will do the trick. Holding your jacket with your thumb up, or have them stuck out of your back pockets are similar hand gestures that will do the trick.
  19. 19. Eyes
  20. 20. Standard Leg-Cross Position A nervous, reserved or defensive attitude.
  21. 21. Leg-Lock Position An argumentative or competitive attitude
  22. 22. Standing Leg Cross Gestures
  23. 23. Cigarettes
  24. 24. Mirroring
  25. 25. Space Proximities
  26. 26. Space Proximities(Proxemics)
  27. 27. Intimate space • 2 fists away from your body. • People emotionally close to you are allowed to enter this zone
  28. 28. Personal space • A handshake away • The distance you should stand in friendly gathering
  29. 29. Social space • About two arm length away • The distance you should stand with people you don’t know
  30. 30. Public space • Over 3.6 m away • The distance you feel comfortable when addressing people
  31. 31. Touch
  32. 32. Touch(Haptic Communication) Functional/professional: This is touch between colleagues and professionals. For example, a handshake or a slap on the back. It is sometimes used to show authority and dominance.
  33. 33. Social/polite: This is used with acquaintances, or with people in a group who are friends, but not necessarily close friends. It includes a light touch on the arm to get attention, or hugging team members when you win a match. It is generally positive, friendly and affirming.
  34. 34. Friendship/warmth: Touch here includes many of the lighthearted gestures that show you like, and understand, each other. For example, “high 5-ing” a friend when you see each other, or giving them hug when they share bad news.
  35. 35. Love/intimacy: This type of touch is associated with emotional closeness, trust and vulnerability. For example, we see this in the way a child clings to his or her mother when they are feeling sad or afraid. Also, holding hands, or embracing each other, as a dating couple.
  36. 36. Time
  37. 37. Time(Chronemics) Chronemics is the study of how we refer to and perceive time. The way that one perceives and values time, structures time and reacts to time frames communication. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process.
  38. 38. Monochronic/Polychronic • Monochronic-where things are typically done one at a time, where time is segmented into precise, small units, and where time is scheduled, arranged and managed. In such a culture, time is viewed as a tangible commodity than can be spent, saved or wasted, and a paramount value is placed on regimented schedules, tasks and “getting the job done”. United States, Germany and Switzerland, to which could be added Britain, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Turkey, and the Scandinavian countries. • Polychronic – where several things can be done at once, and a more fluid approach is taken to scheduling time. Such cultures tend to be less focused on the precise accounting of each and every moment, and much more steeped in tradition and relationships rather than in tasks. Many Latin American, African, Asian and Arab cultures fall into this category, especially countries like Mexico, Pakistan, India, rural China, the Philippines, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
  39. 39. Monochronic/Polychronic
  40. 40. Voice
  41. 41. Voice(Paralanguage) Paralanguage involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and even silence. Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone, pitch and accent, collectively known as prosody, can all give off nonverbal cues. Paralanguage may change the meaning of words .Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: - The emotional state of a speaker; - Whether an utterance is a statement, a question, or a command; -Whether the speaker is being ironic or sarcastic; emphasis, contrast, and focus Other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or choice of vocabulary.
  42. 42. Voice(Paralanguage) • Volume Quality:articulation, nasality, accent, pitch, range of voice and resonance. • Vocal characteristics:tone variations, inflections, the speed at which you speak, whether your voice projects and whatever emotion you may be conveying through tone and inflection and so on. • Voice qualifiers :bright, soft, round, light, cold or hot, strength or weakness, breathy, texture, thick, old or child- like and attitude (angry, chilling, seductive, convincing). • Voice segregates are all the noises listeners make to signify that they are listening: "uh-huh" or "um" or silences. Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0O3nPzuNIPo
  43. 43. Office
  44. 44. Office & Environment Environment involves the physical and psychological aspects of the communication context. More than the tables and chairs in an office, environment is an important part of the dynamic communication process. The perception of one’s environment influences one’s reaction to it. • Physical : Physical context includes the environmental factors in a communication encounter. The size, layout, temperature, and lighting of a space influence our communication. • Psychological: Psychological context includes the mental and emotional factors in a communication encounter. Stress, anxiety, and emotions are just some examples of psychological influences that can affect our communication.
  45. 45. Chair Size and Accessories: The higher the back of the chair, the more power and status the person sitting in it is perceived to have
  46. 46. The ATTENTION ZONE Those sitting in the 'funnel' gave the most amount of participation, interacted most with the presenter and had the highest recall about what was being discussed. Those who participated the least sat in the back or to the sides, tended to be more negative or confrontational and had the lowest recall. The rear positions also allow a delegate a greater opportunity to doodle, sleep or escape.
  47. 47. Seating Arrangement The corner position This position is used by people who are engaged in friendly, casual conversation.
  48. 48. Seating Arrangement The Co-Operative Position This is one of the best positions for presenting your case and having it accepted because it allows good eye contact and the opportunity for mirroring.
  49. 49. Seating Arrangement The Co-Operative Position(introducing a third person) This allows the salesperson to be'on the client's side' and to ask the technician questions on behalf of the client.
  50. 50. Seating Arrangement The Competitive & Defensive position Sitting across the table from a person can create a defensive, competitive atmosphere and can lead to each party taking a firm stand on his point of view because the table becomes a solid barrier between both parties.
  51. 51. Seating Arrangement The Independent Position This is taken by people when they don't want to interact with each other.
  52. 52. Seating Arrangement The Square Table Square tables are ideal for having short, to-the-point conversations or for creating superior or subordinate relationships.
  53. 53. Seating Arrangement Keeping two people involved This technique lets B feel involved in the conversation and is particularly useful if you need to have B on side with you.(A asks question and B remains silent)
  54. 54. GIFTS
  55. 55. Giving Gifts CHINA • In general gifts are given at Chinese new year ,weddings, births & birthdays • The Chinese like food & a nice food basket will be a great gift • Don’t wrap gifts in White ,Blue or Black paper • Four is unlucky and eight is lucky • Present gifts with two hands • Gifts are not opened when received • Gifts may be refused three times before they are accepted
  56. 56. Giving Gifts Australia • Small gifts are generally acceptable on birthdays & Christmas • If invited to someone’e home for dinner ,it’s polite to bring a box of chocolates or flowers to the hostess. • A bottle of good wine is appreciated • Gifts are opened when they are received USA • Gifts are generally accepted for birthdays, anniversaries and major holidays , such as Christmas • Gift can be as simple as a card • Gift giving is not an elaborate event except at Christmas • If invited to someone’s home for dinner ,it’s polite to bring a box of chocolates ,a bottle of wine, a potted plant or flowers to the hostess. • Gifts are opened when they are received
  57. 57. Giving Gifts Japan • Giving a gift is highly ritualistic and meaningful • The ceremony of presenting a gift and the way it is wrapped is important(Pastel colors) • Gifts are given on many occasions. Good quality of chocolates or small cakes is a good idea. Don't give Lilies, Lotus blossoms and with flowers as the are associated with funeral; also potted plants associated with sickness. • A bonsai tree is always acceptable. • Give items in odd numbers but not nine. • Gifts are not opened when received
  58. 58. Giving Gifts Germany • If you are invited to a german house ,carry a gift such as chocolates or flower • Yellow rose and tea roses are well received. • Don’t give Red roses as it signifies romantic intentions. • Avoid giving lilies as they are used in funerals. • If you bring a wine ,it should be imported(french , italian)….giving german wine is considered as insult
  59. 59. Giving Gifts India • Gift giving is customary in India, and is seen as a sign of friendship. However, it is generally not expected at the first meeting. • It is advisable not to give expensive gifts, unless you are very close to the person. Since Indians try to reciprocate a gift, if it is too expensive, it can cause embarrassment for the recipient. • Use red, yellow, green or blue coloured wrapping paper. White and black colors are considered inauspicious. • Normally, gifts are not opened in the presence of the giver. However, sometimes your Indian host may insist on your opening the gift, and would expect appreciation for his/her choice. • If you are visiting an Indian during a festival, it is customary to carry a box of sweets. • If you are giving money as a gift, do remember that 11, 51, 101, 501, etc. are considered auspicious numbers. • Avoid giving leather or alcohol.

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