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ROLE OF IT & COMMUNICATION
NETWORKING
IN SUSTAINABLE
MANUFACTURING
Prepared by-
PRASHANTTRIPATHI
CONTENTS
1. Sustainability..?
2. The field of Green IT
3. Defining Green ICT
4. ICT supporting Mitigation
5. ICT for public awareness and
teaching
6. IT compresses time,space & complexity
7. Bridging by Green IT
8. Abatement in manufacturing sector
9. Smart manufacturing
10. Conclusion
July 22, 2012 Footer text here2
1. Sustainability..?
• The concept of sustainability has evolved over the last few decades.
• From being merely a regulatory necessity, it has gained strategic prominence today, especially in
the manufacturing sector.
• Sustainable manufacturing requires simultaneous consideration of economic, environmental, and
social implications; associated with the extraction, production, and delivery of goods.
• The classic definition of sustainability is,
‘Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.’
• Today, sustainability is a growing theme across organizations . Traditionally encompassing only
environmental, economic and social issues, the scope of sustainability has expanded today.
Figure : Why sustainability is becoming increasingly important in the manufacturing industry?
2.The Field of Green IT
• Over the last several years, the term “Green IT” has begun to be used to describe a field at the
juncture of two trends.
• The first trend involves the growing concern about environmental issues across many human
communities. The second trend involves IT—the use of digital tools and techniques for
manipulating information, and the social phenomena that surround these systems.
• Green IT brings together these two areas, environmental issues and IT, and explores the ways in
which they connect to each other.
• In particular, it examines the opportunities for IT to address issues related to the global ecosystem.
• It is important to note that not all facets of IT are environmentally favorable.
• IT sector emits CO2 at a rate approximately equivalent to that of the airline industry.
• This rate is growing rapidly, especially in the mobile computing area.
• Nevertheless, according to Smart 2020, a report by the Climate Group (2008) on behalf of
the Global e-Sustainability Initiative, the potential positive environmental benefits enabled
by IT are five times as great as the environmental footprint of IT itself.
3. Defining “Green ICTs”
• Green ICTs are those that have positive impacts on environmental performance and
ecosystems, either directly by reducing physical and energy inputs in their production, use,
disposal and recycling, or indirectly through their wider application and use in other
equipment and systems.
• ICTs and their applications can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment.
• For example, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions associated with ICT applications to
improve energy efficiency in buildings, transport systems or electricity distribution must be
balanced against increased emissions resulting from their development, production and
operation and potential environmental degradation associated with their uncontrolled
disposal.
Fig: Framework For Green Ict Impacts
3.1 Direct impacts
• Direct impacts of ICTs on the environment (“first-order effects”) refer to positive and negative impacts due directly to ICT
goods and services and related processes. (e.g., operating infrastructures, building functions, vehicle fleets and logistics).
• In current data centres only about 50% of the energy is consumed for actual data processing, the other 50% is used for
cooling (and other support functions).
• From the greenhouse gas emissions viewpoint, the ICT sector is currently responsible for approximately 2% of the overall
carbon emissions in Europe .
• At the other end, consumers influence the shape and impact of the direct environmental footprint. Consumers can choose
energy-efficient and certified “green” ICT equipment over other products.
• At the end of a product’s initial useful life, they can choose to return equipment for re-use and recycling, adopting
“cradle-to-cradle” approaches to their purchase and disposal of ICT goods and services.
• This lowers the burden on the natural environment compared to disposal in a landfill, incineration or uncontrolled dumping
in developing countries.
• It is clear that true “Green IT” starts in the planning phase of new products. The whole life
cycle including production and usage resource consumption and end-of-life has to be taken
into consideration.
• If appropriately implemented, the energy consumption should at best stop rising despite
significant growth of IT services in the next decades.
Life-cycle analysis (LCA or cradle-to-grave analysis) is a necessary analytical tool to obtain
an overall view of these impacts and the balance among them.
3.2 Enabling impacts
• Enabling impacts of ICTs (“second-order effects”) come from ICT applications that reduce environmental impacts
outside of the ICT-producing sector and straightforward ICT applications.
• ICT products can affect the environmental footprint of other products in three main ways:
1. Optimization: Examples include investing in embedded systems in cars for fuel-efficient driving, “smart”
electricity distribution networks to reduce transmission and distribution losses.
2. Dematerialization and substitution: For example, digital music and video can replace physical music and film
media . Physical travel can (partly) be replaced with virtual meetings and communication systems with reduced
environmental impacts. Another often cited aspect of dematerialization is the “paperless-office”.
3. Degradation can occur if ICT devices embedded in non-ICT products lead to difficulties in disposal
management. For example, “smart” tags in car tires, bottles and cardboard often require specific recycling
procedures that are more onerous and potentially add to the pollution load.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here13
July 22, 2012 Footer text here14
3.3 Systemic impacts
• Systemic impacts of ICTs on the environment (“third-order effects”) are rooted in behaviour and
behavioural change.
• ICT applications have systemic impacts in a number of ways, including:
1. Providing and disclosing information: Monitoring, measuring and reporting information on the
environment. Sensor-based networks that collect data and computer-based interpretation .For
example, ICT-enabled observation and research on rainfall, provide data for long-term
agricultural decision making.
2. Triggering rebound effects: Higher efficiencies at the micro level do not necessarily translate into
equivalent savings at the macro economy-wide level because of greater aggregate consumption
and use of more efficient individual products. The “rebound effects” from increased use at the
micro level may result in greater resource use at the macro level.
• Product life-cycle analysis is an important tool to provide insights into the effects of ICTs on
behavioural change and the effects of behavioural change on ICTs.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here15
4. ICT Supporting Mitigation
• The probably more important aspect is ICT supporting mitigation efforts in a broad variety of domains.
• ICT can provide new insights, e.g. by applying new algorithms in better understanding climate models,
can help to reduce energy use and provide real-time data, hence reduce time and distance between
measured effects and actions to be taken.
• Web-based access to this data will provide real-time information to different user-groups and help influence
their decisions.
• Industrial production is still the largest energy consumer (approximately 23% in 2002, globally) and ICT can
help to increase efficiency by smart-motor systems, end-to-end optimisations or demand-side management.
• Finally, ICT can help develop sustainable "green supply chains".
• RFID tags on products should help select appropriate recycling methodologies for specific sorts of waste.
The goal should be an end-to-end accounting; a “green supply chain”, through which the whole footprint of a
product is measured and tracked and paid by the consumer.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here16
5. ICT for Public Awareness andTeaching
• Our unsustainable behaviour is resulting from the interactions of very complex systems of systems.
• Public awareness, appropriate political decisions and education are only possible when also laymen
are able to understand the consequences of certain actions, e.g. effects of climate change on
specific regions.
• Also interaction of systems (e.g. population growth, economy, resource-consumption, waste, etc.)
is very difficult to understand and predict.
• Different interfaces are conceivable, from simulations for politicians to video games for teenagers.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here17
6. IT CompressesTime, Space and Complexity
• IT compresses time in many ways - for example,
 By storing abundant information for later retrieval,
 Letting us model the past and predict the future, and
 Enabling the synchronization of many different human activities.
• IT compresses space by allowing us,
 To communicate over great distances,
 Browse maps of the entire world, and
 Transport goods and people around the globe.
• IT compresses complexity by,
 Augmenting our memories,
 Allowing devices to perform repetitive calculations, and
 Establishing agreed-on standards for the cooperation of devices and people.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here18
7. Green IT Bridges from Human Scales to Environmental Scales
• Helping people and institutions discover, understand, and act on these and other environmental
possibilities is the primary goal of Green IT.
• Many examples of explicitly environmental IT systems already exist—from smart energy grids to
systems that optimize hybrid car engines.
• In addition there are many IT systems that have been developed for non-environmental reasons, but
that have implicit environmental impacts, such as GPS systems and online mapping software, which
lead to more efficient travel and therefore reduced CO2 emissions.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here19
• The ways in which IT can benefit environmental issues take a variety of forms.
• One axis along which these innovations may be arrayed is from “personal” to “institutional.”
• Personal IT systems enable individuals and small groups to broaden the horizons of time,
space, and complexity with which they think and act, thereby enabling them to respond more
effectively to a range of environmental concerns .
• Institutional IT systems have a similar effect, but broaden the horizons of understanding.
• These two forms of Green IT are mutually reinforcing.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here20
7.1 Personal Green IT
• Personal Green IT can help individuals participate in many different ways to address the world’s
current environmental concerns. For instance, it can provide information that encourages people to
exert more effort in this direction.
• This form of participation can be simple - for example, reading a post on an environmental Web site
about walking up the stairs instead of taking the elevator - or more dramatic - such as selling one’s
car, and then using a bicycle or a car-sharing system.
• Hosting a business meeting via teleconference rather than flying people in from other countries are
examples of more efficient practices that are more environmentally conscious as well.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here21
7.2 Institutional Green IT
• One of the primary institutional contributions of Green IT is through improved infrastructures.
• Smart energy grids enable more efficient power utilization.
• Improved transportation systems reduce fuel use while optimizing the movement of people,
objects, and materials around the world.
• More effective waste management systems can facilitate more comprehensive recycling and
salvaging of useful materials after their initial usage is complete.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here22
• It is important to note that there is fluidity between personal and institutional Green IT
innovations. For example, the smart energy meters allow individuals to monitor their consumption
habits and institutions to analyze usage across millions of households, both of which help
humanity live more sustainably.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here23
• ICT-enabled solutions offer the potential to reduce GHG emissions by 16.5%, create 29.5
million jobs and yield USD 1.9 trillion in savings.
• While ICT’s own footprint is projected to rise to 1.27 GtCO2e by 2020, its abatement
potential is 7 times higher.
• Manufacturing is the most significant contributor to climate change of any of the end-use
sectors, with worldwide manufacturing emissions at 14.8 GtCO2e in 2008, 31.4% of the
global emissions total.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here24
8. Abatement in the manufacturing sector
July 22, 2012 Footer text here25
July 22, 2012 Footer text here26
• There are two sub-levers in the manufacturing sector:
1. the automation of industrial processes
2. the optimization of variable speed motor systems
• Higher levels of monitoring and control of equipment will help to reduce and optimize energy use
for particular manufacturing processes.
• The introduction of variable speed motor systems allows machines to sense the strain under which
they are working and adjust output accordingly. This ensures that they are working hard and
expending electricity only when necessary. ICT can provide information to businesses about how
much electricity they are saving and allow machines to communicate with one another to increase
overall plant efficiency.
• 3D printing has the potential to be disruptive to the entire manufacturing process and could reduce
emissions by reducing the amount of raw materials to create a product and removing the need for
transport of end-products.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here27
Abatement in the manufacturing sector
• Moreover, the increasing competitiveness of the manufacturing sector globally and a lack of
economic incentives to abate GHG emissions have made emissions reductions challenging for many
manufacturers.As countries fight to keep their manufacturing rates competitive, investing in
emissions savings technologies has in many instances not occurred.
• ICT can play a significant role in helping the manufacturing sector reduce its contribution to climate
change by reducing the amount of electricity wasted through inefficient processes.
• It facilitates the shift toward the use of renewable energy; eliminates the use of toxic chemicals,
which impair reuse; and aims for the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials,
products, and systems.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here28
• Smart Manufacturing, which is the fourth revolution in
the manufacturing industry and is also considered as a new
paradigm, is the collection of cutting-edge technologies that
support effective and accurate engineering decision-making
in real time through the introduction of various ICT
technologies and the convergence with the existing
manufacturing technologies.
• The fig. shows the link of IoT and IoS around a smart
factory based on CPS.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here29
Fig. Industry 4.0 and smart
factories
as part of the IoT and IoS
9. Smart manufacturing
Today, the manufacturing industry is aiming to improve competitiveness through the
convergence with cutting-edge ICT technologies in order to secure a new growth engine.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here30
July 22, 2012 Footer text here31
July 22, 2012 Footer text here32
July 22, 2012 Footer text here33
July 22, 2012 Footer text here34
10. Conclusion
• Sustainability is one of the most significant strategic programs that organizations will
undertake in the coming decades. All entities in the manufacturing value chain, from
raw material producers to consumers, have a critical role to play in ensuring
sustainability.
• ICT has significant leverage to reduce e.g. the carbon footprint in other industries and
by far over-compensate the own footprint.
• Studies suggest that impacts of ICT on other fields can lead to emission reductions
five times the size of ICTs own footprint (Climate Group, 2008). Finally, ICT is
required for adaptation, modelling and public awareness and as supporter for political
decision-making.
July 22, 2012 Footer text here35
References
• https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/content/9780262013932.pdf
• https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2012/com_icts_vickery.pdf
• http://www.ouritdept.co.uk/
• http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/tiedotteet/2010/T2532.pdf
• http://www.academia.edu/2630982/ICT_for_Sustainable_Manufacturing_A_European_
Perspective
• https://www.telenor.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/SMARTer-2020-The-Role-of-
ICT-in-Driving-a-Sustainable-Future-December-2012._2.pdf
• http://www.tcs.com/resources/white_papers/Pages/Sustainability-Manufacturing-
Technology-Landscape.aspx
• http://www.cirp.net/
• http://www.gcsm.eu/Vietnam/index.html
July 22, 2012 Footer text here37
THANK YOU!
July 22, 2012 Footer text here38

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Role of IT and communication networking in Sustainable Manufacturing

  • 1. ROLE OF IT & COMMUNICATION NETWORKING IN SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING Prepared by- PRASHANTTRIPATHI
  • 2. CONTENTS 1. Sustainability..? 2. The field of Green IT 3. Defining Green ICT 4. ICT supporting Mitigation 5. ICT for public awareness and teaching 6. IT compresses time,space & complexity 7. Bridging by Green IT 8. Abatement in manufacturing sector 9. Smart manufacturing 10. Conclusion July 22, 2012 Footer text here2
  • 3. 1. Sustainability..? • The concept of sustainability has evolved over the last few decades. • From being merely a regulatory necessity, it has gained strategic prominence today, especially in the manufacturing sector. • Sustainable manufacturing requires simultaneous consideration of economic, environmental, and social implications; associated with the extraction, production, and delivery of goods. • The classic definition of sustainability is, ‘Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ • Today, sustainability is a growing theme across organizations . Traditionally encompassing only environmental, economic and social issues, the scope of sustainability has expanded today.
  • 4. Figure : Why sustainability is becoming increasingly important in the manufacturing industry?
  • 5. 2.The Field of Green IT • Over the last several years, the term “Green IT” has begun to be used to describe a field at the juncture of two trends. • The first trend involves the growing concern about environmental issues across many human communities. The second trend involves IT—the use of digital tools and techniques for manipulating information, and the social phenomena that surround these systems. • Green IT brings together these two areas, environmental issues and IT, and explores the ways in which they connect to each other. • In particular, it examines the opportunities for IT to address issues related to the global ecosystem.
  • 6. • It is important to note that not all facets of IT are environmentally favorable. • IT sector emits CO2 at a rate approximately equivalent to that of the airline industry. • This rate is growing rapidly, especially in the mobile computing area. • Nevertheless, according to Smart 2020, a report by the Climate Group (2008) on behalf of the Global e-Sustainability Initiative, the potential positive environmental benefits enabled by IT are five times as great as the environmental footprint of IT itself.
  • 7. 3. Defining “Green ICTs” • Green ICTs are those that have positive impacts on environmental performance and ecosystems, either directly by reducing physical and energy inputs in their production, use, disposal and recycling, or indirectly through their wider application and use in other equipment and systems. • ICTs and their applications can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment. • For example, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions associated with ICT applications to improve energy efficiency in buildings, transport systems or electricity distribution must be balanced against increased emissions resulting from their development, production and operation and potential environmental degradation associated with their uncontrolled disposal.
  • 8. Fig: Framework For Green Ict Impacts
  • 9.
  • 10. 3.1 Direct impacts • Direct impacts of ICTs on the environment (“first-order effects”) refer to positive and negative impacts due directly to ICT goods and services and related processes. (e.g., operating infrastructures, building functions, vehicle fleets and logistics). • In current data centres only about 50% of the energy is consumed for actual data processing, the other 50% is used for cooling (and other support functions). • From the greenhouse gas emissions viewpoint, the ICT sector is currently responsible for approximately 2% of the overall carbon emissions in Europe . • At the other end, consumers influence the shape and impact of the direct environmental footprint. Consumers can choose energy-efficient and certified “green” ICT equipment over other products. • At the end of a product’s initial useful life, they can choose to return equipment for re-use and recycling, adopting “cradle-to-cradle” approaches to their purchase and disposal of ICT goods and services. • This lowers the burden on the natural environment compared to disposal in a landfill, incineration or uncontrolled dumping in developing countries.
  • 11. • It is clear that true “Green IT” starts in the planning phase of new products. The whole life cycle including production and usage resource consumption and end-of-life has to be taken into consideration. • If appropriately implemented, the energy consumption should at best stop rising despite significant growth of IT services in the next decades.
  • 12.
  • 13. Life-cycle analysis (LCA or cradle-to-grave analysis) is a necessary analytical tool to obtain an overall view of these impacts and the balance among them. 3.2 Enabling impacts • Enabling impacts of ICTs (“second-order effects”) come from ICT applications that reduce environmental impacts outside of the ICT-producing sector and straightforward ICT applications. • ICT products can affect the environmental footprint of other products in three main ways: 1. Optimization: Examples include investing in embedded systems in cars for fuel-efficient driving, “smart” electricity distribution networks to reduce transmission and distribution losses. 2. Dematerialization and substitution: For example, digital music and video can replace physical music and film media . Physical travel can (partly) be replaced with virtual meetings and communication systems with reduced environmental impacts. Another often cited aspect of dematerialization is the “paperless-office”. 3. Degradation can occur if ICT devices embedded in non-ICT products lead to difficulties in disposal management. For example, “smart” tags in car tires, bottles and cardboard often require specific recycling procedures that are more onerous and potentially add to the pollution load. July 22, 2012 Footer text here13
  • 14. July 22, 2012 Footer text here14
  • 15. 3.3 Systemic impacts • Systemic impacts of ICTs on the environment (“third-order effects”) are rooted in behaviour and behavioural change. • ICT applications have systemic impacts in a number of ways, including: 1. Providing and disclosing information: Monitoring, measuring and reporting information on the environment. Sensor-based networks that collect data and computer-based interpretation .For example, ICT-enabled observation and research on rainfall, provide data for long-term agricultural decision making. 2. Triggering rebound effects: Higher efficiencies at the micro level do not necessarily translate into equivalent savings at the macro economy-wide level because of greater aggregate consumption and use of more efficient individual products. The “rebound effects” from increased use at the micro level may result in greater resource use at the macro level. • Product life-cycle analysis is an important tool to provide insights into the effects of ICTs on behavioural change and the effects of behavioural change on ICTs. July 22, 2012 Footer text here15
  • 16. 4. ICT Supporting Mitigation • The probably more important aspect is ICT supporting mitigation efforts in a broad variety of domains. • ICT can provide new insights, e.g. by applying new algorithms in better understanding climate models, can help to reduce energy use and provide real-time data, hence reduce time and distance between measured effects and actions to be taken. • Web-based access to this data will provide real-time information to different user-groups and help influence their decisions. • Industrial production is still the largest energy consumer (approximately 23% in 2002, globally) and ICT can help to increase efficiency by smart-motor systems, end-to-end optimisations or demand-side management. • Finally, ICT can help develop sustainable "green supply chains". • RFID tags on products should help select appropriate recycling methodologies for specific sorts of waste. The goal should be an end-to-end accounting; a “green supply chain”, through which the whole footprint of a product is measured and tracked and paid by the consumer. July 22, 2012 Footer text here16
  • 17. 5. ICT for Public Awareness andTeaching • Our unsustainable behaviour is resulting from the interactions of very complex systems of systems. • Public awareness, appropriate political decisions and education are only possible when also laymen are able to understand the consequences of certain actions, e.g. effects of climate change on specific regions. • Also interaction of systems (e.g. population growth, economy, resource-consumption, waste, etc.) is very difficult to understand and predict. • Different interfaces are conceivable, from simulations for politicians to video games for teenagers. July 22, 2012 Footer text here17
  • 18. 6. IT CompressesTime, Space and Complexity • IT compresses time in many ways - for example,  By storing abundant information for later retrieval,  Letting us model the past and predict the future, and  Enabling the synchronization of many different human activities. • IT compresses space by allowing us,  To communicate over great distances,  Browse maps of the entire world, and  Transport goods and people around the globe. • IT compresses complexity by,  Augmenting our memories,  Allowing devices to perform repetitive calculations, and  Establishing agreed-on standards for the cooperation of devices and people. July 22, 2012 Footer text here18
  • 19. 7. Green IT Bridges from Human Scales to Environmental Scales • Helping people and institutions discover, understand, and act on these and other environmental possibilities is the primary goal of Green IT. • Many examples of explicitly environmental IT systems already exist—from smart energy grids to systems that optimize hybrid car engines. • In addition there are many IT systems that have been developed for non-environmental reasons, but that have implicit environmental impacts, such as GPS systems and online mapping software, which lead to more efficient travel and therefore reduced CO2 emissions. July 22, 2012 Footer text here19
  • 20. • The ways in which IT can benefit environmental issues take a variety of forms. • One axis along which these innovations may be arrayed is from “personal” to “institutional.” • Personal IT systems enable individuals and small groups to broaden the horizons of time, space, and complexity with which they think and act, thereby enabling them to respond more effectively to a range of environmental concerns . • Institutional IT systems have a similar effect, but broaden the horizons of understanding. • These two forms of Green IT are mutually reinforcing. July 22, 2012 Footer text here20
  • 21. 7.1 Personal Green IT • Personal Green IT can help individuals participate in many different ways to address the world’s current environmental concerns. For instance, it can provide information that encourages people to exert more effort in this direction. • This form of participation can be simple - for example, reading a post on an environmental Web site about walking up the stairs instead of taking the elevator - or more dramatic - such as selling one’s car, and then using a bicycle or a car-sharing system. • Hosting a business meeting via teleconference rather than flying people in from other countries are examples of more efficient practices that are more environmentally conscious as well. July 22, 2012 Footer text here21
  • 22. 7.2 Institutional Green IT • One of the primary institutional contributions of Green IT is through improved infrastructures. • Smart energy grids enable more efficient power utilization. • Improved transportation systems reduce fuel use while optimizing the movement of people, objects, and materials around the world. • More effective waste management systems can facilitate more comprehensive recycling and salvaging of useful materials after their initial usage is complete. July 22, 2012 Footer text here22
  • 23. • It is important to note that there is fluidity between personal and institutional Green IT innovations. For example, the smart energy meters allow individuals to monitor their consumption habits and institutions to analyze usage across millions of households, both of which help humanity live more sustainably. July 22, 2012 Footer text here23
  • 24. • ICT-enabled solutions offer the potential to reduce GHG emissions by 16.5%, create 29.5 million jobs and yield USD 1.9 trillion in savings. • While ICT’s own footprint is projected to rise to 1.27 GtCO2e by 2020, its abatement potential is 7 times higher. • Manufacturing is the most significant contributor to climate change of any of the end-use sectors, with worldwide manufacturing emissions at 14.8 GtCO2e in 2008, 31.4% of the global emissions total. July 22, 2012 Footer text here24 8. Abatement in the manufacturing sector
  • 25. July 22, 2012 Footer text here25
  • 26. July 22, 2012 Footer text here26
  • 27. • There are two sub-levers in the manufacturing sector: 1. the automation of industrial processes 2. the optimization of variable speed motor systems • Higher levels of monitoring and control of equipment will help to reduce and optimize energy use for particular manufacturing processes. • The introduction of variable speed motor systems allows machines to sense the strain under which they are working and adjust output accordingly. This ensures that they are working hard and expending electricity only when necessary. ICT can provide information to businesses about how much electricity they are saving and allow machines to communicate with one another to increase overall plant efficiency. • 3D printing has the potential to be disruptive to the entire manufacturing process and could reduce emissions by reducing the amount of raw materials to create a product and removing the need for transport of end-products. July 22, 2012 Footer text here27
  • 28. Abatement in the manufacturing sector • Moreover, the increasing competitiveness of the manufacturing sector globally and a lack of economic incentives to abate GHG emissions have made emissions reductions challenging for many manufacturers.As countries fight to keep their manufacturing rates competitive, investing in emissions savings technologies has in many instances not occurred. • ICT can play a significant role in helping the manufacturing sector reduce its contribution to climate change by reducing the amount of electricity wasted through inefficient processes. • It facilitates the shift toward the use of renewable energy; eliminates the use of toxic chemicals, which impair reuse; and aims for the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials, products, and systems. July 22, 2012 Footer text here28
  • 29. • Smart Manufacturing, which is the fourth revolution in the manufacturing industry and is also considered as a new paradigm, is the collection of cutting-edge technologies that support effective and accurate engineering decision-making in real time through the introduction of various ICT technologies and the convergence with the existing manufacturing technologies. • The fig. shows the link of IoT and IoS around a smart factory based on CPS. July 22, 2012 Footer text here29 Fig. Industry 4.0 and smart factories as part of the IoT and IoS 9. Smart manufacturing Today, the manufacturing industry is aiming to improve competitiveness through the convergence with cutting-edge ICT technologies in order to secure a new growth engine.
  • 30. July 22, 2012 Footer text here30
  • 31. July 22, 2012 Footer text here31
  • 32. July 22, 2012 Footer text here32
  • 33. July 22, 2012 Footer text here33
  • 34. July 22, 2012 Footer text here34
  • 35. 10. Conclusion • Sustainability is one of the most significant strategic programs that organizations will undertake in the coming decades. All entities in the manufacturing value chain, from raw material producers to consumers, have a critical role to play in ensuring sustainability. • ICT has significant leverage to reduce e.g. the carbon footprint in other industries and by far over-compensate the own footprint. • Studies suggest that impacts of ICT on other fields can lead to emission reductions five times the size of ICTs own footprint (Climate Group, 2008). Finally, ICT is required for adaptation, modelling and public awareness and as supporter for political decision-making. July 22, 2012 Footer text here35
  • 36. References • https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/content/9780262013932.pdf • https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2012/com_icts_vickery.pdf • http://www.ouritdept.co.uk/ • http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/tiedotteet/2010/T2532.pdf • http://www.academia.edu/2630982/ICT_for_Sustainable_Manufacturing_A_European_ Perspective • https://www.telenor.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/SMARTer-2020-The-Role-of- ICT-in-Driving-a-Sustainable-Future-December-2012._2.pdf • http://www.tcs.com/resources/white_papers/Pages/Sustainability-Manufacturing- Technology-Landscape.aspx • http://www.cirp.net/ • http://www.gcsm.eu/Vietnam/index.html
  • 37. July 22, 2012 Footer text here37
  • 38. THANK YOU! July 22, 2012 Footer text here38

Editor's Notes

  1. Sustainability, if embedded within an organization, can deliver numerous benefits, some of which are listed below: Increase in revenue through the introduction of environment-friendly products and services Reduction in cost owing to energy efficient measures, and control and optimization of resources Enhancement in organizational brand value and reputation, attributed to the sustainability-conscious culture Efficient risk management due to better compliance with global and regional regulations
  2. Some key factors that reinforce the importance of the sustainability concept in the manufacturing sector are: 1.Climate change: Organizations and policymakers need to take strong and early action to mitigate the impact on the climate and to put more stress on usage of renewable resources and innovative technologies. 2.Energy and Fuel: Many companies are now heavily investing in R&D to achieve energy efficiency, devise renewable or alternate sources of power, enhance resource productivity, and ensure pollution control. 3.Positive impact on society: All organizations attempt to create a positive impact on society by carrying out activities, such as participating in social and environmental awareness programs, creating jobs, building schools and hospitals, etc 4.Risk and regulatory compliance: The industry as a whole is subject to numerous global and local regulations, and plant level geography compliance. To comply with these stringent regulations, companies need to adopt sustainability as a practice and use various methodologies to cater to these requirements. 5.Sustainable value chain: Manufacturing organizations are under immense pressure to become greener and to reduce the environmental impact of their products across the supply chain. This has resulted in organizations carrying out product lifecycle assessments and devising processes to ensure a sustainable and eco-friendly supply chain 6.Brand image and reputation: With the environment becoming a global concern, investors, customers and suppliers are increasingly considering ‘environmental practices’ as a key factor in making choices about their relationship with manufacturers. Enterprises can now highlight their sustainability goals, achievements, and investments to strengthen their brand value and reputation.
  3. IT is growing at a rapid rate; as an example, while mobile phones were relatively rare a decade ago, now more than half the world’s people have them (Reuters, 2007). There are many different forms of IT, in terms of both the information systems that exist—such as software packages, databases, and networks—and the devices that people and institutions use to access these systems—such as notebook computers, servers, mobile phones, and personal digital assistants. Smart 2020-In 2008, The Climate Group on behalf of the Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI), with independent analysis by McKinsey & Company
  4. The interaction of ICTs and the natural environment can be categorized at three levels: direct impacts, enabling impacts and systemic impacts, going from the most easily understood to the widest impacts (see Figure 1). Most analysis and the majority of environment-related ICT policies have focused on direct impacts, despite the potentially very much larger gains to be reaped from strategies focusing on increasing enabling and systemic impacts.
  5.  In cradle to cradle production all material inputs and outputs are seen either as technical or biological nutrients. Technical nutrients can be recycled or reused with no loss of quality and biological nutrients composted or consumed. By contrast cradle to grave refers to a company taking responsibility for the disposal of goods it has produced, but not necessarily putting products’ constiuent components back into service.
  6. Enabling impacts: Examples include investing in embedded systems in cars for fuel-efficient driving, “smart” electricity distribution networks to reduce transmission and distribution losses, and intelligent heating and lighting systems in buildings and urban environments. Dematerialization and substitution: Physical products and processes can be replaced by digital ones with lower impacts on the environment. For example, digital music and video can replace physical music and film media, and teleconferences can replace business travel, with reduced environmental impacts. Induction effects occur if ICT products induce increased demand for other products. For example, more efficient printers stimulate demand for high quality paper, increasing pressure on forest and paper-making resources, even if direct resource use is decreased in the production and operation of printers. Degradation can occur if ICT devices embedded in non-ICT products lead to difficulties in disposal management. For example, “smart” tags in car tires, bottles and cardboard often require specific recycling procedures that are more onerous and potentially add to the pollution load. Life-cycle analysis (LCA or cradle-to-grave analysis) is a necessary analytical tool to obtain an overall view of these impacts and the balance among them.
  7. Systemic impacts: Systemic impacts of ICTs on the environment (“third-order effects”) are rooted in behaviour and behavioural change. Positive systemic outcomes of green ICT applications largely depend on end-user acceptance, lifestyle adjustments and changes in collective social behaviour. ICT applications have systemic impacts in a number of ways, including: Providing and disclosing information: ICTs and the Internet facilitate monitoring, measuring and reporting information on the environment. Access to and display of data inform decisions by households (e.g., “smart” metres), businesses (e.g., choice of suppliers, “green” advertising claims) and governments (e.g., allocation of emission allowances). Sensor-based networks that collect data and computer-based interpretation can be used to adapt production, consumption and lifestyles. For example, ICT-enabled observation and research on rainfall, ground cover and desertification provide data for long-term agricultural, economic and social decision making. Enabling dynamic pricing and enhancing real-time price sensitivity: ICT applications enable dynamic pricing systems, e.g., in the provision of electricity or trade in farm products. Electricity customers can choose to turn off non-critical devices when renewable energy is scarce and turn them on again when it is more plentiful; small-scale rural producers can choose when and where to market their products. Changing technologies impacting consumer and user behaviour: The evolution from desktop PCs to laptops to netbooks to tablets is changing consumer preferences, with major effects on raw material exploitation and power use. Digital music, Internet communication, social networks and teleconferencing technologies are affecting the ways in which their physical counterparts are produced and consumed, with major impacts on recorded music, written letters, social gathering and physical business travel. Triggering rebound effects: Higher efficiencies at the micro level (e.g., the use of more energy-efficient products) do not necessarily translate into equivalent savings at the macro economy-wide level because of greater aggregate consumption and use of more efficient individual products. For example, nationwide application of a technology that is 30 per cent more efficient does not necessarily translate into aggregate energy savings of 30 per cent, due to greater use triggered by the greater efficiencies. Much lower semiconductor energy use must be weighed against the very rapid growth in numbers of ICT products incorporating these components, e.g., in smartphones and tablets. The “rebound effects” from increased use at the micro level may result in greater resource use at the macro level. Systemic impacts of ICTs and their environmental repercussions are relatively unexplored, mainly because of the complexity of assessing technological change, production and consumption in the medium and longer term. Product life-cycle analysis is an important tool to provide insights into the effects of ICTs on behavioural change and the effects of behavioural change on ICTs.
  8. Mitigation=Make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful A Radio Frequency Identification Tag (RFID tag) is an electronic tag that exchanges data with a RFID reader through radio waves. demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as financial incentives and behavioral change through education.
  9. Augmenting -make (something) greater by adding to it; increase
  10. A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources
  11. A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources.[1] Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the smart grid
  12. “GtCO2e” is an abbreviation for “gigatonnes of equivalent carbon. abatement-the action of ending or subsiding/the reduction or removal of a nuisance
  13. Manufacturing ICT-enabled efficiency in factories and other manufacturing applications could allow for 1.2 GtCO2e (13% of total) in abatement from the manufacturing sector. Through solutions that, for example, better control a motor system to better match its power usage to a required output, there are many opportunities for ICT to make manufacturing more efficient. Power ICT adoption in the power sector could yield 2.0 GtCO2e in abatement (or 22% of total estimated abatement total) by playing a critical role in the creation of a more dynamic power market with supply and pricing responding to changes in demand. This more dynamic market is vital for effectively integrating renewable energy into the power supply. Transportation Emissions reductions in transportation could reach 1.9 GtCO2e (21% of total). Increased efficiency in cargo transit through improved logistics networks and fleet management represents a significant abatement opportunity. Telecommuting and increased use of video conferencing can reduce transportation needs and emissions. Agriculture and land use Emissions reductions from this sector could reach 1.6 GtCO2e (18% of total). As the inputs required to grow crops emit large quantities of emissions, ICT that allows farmers to accurately assess how much to irrigate and fertilize their crops will lead to emissions abatement. Systems that reduce the amount of land required to raise livestock and reduce their methane emissions also have significant abatement potential. Also, monitoring equipment can help governments prevent the destruction of rainforests that act as carbon sinks. Buildings ICT can abate 1.6 GtCO2e (18% of total) in this sector by providing occupants with the systems required to support the generation of renewable energy and incorporate it into the building’s power supply. Smart design can reduce lighting and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning needs while building management systems ensure that those systems are used efficiently. Consumer and service Emissions reductions through ICT in the consumer and service sector could reach 0.7 GtCO2e (8% of total). ICT connects consumers to merchants via the Internet and enables them to purchase goods online rather than physically traveling to the store. ICT-enabled software can also develop packaging that generates less waste and conserves resources.
  14. the broader role of ICT in reducing GHG emissions in other industries. ICT can be instrumental in integrating electricity into the grid, managing intermittent electricity production, monitoring and optimizing the performance of the generation, and helping to predict the impact of the weather on generation, as well as in many other applications. In recent years there has been strong adoption of ICT technologies in transportation, which has been driven by many factors: • Reducing price • Reducing size and weight of equipment • Rapid emergence of smartphones • Cloud and other services for data analysis Technology is becoming more common in several ways: Consumer-based telematics Honda’s Fit electric vehicle (EV) used ICT to enhance the EV experience. Telematics may not be as useful for the average passenger car, but for electric vehicles, apps and other telematics take on a new importance to help drivers manage their range anxiety and charging schedule. 35 Wireless fleet management BigBelly limits the need for unnecessary pickup of waste by monitoring the amount of trash in each waste container and sending a wireless signal when a container is getting full. Software can then optimize the pick-up route and significantly reduce transportation emissions.36
  15. ICT is required to control and monitor the automated processes and ICT companies would also be involved in the maintenance and upkeep of the manufacturing equipment. Motor systems are at the heart of the industrial activity and consume the majority of electricity used by manufacturers worldwide. Traditional motor systems are designed to operate at a continuous rate and do not account for the strain placed on them by varying loads. As load capacity affects the ability of the machine to perform a constant rate of work, having motors operate at a constant speed is inefficient and wastes electricity. The introduction of variable speed motor systems allows machines to sense the strain under which they are working and adjust output accordingly. This ensures that they are working hard and expending electricity only when necessary. ICT can provide information to businesses about how much electricity they are saving and allow machines to communicate with one another to increase overall plant efficiency. While not explicitly listed as a sublever, it is worth mentioning the potential role of 3D manufacturing (also called 3D printing). 3D printing is achieved using additive processes; an object is created by laying down successive layers of raw material. 3D printing is considered different from traditional machining techniques (subtractive processes) which mostly rely on the removal of material by drilling, cutting etc.4
  16. Abatement-the reduction or removal of a nuisance
  17. • Internet of Things could be a short-lived phrase.  Soon the Internet Of Things Will Become The Internet Of Services. Right now your home is well on its way to becoming a ‘Service’ that supports your life style. Sure, this is done through a number of Internet of Things, IoT, devices, but individually as ‘things’ they don’t add the same value as they do collectively as a ‘service’. Internet of Things: Embedding sensors and communication equipment in manufacturing machineries and lines. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects—devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data. The IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, integration between physical real world and computer-based systems, and brings various effects such as improved productivity or economy in manufacturing. Internet of Services — Definition: A service is a commercial transaction where one party grants temporary access to the resources of another party in order to perform a prescribed function and a related benefit. Resources may be human workforce and skills, technical systems, information, consumables, land and others. • Big Data and Data Analytics: Developing software and systems that can interpret and analyze mass incoming data. • Cyber-physical System and System Integration: Developing mass production systems that are capable of highly efficient and flexible real-time control and customization.
  18. circa- (often preceding a date) approximately.
  19. Tenet-a principle or belief
  20. Server virtualization is the masking of server resources, including the number and identity of individual physical servers, processors, and operating systems, fromserver users. The server administrator uses a software application to divide one physical server into multiple isolated virtual environments. Desktop virtualization is software technology that separates the desktop environment and associated application software from the physical client device that is used to access it. A DESKTOP WITH MULTIPLE OPERATING SYSTEM. “If we can figure out how to provide a single, generic master Windows image to our users no matter where they are, their apps, data, and personality can be applied on-demand once they load the shared master image.  It allows the user to access the desktop any time, anywhere. The virtual desktop is managed on a hosted basis.
  21. Global conference on sustainable manufacturing