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PHYSICAL EVIDENCE IN SERVICES

       Prepared & Presented by-
        Prashant Sakariya
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
   Physical evidence is the environment in which
    the service is delivered and where the firm and
    the customer interact and any tangible
    commodities that facilitate performance or
    communication of the service.

    Physical evidence includes the servicescape, a
    term used to describe the physical facility
    where the service is produced and/or delivered.
SERVICE ENVIRONMENT

► Physicalbackdrops surrounding the service
 (Servicescape)
   Ambience and cleanliness of a cinema hall
   Cafe near a college
   Elegant decor of a shop to cater to upscale market
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE– THE SIXTH ‘P’


   ‘Servicescape’ or ‘Atmospherics’ creates mood,
    longing, attraction or desire to visit /
    recommend service provider by tangibalisation.
    It includes every tangible touch point i.e.
    brochure, building, dress of the people,
    furniture, wall decor etc.
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE– THE SIXTH ‘P’
► Service Design is of utmost importance
► People visit expensive restaurants to relish
  dishes otherwise available in less costly eating
  houses because of better ambience
► Theme parks are developed based on common
  cartoon figures
► Luxury buses / better maintained buses are
  preferred over lousy staff to traverse same
  distance
MANAGING THE FIRM’S PHYSICAL
EVIDENCE
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
   The elements of 'marketing mix' which
    customers can actually see or experience when
    they use a service, and which contribute to the
    perceived quality of the service, e.g. the
    physical evidence of a bank could include the
    state of the branch premises, as well as the
    delivery of the banking service itself.
THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

   Packaging the Services
       Conveys expectations
        ●   Physical evidence => quality cues => image development
       Influences perceptions
        ●   Image development => reduces perceived risk => reduces
            cognitive dissonance after the purchase
THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
   Facilitates the flow of the service delivery
    process
       Provides information
           How am i to act?
       Facilitates the ordering process
           How does this work?
       Manages consumers
           Barriers separate different consumer groups or help to
            isolate the technical core
THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
   Socializes employees and customers
       Uniforms
           Identify the firm’s personnel
           Physical symbol that embodies the group’s ideals and
            attributes
           Implies a coherent group structure
           Facilitates perceptions of consistent performance
           Assists in controlling deviant members
THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
   Provides a means for differentiation
       well-dressed personnel are perceived as:
           more intelligent
           better workers
           more interactive
COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT

► Facility   exterior
     Exterior design
     Signage
     Parking
     Landscaping
     Surrounding environment
COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT

   Facility interior
       Interior design (warm colors)
           Red
             Love, romance, sex, courage, danger, fire, sinful,

              warmth, excitement, vigor, cheerfulness, enthusiasm,
              and stop
           Yellow
             Sunlight, warmth, cowardice, openness, friendliness,

              gaiety, glory, brightness, caution
           Orange
             Sunlight, warmth, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory
COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT

   Facility interior
       Interior design (cool colors)
           Blue
             Coolness, aloofness, fidelity, calmness, piety,

              masculine, assurance, sadness
           Green
             Coolness, restful, peace, freshness, growth, softness,

              richness, go
           Violet
             Coolness, retiring, dignity, rich
COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT

   Facility interior
     Interior design
     Equipment
     Layout
           Grid vs. Free-flow
       Temperature
COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT

   Other tangible evidence
     Business cards
     Stationary
     Billing statements
           CP&L statement
     Reports
     Brochures
     Employee performance
     Employee appearance
COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT

Servicescape               Other tangibles

Facility exterior          Business cards
 Exterior design           Stationery
 Signage                   Billing statements
 Parking                   Reports
 Landscape                 Employee dress
 Surrounding environment   Uniforms
                           Brochures
Facility interior          Web pages
 Interior design           Virtual servicescape
 Equipment
 Signage
 Layout
 Air quality/temperature
EXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE FROM
THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW
  Service                   Physical Evidence                     Other tangibles
                                                                       Policy itself
                                                                  Billing statements
  Insurance                    Not applicable                     Periodic updates
                                                                 Company brochure
                                                                     Letters/cards
                              Building exterior
                                Parking Signs
                                Waiting areas                          Uniforms
   Hospital                  Admissions office                   Reports/stationery
                             Patient care room                   Billing statements
                            Medical equipment
                              Recovery room
                              Airline gate area                        Tickets
   Airline                    Airplane exterior                         Food
                 Airplane interior (décor, seats, air quality)        Uniforms
                                                                     Packaging
                                                                       Trucks
 Express mail                  Not applicable
                                                                      Uniforms
                                                                     Computers
                        Parking, Seating, Restrooms                     Signs
                              Stadium exterior                         Tickets
Sporting event
                     Ticketing area, Concession Areas                 Program
                          Entrance, Playing Field                     Uniforms
TYPES OF SERVICESCAPES
1.   Servicescape Usage
       Organizations differ in terms of whom the
     Servicescape will actually affect by its
     design- customers, employees or both?
        Self Service
        Remote Service
        Interpersonal Services
2.   Servicescape Complexity
        Lean
        Elaborate
TYPOLOGY OF SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS BASED
   ON VARIATIONS IN FORM AND USE OF THE
   SERVICESCAPE
Servicescape         Elaborate                    Lean
usage
Self-service         Golf course                  ATM
(customer only)      eBay                         Car wash
                                                  Simple Internet services
                                                  Express mail drop-off

Interpersonal        Hotel                        Dry cleaner
services             Restaurant                   Retail cart
(both customer and   Health clinic                Hair salon
employee)            Hospital
                     Bank
                     Airline
                     School
Remote service       Telephone company            Telephone mail-order desk
(employee only)      Insurance company            Automated voice messaging
                     Utility                        services
                     Many professional services
ROLES OF THE SERVICESCAPE
   Package
     conveys expectations
     influences perceptions
   Facilitator
       facilitates the flow of the service delivery process
         provides information (how am I to act?)
         facilitates the ordering process (how does this
          work?)
         facilitates service delivery

   Socializer
       facilitates interaction between:
         customers and employees
         customers and fellow customers

   Differentiator
       sets provider apart from competition in the mind of the
        consumer
FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING SERVICESCAPES,
EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR
    PHYSICAL                        INTERNAL       BEHAVIOUR
                      HOLISTIC
 ENVIRONMENTAL                     RESPONSES
                    ENVIRONMENT
   DIMENSIONS
                                     Cognitive
                                    Emotional
                                   Physiological     Individual
                                                     Behaviours


                                    Employee
                                    Responses            Social
     Ambient                                          Interactions
    Conditions                                       between and
                      Perceived
  Space/Function                                   among customer
  Signs, Symbols,   Servicescape                    and employees
   and Artifacts
                                    Customer
                                    Responses
                                                     Individual
                                                     Behaviours
                                     Cognitive
                                    Emotional
                                   Physiological
CREATING SERVICE -ATMOSPHERES
► Sight   appeals
     Size, shape, colors, contrast, clash, location,
      architecture, signs, entrance, and lighting


► Sound    appeals
     Music, announcements, and sound avoidance
CREATING SERVICE -ATMOSPHERES
   Scent appeals
       appeals and avoidance
 Touch appeals
 Taste appeals
GUIDELINES FOR PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
STRATEGY
   Recognize the strategic impact of physical
    evidence.

   Blueprint the physical evidence of service.

   Clarify strategic roles of the servicescape.

   Assess and identify physical evidence
    opportunities.

   Be prepared to update and modernize the
    evidence.

   Work cross-functionally.
Physical evidence in services

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Physical evidence in services

  • 1. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE IN SERVICES Prepared & Presented by- Prashant Sakariya
  • 2. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE  Physical evidence is the environment in which the service is delivered and where the firm and the customer interact and any tangible commodities that facilitate performance or communication of the service.  Physical evidence includes the servicescape, a term used to describe the physical facility where the service is produced and/or delivered.
  • 3. SERVICE ENVIRONMENT ► Physicalbackdrops surrounding the service (Servicescape)  Ambience and cleanliness of a cinema hall  Cafe near a college  Elegant decor of a shop to cater to upscale market
  • 4. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE– THE SIXTH ‘P’  ‘Servicescape’ or ‘Atmospherics’ creates mood, longing, attraction or desire to visit / recommend service provider by tangibalisation. It includes every tangible touch point i.e. brochure, building, dress of the people, furniture, wall decor etc.
  • 5. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE– THE SIXTH ‘P’ ► Service Design is of utmost importance ► People visit expensive restaurants to relish dishes otherwise available in less costly eating houses because of better ambience ► Theme parks are developed based on common cartoon figures ► Luxury buses / better maintained buses are preferred over lousy staff to traverse same distance
  • 6. MANAGING THE FIRM’S PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
  • 7. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE  The elements of 'marketing mix' which customers can actually see or experience when they use a service, and which contribute to the perceived quality of the service, e.g. the physical evidence of a bank could include the state of the branch premises, as well as the delivery of the banking service itself.
  • 8. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE  Packaging the Services  Conveys expectations ● Physical evidence => quality cues => image development  Influences perceptions ● Image development => reduces perceived risk => reduces cognitive dissonance after the purchase
  • 9. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE  Facilitates the flow of the service delivery process  Provides information  How am i to act?  Facilitates the ordering process  How does this work?  Manages consumers  Barriers separate different consumer groups or help to isolate the technical core
  • 10. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE  Socializes employees and customers  Uniforms  Identify the firm’s personnel  Physical symbol that embodies the group’s ideals and attributes  Implies a coherent group structure  Facilitates perceptions of consistent performance  Assists in controlling deviant members
  • 11. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE  Provides a means for differentiation  well-dressed personnel are perceived as:  more intelligent  better workers  more interactive
  • 12. COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ► Facility exterior  Exterior design  Signage  Parking  Landscaping  Surrounding environment
  • 13. COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT  Facility interior  Interior design (warm colors)  Red  Love, romance, sex, courage, danger, fire, sinful, warmth, excitement, vigor, cheerfulness, enthusiasm, and stop  Yellow  Sunlight, warmth, cowardice, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory, brightness, caution  Orange  Sunlight, warmth, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory
  • 14. COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT  Facility interior  Interior design (cool colors)  Blue  Coolness, aloofness, fidelity, calmness, piety, masculine, assurance, sadness  Green  Coolness, restful, peace, freshness, growth, softness, richness, go  Violet  Coolness, retiring, dignity, rich
  • 15. COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT  Facility interior  Interior design  Equipment  Layout  Grid vs. Free-flow  Temperature
  • 16. COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT  Other tangible evidence  Business cards  Stationary  Billing statements  CP&L statement  Reports  Brochures  Employee performance  Employee appearance
  • 17. COMPONENTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Servicescape Other tangibles Facility exterior Business cards Exterior design Stationery Signage Billing statements Parking Reports Landscape Employee dress Surrounding environment Uniforms Brochures Facility interior Web pages Interior design Virtual servicescape Equipment Signage Layout Air quality/temperature
  • 18. EXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW Service Physical Evidence Other tangibles Policy itself Billing statements Insurance Not applicable Periodic updates Company brochure Letters/cards Building exterior Parking Signs Waiting areas Uniforms Hospital Admissions office Reports/stationery Patient care room Billing statements Medical equipment Recovery room Airline gate area Tickets Airline Airplane exterior Food Airplane interior (décor, seats, air quality) Uniforms Packaging Trucks Express mail Not applicable Uniforms Computers Parking, Seating, Restrooms Signs Stadium exterior Tickets Sporting event Ticketing area, Concession Areas Program Entrance, Playing Field Uniforms
  • 19. TYPES OF SERVICESCAPES 1. Servicescape Usage Organizations differ in terms of whom the Servicescape will actually affect by its design- customers, employees or both?  Self Service  Remote Service  Interpersonal Services 2. Servicescape Complexity  Lean  Elaborate
  • 20. TYPOLOGY OF SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON VARIATIONS IN FORM AND USE OF THE SERVICESCAPE Servicescape Elaborate Lean usage Self-service Golf course ATM (customer only) eBay Car wash Simple Internet services Express mail drop-off Interpersonal Hotel Dry cleaner services Restaurant Retail cart (both customer and Health clinic Hair salon employee) Hospital Bank Airline School Remote service Telephone company Telephone mail-order desk (employee only) Insurance company Automated voice messaging Utility services Many professional services
  • 21. ROLES OF THE SERVICESCAPE  Package  conveys expectations  influences perceptions  Facilitator  facilitates the flow of the service delivery process  provides information (how am I to act?)  facilitates the ordering process (how does this work?)  facilitates service delivery  Socializer  facilitates interaction between:  customers and employees  customers and fellow customers  Differentiator  sets provider apart from competition in the mind of the consumer
  • 22. FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING SERVICESCAPES, EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR PHYSICAL INTERNAL BEHAVIOUR HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSES ENVIRONMENT DIMENSIONS Cognitive Emotional Physiological Individual Behaviours Employee Responses Social Ambient Interactions Conditions between and Perceived Space/Function among customer Signs, Symbols, Servicescape and employees and Artifacts Customer Responses Individual Behaviours Cognitive Emotional Physiological
  • 23. CREATING SERVICE -ATMOSPHERES ► Sight appeals  Size, shape, colors, contrast, clash, location, architecture, signs, entrance, and lighting ► Sound appeals  Music, announcements, and sound avoidance
  • 24. CREATING SERVICE -ATMOSPHERES  Scent appeals  appeals and avoidance  Touch appeals  Taste appeals
  • 25. GUIDELINES FOR PHYSICAL EVIDENCE STRATEGY  Recognize the strategic impact of physical evidence.  Blueprint the physical evidence of service.  Clarify strategic roles of the servicescape.  Assess and identify physical evidence opportunities.  Be prepared to update and modernize the evidence.  Work cross-functionally.