Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Colour interaction and dynamics

955 views

Published on

A report on various aspects covering the color interarction and its dynamics.

Published in: Art & Photos
  • Comparing VigRX Plus to ED Prescription Drugs ♣♣♣ https://bit.ly/30G1ZO1
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Penis Enlargement and Enhancement Techniques: What REALLY Works?!? ♣♣♣ http://t.cn/Ai88iYkP
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • ➤➤ 3 Reasons Why You Shouldn't take Pills for ED (important) ▲▲▲ https://tinyurl.com/rockhardxxx
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • ★★ How Long Does She Want You to Last? ★★ A recent study proved that the average man lasts just 2-5 minutes in bed (during intercourse). The study also showed that many women need at least 7-10 minutes of intercourse to reach "The Big O" - and, worse still... 30% of women never get there during intercourse. Clearly, most men are NOT fulfilling there women's needs in bed. Now, as I've said many times - how long you can last is no guarantee of being a GREAT LOVER. But, not being able to last 20, 30 minutes or more, is definitely a sign that you're not going to "set your woman's world on fire" between the sheets. Question is: "What can you do to last longer?" Well, one of the best recommendations I can give you today is to read THIS report. In it, you'll discover a detailed guide to an Ancient Taoist Thrusting Technique that can help any man to last much longer in bed. I can vouch 100% for the technique because my husband has been using it for years :) Here's the link to the report ➤➤ https://tinyurl.com/rockhardxxx
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • ➤➤ 3 Reasons Why You Shouldn�t take Pills for ED (important) ◆◆◆ http://ishbv.com/rockhardx/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Colour interaction and dynamics

  1. 1. A Report on “COLOUR INTERACTION AND DYNAMICS” By PRASHANT S. TRIPATHI M.E. (MANUFACTURING SYSTEM ENGINEERING)
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENT Sr. No. Title Page No. 1. Introduction 1 1.1 What is colour? 1 1.2 Why study colour theory? 1 1.3 Communicating colour 2 1.4 Colour Application 2 2. Historical Background 3 3. Colour Basics 6 4. Colour Harmony 8 5. Colour Systems 10 5.1 Subtractive Colour 10 5.2 Additive color 11 5.3 Working with systems 12 6. Colour Wheel 13 6.1 Colour Terminology 14 6.2 Active and Passive colours 16 6.3 Colour Relationships/Schemes 17 7. Complementary Colours 18 7.1 Visual Illusions 19 7.2 Perceptual Opposites 19 8. Colour Combinations/Schemes 20 9. Colour & Contrast 23 9.1 Simultaneous contrast 23 9.2 Colourblind defenciencies 24 10. Colour Psychology 25 10.1 What is color psychology? 25
  3. 3. 10.2 Psychological properties of colour 26 11. Colour preferences by gender 33 12. Colour Therapy 37 12.1 Introduction to color therapy 37 12.2 History of colour therapy 38 13. Conclusion 39
  4. 4. 1.INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is Color? As most of you know, color is light and energy. Color is visible because it reflects, bends, and refracts through all kinds of particles, molecules and objects. There are a variety of wavelengths that light can be categorized, producing different types of light. Visible wavelengths fall approximately in the 390 to 750 nanometre range and is known as the visible spectrum. Other wavelengths and frequencies are associated with non-visible light such as x-rays & ultraviolet rays. Most people are aware of the effects of non-visible light, so it makes sense that visible light would also affect us. One example of the way light can affect us is a mild form of depression known as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), which causes many people suffering during winters.In the visual arts, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination. There are also definitions (or categories) of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490), a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy around Isaac Newton's theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the nature of primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science. 1.2 Why study color theory? If you are involved in the creation or design of visual documents, an understanding of color will help when incorporating it into your own designs. Choices regarding color often seem rather mystical, as many seem to base decisions on nothing other than "it looks right." Although often told I had an eye for color, the reason why some colors worked together while others did not always intrigued me and I found the study of color theory fascinating.
  5. 5. While attending the University of Minnesota I enrolled in almost every course I could from different departments: graphic design, interior design, and fine arts. During my studies, I learned that there were 2 main reasons why scholars investigated color—the first involved the communication of colors; the other involved the application of color. 1.3 Communicating color What is red? Candy apple red, blood red, catsup red, rose red... to try and communicate a specific hue is difficult without some sort of coding system. Early in the 1900's, Albert Munsell, a professor at an art school in Boston developed a color system which offered a means to name colors. With a published system, people could be specific about which red they were referring. Munsell's system has been reworked for today's use with the Pantone color system, TRUEMATCH, CIE systems and others. HTML Red Pantone Red Pantone Warm Red TRUEMATCH 6-a 1.4 Color Application With respect to the arts, color was part of the realistic, visual representation of form, but one group of painters abandoned the traditional practices regarding color in painting. This group of artists were influenced by Cezanne, Van Gogh, and Gauguin. Led by Henri Matisse, they were known as the Fauves, or "the wild beasts." Their exuberant use of brilliant hues seem to disregard imitative color1 . Whereas other artists had used color as the description of an object, the Fauves let color become the subject of their painting. A painting in the "Fauvist Manner" was one that related color shapes; rather than unifying a design with line, compositions sought an expressiveness within the relationships of the whole. This turn from tradition brought an integrity to color in that color was regarded on its own merit.
  6. 6. 2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Color theory was originally formulated in terms of three "primary" or "primitive" colors— red, yellow and blue (RYB)—because these colors were believed capable of mixing all other colors. This color mixing behavior had long been known to printers, dyers and painters, but these trades preferred pure pigments to primary color mixtures, because the mixtures were too dull (unsaturated). Fig 2.1:- Goethe's color wheel from his 1810 Theory of Colours The RYB primary colors became the foundation of 18th century theories of color vision, as the fundamental sensory qualities that are blended in the perception of all physical colors and equally in the physical mixture of pigments or dyes. These theories were enhanced by 18th- century investigations of a variety of purely psychological color effects, in particular the contrast between "complementary" or opposing hues that are produced by color afterimages and in the contrasting shadows in colored light. These ideas and many personal color observations were summarized in two founding documents in color theory: the Theory of Colours (1810) by the
  7. 7. German poet and government minister Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and The Law of Simultaneous Color Contrast (1839) by the French industrial chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul. Subsequently, German and English scientists established in the late 19th century that color perception is best described in terms of a different set of primary colors—red, green and blue violet (RGB)—modeled through the additive mixture of three monochromatic lights. Subsequent research anchored these primary colors in the differing responses to light by three types of color receptors or cones in the retina (trichromacy). On this basis the quantitative description of color mixture or colorimetry developed in the early 20th century, along with a series of increasingly sophisticated models of color space and color perception, such as the opponent process theory. Fig 2.2 :- Newton's color circle (1704) displayed seven colors. Newton declared that colors opposite each other had the strongest contrast and harmony.Across the same period, industrial chemistry radically expanded the color range of lightfast synthetic pigments, allowing for substantially improved saturation in color mixtures of dyes, paints and inks. It also created the dyes and chemical processes necessary for color photography. As a result, three-color printing became aesthetically and economically feasible in mass printed media, and the artists' color theory was adapted to primary colors most effective in inks or photographic dyes: cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY). (In printing, dark colors are supplemented by a black ink, known as the CMYK system; in both printing and photography, white is provided by the color of the paper.) These CMY primary colors were reconciled with the RGB primaries, and subtractive color mixing with additive color mixing, by defining the CMY primaries as substances that absorbed only one of the retinal primary colors: cyan absorbs only red (−R+G+B), magenta only
  8. 8. green (+R−G+B), and yellow only blue violet (+R+G−B). It is important to add that the CMYK, or process, color printing is meant as an economical way of producing a wide range of colors for printing, but is deficient in reproducing certain colors, notably orange and slightly deficient in reproducing purples. A wider range of color can be obtained with the addition of other colors to the printing process, such as in Pantone's Hexachrome printing ink system (six colors), among others. Fig 2.2:- Munsell's color system represented as a three-dimensional solid showing all three color making attributes: lightness, saturation and hue. For much of the 19th century artistic color theory either lagged behind scientific understanding or was augmented by science books written for the lay public, in particular Modern Chromatics (1879) by the American physicist Ogden Rood, and early color atlases developed by Albert Munsell (Munsell Book of Color, 1915, see Munsell color system) and Wilhelm Ostwald (Color Atlas, 1919). Major advances were made in the early 20th century by artists teaching or associated with the German Bauhaus, in particular Wassily Kandinsky, Johannes Itten, Faber Birren and Josef Albers, whose writings mix speculation with an empirical or demonstration- based study of color design principles.
  9. 9. 3. COLOR BASICS Color is the perceptual characteristic of light described by a color name. Specifically, color is light, and light is composed of many colors—those we see are the colors of the visual spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Objects absorb certain wavelengths and reflect others back to the viewer. We perceive these wavelengths as color. 3.1 Describing Colors A color is described in three ways: by its name, how pure or desaturated it is, and its value or lightness. Although pink, crimson, and brick are all variations of the color red, each hue is distinct and differentiated by its chroma, saturation, intensity, and value.Chroma, intensity, saturation and luminance/value are inter-related terms and have to do with the description of a color. Chroma: How pure a hue is in relation to gray. Saturation: The degree of purity of a hue. Intensity: The brightness or dullness of a hue. One may lower the intensity by adding white or black. Luminance / Value: A measure of the amount of light reflected from a hue. Those hues with a high content of white have a higher luminance or value.
  10. 10. Shade and tint are terms that refer to a variation of a hue. Shade: A hue produced by the addition of black. Tint: A hue produced by the addition of white Tints and shades- When mixing colored light (additive color models), the achromatic mixture of spectrally balanced red, green and blue (RGB) is always white, not gray or black. When we mix colorants, such as the pigments in paint mixtures, a color is produced which is always darker and lower in chroma, or saturation, than the parent colors. This moves the mixed color toward a neutral color— a gray or near-black. Lights are made brighter or dimmer by adjusting their brightness, or energy level; in painting, lightness is adjusted through mixture with white, black or a color's complement. It is common among some painters to darken a paint color by adding black paint—producing colors called shades—or lighten a color by adding white—producing colors called tints. However it is not always the best way for representational painting, as an unfortunate result is for colors to also shift in hue. For instance, darkening a color by adding black can cause colors such as yellows, reds and oranges, to shift toward the greenish or bluish part of the spectrum. Lightening a color by adding white can cause a shift towards blue when mixed with reds and oranges. Another practice when darkening a color is to use its opposite, or complementary, color (e.g. purplish-red added to yellowish-green) in order to neutralize it without a shift in hue, and darken it if the additive color is darker than the parent color. When lightening a color this hue shift can be corrected with the addition of a small amount of an adjacent color to bring the hue of the mixture back in line with the parent color (e.g. adding a small amount of orange to a mixture of red and white will correct the tendency of this mixture to shift slightly towards the blue end of the spectrum)
  11. 11. 4. COLOR HARMONY It has been suggested that "Colors seen together to produce a pleasing affective response are said to be in harmony".[2] However, color harmony is a complex notion because human responses to color are both affective and cognitive, involving emotional response and judgement. Hence, our responses to color and the notion of color harmony is open to the influence of a range of different factors. These factors include individual differences (such as age, gender, personal preference, affective state, etc.) as well as cultural, sub-cultural and socially-based differences which gives rise to conditioning and learned responses about color. In addition, context always has an influence on responses about color and the notion of color harmony, and this concept is also influenced by temporal factors (such as changing trends) and perceptual factors (such as simultaneous contrast) which may impinge on human response to color. The following conceptual model illustrates this 21st century approach to color harmony: Wherein color harmony is a function (f) of the interaction between color/s (Col 1, 2, 3, …, n) and the factors that influence positive aesthetic response to color: individual differences (ID) such as age, gender, personality and affective state; cultural experiences (CE), the prevailing context (CX) which includes setting and ambient lighting; intervening perceptual effects (P) and the effects of time (T) in terms of prevailing social trends.[3] In addition, given that humans can perceive over 2.8 million different hues,[4] it has been suggested that the number of possible color combinations is virtually infinite thereby implying that predictive color harmony formulae are fundamentally unsound.[5] Despite this, many color theorists have devised formulae, principles or guidelines for color combination with the aim being to predict or specify positive aesthetic response or "color harmony". Color wheel models have often been used as a basis for color combination principles or guidelines and for defining
  12. 12. relationships between colors. Some theorists and artists believe juxtapositions of complementary color will produce strong contrast, a sense of visual tension as well as "color harmony"; while others believe juxtapositions of analogous colors will elicit positive aesthetic response. Color combination guidelines suggest that colors next to each other on the color wheel model (analogous colors) tend to produce a single-hued or monochromatic color experience and some theorists also refer to these as "simple harmonies". In addition, split complementary color schemes usually depict a modified complementary pair, with instead of the "true" second color being chosen, a range of analogous hues around it are chosen, i.e. the split complements of red are blue-green and yellow-green. A triadic color scheme adopts any three colors approximately equidistant around a color wheel model. Feisner and Mahnke are among a number of authors who provide color combination guidelines in greater detail.[6][7] Color combination formulae and principles may provide some guidance but have limited practical application. This is because of the influence of contextual, perceptual and temporal factors which will influence how color/s are perceived in any given situation, setting or context. Such formulae and principles may be useful in fashion, interior and graphic design, but much depends on the tastes, lifestyle and cultural norms of the viewer or consumer. As early as the ancient Greek philosophers, many theorists have devised color associations and linked particular connotative meanings to specific colors. However, connotative color associations and color symbolism tends to be culture-bound and may also vary across different contexts and circumstances. For example, red has many different connotative and symbolic meanings from exciting, arousing, sensual, romantic and feminine; to a symbol of good luck; and also acts as a signal of danger. Such color associations tend to be learned and do not necessarily hold irrespective of individual and cultural differences or contextual, temporal or perceptual factors.[8] It is important to note that while color symbolism and color associations exist, their existence does not provide evidential support for color psychology or claims that color has therapeutic properties.
  13. 13. 5. COLOR SYSTEMS Available color systems are dependent on the medium with which a designer is working. When painting, an artist has a variety of paints to choose from, and mixed colors are achieved through the subtractive color method. When a designer is utilizing the computer to generate digital media, colors are achieved with the additive color method. 4.1 Subtractive Color When we mix colors using paint, or through the printing process, we are using the subtractive color method. Subtractive color mixing means that one begins with white and ends with black; as one adds color, the result gets darker and tends to black. • The CMYK color system is the color system used for printing. • Those colors used in painting - an example of the subtractive color method.
  14. 14. 4.2 Additive Color If we are working on a computer, the colors we see on the screen are created with light using the additive color method. Additive color mixing begins with black and ends with white; as more color is added, the result is lighter and tends to white. 4.3 Working With Systems • The RGB colors are light primaries and colors are created with light.. • Percentages of red, green, & blue light are used to generate color on a computer screen.
  15. 15. The Visible spectrum consists of billions of colors, a monitor can display millions, a high quality printer is only capable of producing thousands, and older computer systems may be limited to 216 cross-platform colors. Reproducing color can be problematic with regard to printed, digital media, because what we see is not what is possible to get. Although a monitor may be able to display 'true color' (16,000,000 colors), millions of these colors are outside of the spectrum available to printers. Since digital designs are generated using the RGB color system, colors used in those designs must be part of the CMYK spectrum or they will not be reproduced with proper color rendering. Working within the CMYK color system, or choosing colors from Pantone© palettes insures proper color rendering.
  16. 16. 6. COLOR WHEEL A color wheel (also referred to as a color circle) is a visual representation of colors arranged according to their chromatic relationship. Begin a color wheel by positioning primary hues
  17. 17. equidistant from one another, then create a bridge between primaries using secondary and tertiary colors. The color wheel or color circle is the basic tool for combining colors. The first circular color diagram was designed by Sir Isaac Newton in 1666. The color wheel is designed so that virtually any colors you pick from it will look good together. Over the years, many variations of the basic design have been made, but the most common version is a wheel of 12 colors based on the RYB (or artistic) color model. Traditionally, there are a number of color combinations that are considered especially pleasing. These are called color harmonies or color chords and they consist of two or more colors with a fixed relation in the color wheel. 5.1 Color Terminology
  18. 18. • Primary Colors: Colors at their basic essence; those colors that cannot be created by mixing others. • Secondary Colors : Those colors achieved by a mixture of two primaries. • Tertiary Colors : Those colors achieved by a mixture of primary and secondary hues. • • Complementary Colors : Those colors located opposite each other on a color wheel. •
  19. 19. 5.2 Active & Passive Colors The color wheel can be divided into ranges that are visually active or passive. Active colors will appear to advance when placed against passive hues. Passive colors appear to recede when positioned against active hues. • Advancing hues are most often thought to have less visual weight than the receding hues. • Most often warm, saturated, light value hues are "active" and visually advance. • Cool, low saturated, dark value hues are "passive" and visually recede. • Analogous Colors : Those colors located close together on a color wheel.
  20. 20. • Tints or hues with a low saturation appear lighter than shades or highly saturated colors. • Some colors remain visually neutral or indifferent. 5.3 Color relationships Color relationships may be displayed as a color wheel or a color triangle. • The Painter's color triangle consists of colors we would often use in art class—those colors we learn about as children. The primary hues are red, blue and yellow. • The Printers' color triangle is the set of colors used in the printing process. The primaries are magenta, cyan, and yellow.
  21. 21. 7.COMPLEMENTARY COLORS We look at a color wheel to understand the relationships between colors. Analogous colors are positioned in such a way as to mimic the process that occurs when blending hues. The colors that are positioned opposite one another are complementary colors. • Nine-part harmonic triangle of Goethe begins with the printer's primaries; the secondaries formed are the painter's primaries; and the resulting tertiaries formed are dark neutrals.
  22. 22. To call those hues in direct opposition to each other "complements of each other" is appropriate. Complementary colors bring out the best in each other. When fully saturated complements are brought together, interesting effects are noticeable. This may be a desirable illusion, or a problem if creating visuals that are to be read. 6.1 Visual Illusions Vibrating Boundaries Notice the illusion of highlighted edges and raised text. This may occur when opposing colors are brought together. 6.2 Perceptual Opposites We learn from the relationships displayed by a color wheel that every color has an opposite. Every color has both a color wheel opposite as well as a perceptual opposite. Without a color wheel, it is still possible to find the opposite of a color and this is due to a phenomenon of our eyes. Due to the physiological differences between individuals, everyone's perceptions do vary—the complements shown below are my own perceived opposites:
  23. 23. 8. COLOR COMBINATIONS Color combinations/schemes may pass unnoticed when pleasing, yet offend dramatically when compositions seem to clash. One outcome we seek in the final form or composition, is a successful use of color. We determine whether or not we are successful by critically assessing the visual balance and harmony of the final composition—balance and harmony are achieved by the visual contrast that exists between color combinations. Planning a successful color combination begins with the investigation, and understanding, of color relationships. Using a color wheel and a template, the relationships between colors are easy to identify.
  24. 24. • Monochromatic Relationship - Colors that are shade or tint variations of the same hue. Monochromatic colors are all the colors (tints, tones, and shades) of a single hue. Monochromatic color schemes are derived from a single base hue, and extended using its shades, tones and tints (that is, a hue modified by the addition of black, gray (black + white) and white. As a result, the energy is more subtle and peaceful due to a lack of contrast of hue. • Complementary Relationship - Those colors across from each other on a color wheel. For the mixing of colored light, Newton's color wheel is often used to describe complementary colors, which are colors which cancel each other's hue to produce an achromatic (white, gray or black) light mixture. Newton offered as a conjecture that colors exactly opposite one another on the hue circle cancel out each other's hue; this concept was demonstrated more thoroughly in the 19th century. A key assumption in Newton's hue circle was that the "fiery" or maximum saturated hues are located on the outer circumference of the circle, while achromatic white is at the center. Then the saturation of the mixture of two spectral hues was predicted by the straight line between them; the mixture of three colors was predicted by the "center of gravity" or centroid of three triangle points, and so on.
  25. 25. • Split-Complementary Relationship - One hue plus two others equally spaced from its complement. The split- complementary (also called Compound Harmony) color scheme is a variation of the complementary color scheme. In addition to the base color, it uses the two "Analogous" colors adjacent to its complement. Split-complementary color scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary color scheme, but has less pressure. • Double-Complementary Relationship -Two complementary color sets; the distance between selected complementary pairs will effect the overall contrast of the final composition. The tetradic (double complementary) colors scheme is the richest of all the schemes because it uses four colors arranged into two complementary color pairs. This scheme is hard to harmonize and requires a color to be dominant or subdue the colors.; if all four colors are used in equal amounts, the scheme may look unbalanced. • Analogous Relationship - Those colors located adjacent to each other on a color wheel. Analogous colors (also called Dominance Harmony) color scheme are groups of colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel, with one being the dominant color, which tends to be a primaryor secondary color, and two on either side complementing, which tend to be tertiary.The term analogous refers to the having analogy, or corresponding to something in particular. An analogous color scheme creates a rich, monochromatic look. It’s best used
  26. 26. with either warm or cool colors, creating a look that has a certain temperature as well as proper color harmony. While this is true, the scheme also lacks contrast and is less vibrant than complementary schemes. Red, yellow and orange are examples of analogous colors. • Triad Relationship - Three hues equally positioned on a color wheel. The triadic color scheme uses three colors equally spaced around the color wheel. The easiest way to place them on the wheel is by using a triangle of equal sides. Triadic color schemes tend to be quite vibrant, even when using pale or unsaturated versions of hues, offers a higher degree of contrast while at the same time retains the color harmony. This scheme is very popular among artists because it offers strong visual contrast while retaining balance, and color richness. The triadic scheme is not as contrasting as the complementary scheme, but it is easier to accomplish balance and harmony with these colors. 9. COLOR & CONTRAST Every visual presentation involves figure-ground relationships. This relationship between a subject (or figure) and its surrounding field (ground) will evidence a level of contrast; the more an object contrasts with its surrounds, the more visible it becomes. Some combinations are difficult to read due to the low level of contrast between figure and ground: Yellow text on a white background Blue text on a black background.
  27. 27. When we create visuals that are intended to be read, offering the viewer enough contrast between the background (paper or screen) and the text is important. Text presentations ideally offer at least an 80% contrast between figure and ground. (Black text on a white background is ideal.) If there is not enough contrast between figure and ground, a viewer will squint to view the text, causing eye fatigue. 8.1 Simultaneous contrast Some color combinations can cause illusions when positioned together : Red text on a blue background An occurrence known as 'simultaneous contrast' (or chromostereopsis,) may happen when opposing colors are placed in close proximity to each other. Text may appear to vibrate, or cast a shadow. Eye strain and fatigue will result if a viewer focuses on a document displaying similar properties for an extended time period. 8.2 Colorblind Deficiencies. The Design of visual documents or signage without thought to the overall contrast level between figure and ground can be problematic for people with sight deficiencies. My first-hand experience with this occurred years ago when visiting a hospital with a friend who was colorblind. The hospital had creatively marked the floor with "road maps" to various areas like the lab, lobby, etc. Unfortunately, they used red and green lines and my friend could not distinguish between the colors. If a visual document uses color to relate important information, insure that no information is lost, or potentially misunderstood, when the color is not available.
  28. 28. 10. COLOR PSYCHOLOGY 10.1 What is Color Psychology? The psychology of color is based on the mental and emotional effects colors have on sighted people in all facets of life. There are some very subjective pieces to color psychology as well as some more accepted and proven elements. Keep in mind, that there will also be variations in interpretation, meaning, and perception between different cultures.It is the effects of the electro-magnetic radiation of light on human mood and behaviour - a universal, psychophysical reaction, which is not as heavily influenced by culture, age and gender as is generally thought. It is important to understand that there is a great difference between colour psychology and colour symbolism. Historically, what is often described as colour psychology is actually
  29. 29. colour symbolism - the conscious associations that we are conditioned to make. Cultural responses to colour derive from a variety of causes: for example, green is the sacred colour throughout Islam, being the colour of the Prophet's robe; in Ireland it is considered lucky, perhaps because when the world around us contains plenty of green this indicates the presence of water and therefore little danger of famine; in England it is considered unlucky, possibly because of its association with decay and disease. There are many examples of colour symbolism: purple is associated with royalty for the simple reason that, until relatively recently in our history, it was an extremely expensive dye and only royalty could afford it; red is the colour of blood and has associations with war. These associations often coincide with colour psychology (red actually can trigger aggression) but they are by no means the same thing. More about the psychological properties of the main colours. 10.2 Psychological Properties of Colours There are four psychological primary colours - red, blue, yellow and green. They relate respectively to the body, the mind, the emotions and the essential balance between these three. The psychological properties of the eleven basic colours are as follows: RED : Physical Positive: Physical courage, strength, warmth, energy, basic survival, 'fight or flight', stimulation,
  30. 30. masculinity, excitement. Negative: Defiance, aggression, visual impact, strain. • Being the longest wavelength, red is a powerful colour. Although not technically the most visible, it has the property of appearing to be nearer than it is and therefore it grabs our attention first. Hence its effectiveness in traffic lights the world over. Its effect is physical; it stimulates us and raises the pulse rate, giving the impression that time is passing faster than it is. It relates to the masculine principle and can activate the "fight or flight" instinct. Red is strong, and very basic. Pure red is the simplest colour, with no subtlety. It is stimulating and lively, very friendly. At the same time, it can be perceived as demanding and aggressive. BLUE: Intellectual Positive: Intelligence, communication, trust, efficiency, serenity, duty, logic, coolness, reflection, calm. Negative: Coldness, aloofness, lack of emotion, unfriendliness. • Blue is the colour of the mind and is essentially soothing; it affects us mentally, rather than the physical reaction we have to red. Strong blues will stimulate clear thought and lighter, soft blues will calm the mind and aid concentration. Consequently it is serene and mentally calming. It is the colour of clear communication. Blue objects do not appear to be as close to us as red ones. Time and again in research, blue is the world's favourite colour. However, it can be perceived as cold, unemotional and unfriendly.
  31. 31. : Emotional Positive: Optimism, confidence, self-esteem, extraversion, emotional strength, friendliness, creativity. Negative: Irrationality, fear, emotional fragility, depression, anxiety, suicide. • The yellow wavelength is relatively long and essentially stimulating. In this case the stimulus is emotional, therefore yellow is the strongest colour, psychologically. The right yellow will lift our spirits and our self-esteem; it is the colour of confidence and optimism. • Too much of it, or the wrong tone in relation to the other tones in a colour scheme, can cause self- esteem to plummet, giving rise to fear and anxiety. Our "yellow streak" can surface. GREEN : Balance Positive: Harmony, balance, refreshment, universal love, rest, restoration, reassurance, environmental awareness, equilibrium, peace. Negative: Boredom, stagnation, blandness, enervation. • Green strikes the eye in such a way as to require no adjustment whatever and is, therefore, restful. Being in the centre of the spectrum, it is the colour of balance - a more important concept than many people realise. When the world about us contains plenty of green, this indicates the presence of water,
  32. 32. and little danger of famine, so we are reassured by green, on a primitive level. Negatively, it can indicate stagnation and, incorrectly used, will be perceived as being too bland. VIOLET : Spiritual Positive : Spiritual awareness, containment, vision, luxury, authenticity, truth, quality. Negative : Introversion, decadence, suppression, inferiority. • The shortest wavelength is violet, often described as purple. It takes awareness to a higher level of thought, even into the realms of spiritual values. It is highly introvertive and encourages deep contemplation, or meditation. It has associations with royalty and usually communicates the finest possible quality. Being the last visible wavelength before the ultra-violet ray, it has associations with time and space and the cosmos. Excessive use of purple can bring about too much introspection and the wrong tone of it communicates something cheap and nasty, faster than any other colour.
  33. 33. ORANGE Positive: Physical comfort, food, warmth, security, sensuality, passion, abundance, fun. Negative: Deprivation, frustration, frivolity, immaturity. • Since it is a combination of red and yellow, orange is stimulating and reaction to it is a combination of the physical and the emotional. It focuses our minds on issues of physical comfort - food, warmth, shelter etc. - and sensuality. It is a 'fun' colour. Negatively, it might focus on the exact opposite - deprivation. This is particularly likely when warm orange is used with black. Equally, too much orange suggests frivolity and a lack of serious intellectual values. PINK Positive: Physical tranquillity, nurture, warmth, femininity, love, sexuality, survival of the species. Negative: Inhibition, emotional claustrophobia, emasculation, physical weakness. • Being a tint of red, pink also affects us physically, but it soothes, rather than stimulates. (Interestingly, red is the only colour that has an entirely separate
  34. 34. name for its tints. Tints of blue, green, yellow, etc. are simply called light blue, light green etc.) Pink is a powerful colour, psychologically. It represents the feminine principle, and survival of the species; it is nurturing and physically soothing. GREY Positive:Psychologicalneutrality. Negative: Lack of confidence, dampness, depression, hibernation, lack of energy. • Pure grey is the only colour that has no direct psychological properties. It is, however, quite suppressive. A virtual absence of colour is depressing and when the world turns grey we are instinctively conditioned to draw in and prepare for hibernation. Unless the precise tone is right, grey has a dampening effect on other colours used with it. Heavy use of grey usually indicates a lack of confidence and fear of exposure. BLACK Positive: Sophistication, glamour, security, emotional safety, efficiency, substance. Negative: Oppression, coldness, menace, heaviness.
  35. 35. • Black is all colours, totally absorbed. The psychological implications of that are considerable. It creates protective barriers, as it absorbs all the energy coming towards you, and it enshrouds the personality. Black is essentially an absence of light, since no wavelengths are reflected and it can, therefore be menacing; many people are afraid of the dark. Positively, it communicates absolute clarity, with no fine nuances. It communicates sophistication and uncompromising excellence and it works particularly well with white. Black creates a perception of weight and seriousness. It is a myth that black clothes are slimming: Which of these boxes do you think is bigger/heavier? The truth behind the myth is that black is the most recessive colour a matter of not drawing attention to yourself, rather than actually making you look slimmer. WHITE Positive: Hygiene, sterility, clarity, purity, cleanness, simplicity, sophistication, efficiency. Negative: Sterility, coldness, barriers, unfriendliness, elitism. • Just as black is total absorption, so white is total reflection. In effect, it reflects the full force of the spectrum into our eyes. Thus it also creates barriers,
  36. 36. but differently from black, and it is often a strain to look at. It communicates, "Touch me not!" White is purity and, like black,uncompromising; it is clean, hygienic, and sterile. The concept of sterility can also be negative. Visually, white gives a heightened perception of space. The negative effect of white on warm colours is to make them look and feel garish. BROWN Positive: Seriousness, warmth, Nature, earthiness, reliability, support. Negative: Lack of humour, heaviness, lack of sophistication. • Brown usually consists of red and yellow, with a large percentage of black. Consequently, it has much of the same seriousness as black, but is warmer and softer. It has elements of the red and yellow properties. Brown has associations with the earth and the natural world. It is a solid, reliable colour and most people find it quietly supportive - more positively than the ever-popular black, which is suppressive, rather than supportive.
  37. 37. 11.COLOR PREFENCES BY GENDER Perceived appropriateness may explain why the most popular car colors are white, black, silver and gray ... but is there something else at work that explains why there aren't very many purple power tools? One of the better studies on this topic is Joe Hallock's Colour Assignments. Hallock's data showcases some clear preferences in certain colors across gender. It's important to note that one's environment--and especially cultural perceptions--plays a strong role in dictating color appropriateness for gender, which in turn can influence individual choices. Consider, for instance, this coverage by Smithsonian magazine detailing how blue became the color for boys and pink was eventually deemed the color for girls (and how it used to be the reverse!). Here were Hallock's findings for the most and least favorite colors of men and women:
  38. 38. The most notable points in these images is the supremacy of blue across both genders (it was the favorite color for both groups) and the disparity between groups on purple. Women list purple as a top-tier color, but no men list purple as a favorite color. (Perhaps this is why we have no purple power tools, a product largely associated with men?) Additional research in studies on color perception and color preferences show that when it comes to shades, tints and hues men seem to prefer bold colors while women prefer softer colors. Also, men were more likely to select shades of colors as their favorites (colors with black added), whereas women were more receptive to tints of colors (colors with white added): 12. COLOR THERAPY
  39. 39. 12.1 An Introduction to Color Therapy Color therapy and healing (also known as chromotherapy or light therapy) is a type of holistic healing that uses the visible spectrum of light and color to affect a person’s mood and physical or mental health. Each color falls into a specific frequency and vibration, which many believe contribute to specific properties that can be used to affect the energy and frequencies within our bodies. While it is common knowledge that light enters through our eyes, it’s important to note that light can also enter through our skin. Given the unique frequencies and vibrations of various colors, people believe that certain colors entering the body can activate hormones causing chemical reactions within the body, then influencing emotion and enabling the body to heal. Colors are known to have an effect on people with brain disorders or people with emotional troubles. For example, the color blue can have a calming effect which can then result in lower blood pressure, whereas the color red might have the opposite effect. Green is another color that may be used to relax people who are emotionally unbalanced. Yellow, on the other hand, may be used to help invigorate people who might be suffering from depression. (We’ll dive deeper into specific colors in a future article.) Alternative therapies also believe that a person’s aura contains different layers of light which can be used for cleansing and balancing. Knowing the colors in your aura can help you better understand your spirit, and thus help you better understand how to heal. Additionally, the colors surrounding you can also have various effects. 12.2 Brief History of Color Therapy It’s no mystery that the sun and its source of light (or lack thereof), can have a profound effect on us. Thousands of years ago, some countries began exploring color and its healing capabilities. Egypt, Greece and China are known for their forays into color healing and therapy. A few examples include: • Painting rooms different colors with the hopes of treating certain conditions. • Utilizing colors in nature in their surroundings (blue from skies, green from grass, etc.) • Healing rooms that utilized crystals to break up sunlight shining through. There is evidence of people attempting to use color for healing and therapy from as far back as 2000 years. And it has gained in popularity throughout the years, with numerous books being
  40. 40. written about it, including Johann Wolfgang Goethe who studied the physiological effects of color. As we mentioned though, many people are skeptical about using color and light for healing or therapy.
  41. 41. 13. CONCLUSION • Colour plays a vitally important role in the world which we live. • Colour is a sensation which is optical in nature • As a powerful form of communication, colour is irreplaceable. • Colours cause powerful reactions • Colours can be approached for several disciplines. • “Colour is uncontainable.It effortlessly reveals the limits of language and evades our best attempts to impose a rational order on it…To work with colour is to become aware of the insufficiency of language and theory – which is both disturbing and pleasurable.” -David Batchelor
  42. 42. REFERENCES 1. http://www.colour-affects.co.uk/psychological-properties-of-colours 2. http://www.arttherapyblog.com/online/color-psychology-psychologica- effects-of-colors/#.VkGHCPkrLIV 3. http://humannhealth.com/effect-of-different-colors-on-human-mind-and- body/243/2/ 4. http://www.worqx.com/color/color_wheel.htm 5. http://www.colorassociation.com/

×