Is There Really A Water Crisis?Over 1 billion people lack access to safe water2 out of 3 people will be living with water shortages by 2025Half of the worlds wetlands have been lost since 1900.The basis for most projections for future conflicts is that with thegrowth of demand, the decline in freshwater availability , and theadverse health effects from poor water quality, scarcity will resultin violence and water wars. YES
The global situation• Less than 3% of the world’s water isfresh – the rest is seawater andundrinkable.• Of this 3% over 2.5% is frozen, lockedup in Antarctica, the Arctic and glaciers,and not available to man.• Thus humanity must rely on this 0.5%for all of man’s and ecosystem’s freshwater needs.
The Indian situation PMs Independence Day Speech, 2009“Climate change is threatening our ecosystems;water scarcity is becoming a way of life andpollution is a growing threat to our health andhabitat.”
The Indian situationIndia has 16 % of the world’s population and 4% of its fresh waterresources.Water availability(Rank): Severe water stress:Weighted average: 14.0 thousand cubic Weighted average: 25.5 %metres #1 Israel: 100 %#1 Iceland: 294.34 thousand cubicmetres # 23 India: 80.2 %# 47 USA: 7.09 thousand cms # 36 China: 44.7 %# 68 UK: 3.1 thousand cms # 42 United States: 31.3 %# 89 China: 1.72 thousand cms # 51 United Kingdom: 21 %# 93 India: 1.56 thousandcubic metres# 141 Botswana: -7.46 thousand cubicmetres
The Indian situation • Groundwater [Depleted] • Population • Surface water [Polluted] • Demand • Rainfall [Wasted] • Consumption SCARCITY • Industrial Growth • Agriculture • Economy-Industry • Health & • Water Business Environment[Future ?
The Indian situation • Groundwater is the major source of water in our country with 85% of the population dependent. • Groundwater water table decline - 33 centimeters per year.
The Indian situation • Fresh water (rain and snow)availability - 4,000 BCMMost of which returns to the seas via rivers. • Surface and ground water availability - 1,869 BCM.Of this, 40 % is not available. Groundwater Consumption: Surface water Consumption: • 92% - Agricultural • 89% - Agricultural • 5% - Industrial • 2% - Industrial • 3% - Domestic. • 9% - Domestic.
The Indian situation Fewer than 10 countries possess 60% of the world’s available fresh water supply: • Brazil • Russia • China • Canada, • Indonesia • U.S • India • Columbia • Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Indian situationIndia receives abundant rains compared to other water scaredcountries but… This map shows how much water the Indian infrastructure fails to store!
The Indian situationThe Indian Government• Indian government is too focused on economic growth,instead of facilitating in basic human needs.• Poor water Management system.• Biofuel threatens India water supply.• Package Water Industries are encouraged.
Challenges Industries Over exploitation Groundwater depletion Pollution Health Issues Land Degraded Groundwater & Surface water polluted Agriculture Spoiled
Challenges Government• Inefficient Government – State construction• Lack of integrated water management• Inadequate enforcement of environment legislation relating towater• Insufficient facilities for waste water treatment• Insufficient local technological research on water
Challenges Public • Wasting Water • Polluting Water
Challenges• Climate change.• 2020 India will become a water stressed nation.• 66 million Indians in 20 states are at risk due to excess fluoride• 10 million due to excess arsenic in groundwater• Out of these 6.3 lakh rural schools only 44 % have water supplyfacilities• Half of all Indian children are undernourished and half of alladult women suffer from anaemia.
Challenges• 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseasesannually• 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhoea alone• 180 million working days are lost due to waterborne diseaseeach year• Economic burden is estimated at $600 million a year.• 1,95,813 habitations in the country are affected by poor waterquality.
Challenges• India’s rivers carry 90% of the water during the period fromJune to November, but only 10% is available during the other sixmonths.• Biofuel threatens India’s water supply.• 161 of out of approximately 600 districts in India havebeen declared drought.• At least 45% of Indias land area is degraded.• 90% of the sewage generated by municipal councils andover 50% of sewage discharged by municipal corporationsgoes untreated
ChallengesOverview of the major problems:Drinking Water• Inadequate and intermittent supply of drinking water• Metallic and bacterial pollution of water• Inadequate piped water supply in rural areas and some urbanslum areas• Loss of water in transmission (distribution) and storage• Lack of financial resources for improvements.
Challenges• Affect agriculture production• Insufficient local technological research on water• Lack of integrated water management• Inadequate enforcement of environment legislation relating towater• Lack of control over-exploitation of groundwater resources• Insufficient facilities for waste water treatment
ChallengesIndustrial Water• Inadequate enforcement of special waterregime for industries requiring considerableamounts of water • Inability of municipal water supply organizations to meet increasing demands of existing and new industries
ChallengesSafety of industrial establishments from surplus surface water andfloods Lack of proper draining facilitiesUncontrolled exploitation of ground water by some industrialestablishments
ChallengesRiver Yamuna- “the principal drain for New Delhi’s waste.”“Residents pour 150 million gallons of sewage into the river eachday.”“In New Delhi the Yamuna itself is clinically dead.”River Ganges- “River of Dead Bodies”
Challenges The Worlds Most Polluted Places (Times survey) Sukinda, India Number of people potentially affected: 2,600,000Groundwater in Sukinda is believed to be contaminated withchromium. Sukinda, which contains one of the largest open castchromite ore mines in the world, 60% of the drinking water containshexavalent chromium
Market StudySupply & DemandThere are two dominant features in current global waterconsumption patterns: The supply of fresh water is limited, but demand is growing steadily.Many countries are failing to satisfy the basic need to providesufficient quantities of water of acceptable quality.The development of the water market is being shaped by four megatrends:• global population growth.• infrastructure• water quality• Climate change
Case Study [ecosan* ecological sanitation ] The concept behind ecological sanitation (ecosan) is that sanitation problems could be solved more sustainably and efficiently if the resources contained in excreta and wastewater were recovered and used rather than discharged into the water bodies and the surrounding environment.THE SOLUTIONApplying Ecological Sanitation means both creating awareness forrecycling of human disposals as well as developing an adequate toiletdesign for separating urine and faces to make agricultural usepossible and exude the use of water.
Solution Progress is Must, But Environment is First.
SolutionSolutions to water problems require the consideration of cultural,educational, communication and scientific aspects.Plant TreesAvoid PollutionConserve waterTechnologies and InnovationsWater Purification SystemsSeawater desalinationWater Footprint
SolutionThe much-awaited seawater desalination plant, the largest in the country with acapacity of 100 MLD (million litres per day), coming up near Minjur about 35 kmnorth of Chennai .Under the technology, developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology(NIOT), warm water is pumped into a vacuum flash chamber and the resultantvapour is condensed using cold water to get crystal clear potable water.Desalinated water is of a better quality and the cost is only 6 paise per litre.
Solution Water FootprintTo manage the water consumption better.A water footprint measures the total amount of waterit takes for a company to manufacture and transport aproduct, or for a city, country, or business to operate.Calculating water footprints can help businesses andcommunities better understand and prepare for theimpacts of global water scarcity, according to experts.Such data allows companies to identify potentialwater savings and plan for future shortages
Solution• Rain Water Harvesting• Irrigation Water Management• Hydrological projects - Construction of Dams• Artificial Recharge to Ground Water through Dug well
SolutionTry to do one thing each day that will result in saving water. Dont worry if the savingsare minimal every drop counts! You can make a difference.Remember to use only the amount you actually need.Form a group of water-conscious people and encourage your friends and neighborsto be part of this group. Promote water conservation in community newsletters andon bulletin boards.Encourage your friends, neighbors and co-workers to also contribute.Encourage your family to keep looking for new ways to conserve water in andaround your home.Make sure that your home is leak-free. Many homes have leaking pipes that gounnoticed.Do not leave the tap running while you are brushing your teeth or soaping your face.
SolutionAvoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Put a brick or any other device that occupiesspace to cut down on the amount of water needed for each flush.When washing the car, use water from a bucket and not a hosepipe.Do not throw away water that has been used for washing vegetables, rice or dals.Use it to water plants or to clean the floors, etcYou can store water in a variety of ways. A simple method is to place a drum on araised platform directly under the rainwater collection source. You can also collectwater in a bucket during the rainy season.Donate fund for ongoing projects.
SolutionWater awareness groups among social media networking sites like Twitter,Facebook are creating new trend among the social awareness groups.Web 2.0 concept helps to bridge gap between the people – more interactiveBy doing this water project, I have learned more about saving a drop of water ratherusing wordpress Its not a solution to be found, it should be a RESOLUTION everyone should take.