Verbal ReasoningVerbal Ability is to understand the Prose and to workwith Specialized and Technical VocabularyVerbal Ability falls under following categories: *Synonyms * Antonyms * Analogy * Sentence Completions * Reading Comprehensions * Spotting Errors * Idioms
Formation Of Words Primary Words:Example : Run, Go, Do. Compound Words :Example : Moonlight, Sweetheart, Spendthrift, Drawingroom, Downfall.
Formation Of Words Primary Derivatives:Example : Breach (N) from break (V), Glaze from (V) Glass (N) Secondary Derivatives:Prefix - a, un, mis.Suffix - ful, less, ism
Root WordsGreek Roots: Examplechronicle - historical recordMetamorphosis - change of formPanorama - an all round viewNeologism - new word or meaningpyrotechnics - relating to fireworksastronaut - space traveler
Root WordsGreek Roots:ped - childsoma - bodygam - marriagetheo - godonym - namepath - feelingphil - to love
Root WordsPediatrician - doctor who treats childsomatic - of bodymonogamy - married to one persontheomacy - battle among godtoponym - word derived from name of placeSympathy - Compassion for someone else‟s painPhilosophy - love of wisdom
Root WordsGreek Roots: Examplepolyglot - competent in many languagesbibliophile - book sellermisogamist - one who hates marriagegraphology - study of handwritingtheocracy - rule by godspsychosis - a mental disorder
Root WordsLatin Roots:cede, ceed, cess - go / movementbrev - shortnihil - nothing/abolishomni - allcide - to killnec - deathdorm, somn - to sleep
Root WordsLatin Roots:recede - go backbreviary - summaryAnnihilate - kill, reduce to nothingOmniscient - all knowingfilicide - killing of childrennecrology - list of the dead, obituarydormant - asleep
Root WordsLatin Roots:elucidate - make clearsolilquy - speaking alonebeneficial - good formalevolent - harmful, wanting to cause harmcredulous - ready to believeantebellum - preceding a waromnivore - who eats everythingdescribe - write in detail
Root WordsLatin Roots: later - side magni - large rect - straight Doc - to teach flect - to bend fract - break tract/ tang - touch verto - to turn
Root WordsLatin Roots:bilateral - sidemagnify - greatness of sizerectify - straighten or to correctdoctrine - rule or principlegenuflect - Bend in a gesture of respectfracture - breakintact - untouchedambivert - to turn your thoughts in both direction
Antonym• Think of a Context.• Carefully Read the given Choices.• Consider Secondary Meaning as well as the Primary Meaning.• Breakdown Unfamiliar Words into Recognizable parts.• Eliminate the Choices for Answer.
Synonym• Think of a Context.• Carefully Read the given Choices.• Consider Secondary Meaning as well as the Primary Meaning.• Breakdown Unfamiliar Words into Recognizable parts.• Eliminate the Choices for Answer.
Sentence Completion It tests your Ability to use Vocabulary a)Ability to Recognize Logical b)Consistency among the Elements in a SentenceWhat makes SC difficult Vocabulary :Use of words like Nonplussed, Harbingers, EclecticUse of Secondary MeaningsExample : Economy – Restrain Cont… Toy – Dally
Sentence CompletionB. Grammatical complexity : They includes entire range of Grammatical Possibilities. Use of Clauses, Prepositional Phrases, Gerunds etc. in a Convoluted Manner.C. Tone : Writers Attitude towards the Subject Matter i.e ironic, playful, skeptical, somber etc. Cont…
Sentence CompletionStyle : Ideas maybe expressed in different manners, Ornately or Sparely, Poetically or Prosaically, formally or informally etc. An author‟s style depends on such details as word Choice, Imagery Repetition, Rhythm, Sentence Structures and Length. Thought extenders - Continue the idea Thought contrasters - Reverse the idea Cont…
Sentence CompletionSignal Words : additionally although also but and despite as well nevertheless besides in spite of furthermore on the contrary moreover still too while likewise which illogically surprisingly paradoxically unexpectedly
Tactics• Read the Sentence ,think of a word – makes sense.• Look at all possible answers.• In Double blank- options-testing the first word in each choice.• Watch for Single Word that link one part of the Sentence to another.• Break down Complex Sentences - Simpler Components.• Check whether the Metaphor controls the Choice of Words.
Example:1Because of experience had convinced herthat he was both self-seeking andavaricious, she rejected the likelihood thathis donation had been ______.a)Redundantb)Frivolousc)Inexpensived)Ephemerale)Altruistic
Example: 2If you are trying to make a strong impressionon your audience, you cannot do so by beingunderstated, tentative, or ______.a)Hyperbolicb)Restrainedc)Argumentatived)Authoritativee)Passionate
Sentence CompletionAnswer:b) “Restrained” ( controlled, in control of yourself).
Example: 3Despite the mixture‟s________ nature, wefound that by lowering its temperature in thelaboratory we could dramatically reduce itstendency to vaporize.a)Resilientb)Volatilec)Homogeneousd)Insipid ( INFOSYS 2008)e)Acerbic
Sentence CompletionAnswer : b) Volatile (Explosive, Hot-tempered)
Example:4 In a happy, somewhat boisterous celebration of the European discovery of America, the major phase of the Columbus Cinquecentennial got off to ______ start on Friday.a) a slow.b) A rousing.c) a reluctantd) an indifferent. Accenture 2007e) a quiet.
Example:5 We are ___ the intellects of the past; or rather, like children we take it for granted that somebody must supply us with our supper and our _____ .a) Ungrateful to …. Ideas.b) Dependent on … reposec) Unfaithful to … needsd) Fortunate in …. Allowancee) Generous to …. wants
Sentence CompletionAnswer: a) Ungrateful to …. Ideas.
Example:6Sharmi is always late she never comes___ time a) at b) with in c) on d) Before (Wipro)
Example:9Harding was unable to ____ the results of thesurvey; although entirely unexpected, the figureswere obtained by a market research firm with an____ reputation. a). accept - peerless b). discount - impeccable c). fault-mediocre d). counter - unenviable e). believe - fine
Sentence CompletionAnswer: B. discount - impeccable
Example:10Many so-called social playwrights are distinctly ____ ;rather than allowing the members of the audience toform their own opinions, these writers force a viewpointon the viewer. a). conciliatory b). prolific c). iconoclastic d). didactic e). contumacious
Example - 11In American film, some character actors havefound it _____ to gain widespreadrecognition, although within the smallercommunity of actors, directors, and producersthey are highly regarded.a)Difficultb)Acceptablec)Unsatisfactoryd)Discouraginge)Relatively simple
Example - 12Despite the fact that over time the originally antagonistic response to his sculpture had lessened, to this day, hardly any individuals ____ his art.a) Applaudb) Castigatec) Evaluated) Denouncee) ignore
Example - 13In contrast to physicists who base their research on scientific theory, he modeled his procedure on rigorous ____; so despite the fact that his method was less sophisticated, hid results were ___ sound.a) Fiction …methodologicallyb) abstraction…arguablyc) Intuition … scientificallyd) Observation…factually
Example - 14Although he asserted his theology was derived from ____ school of thought, it actually utilizes conventions from many religious and so it rightfully could be described as having ____ origins.a) A particular… diverseb) A cogent …multitalentedc) A prominent …coherentd) A single…consonant
Sentence CompletionAnswer: a) A particular… diverse
Example - 15Although bound to impose the law, a judge is free to use her discretion to ___ the anachronistic ___ of some criminal penalties.a) Enforce … judiciousnessb) Impose…legallyc) Exacerbate…severityd) Mitigate…barbarity
Example - 16To examine the ___ of importing concepts from one discipline to enhance another, merely look at the degree to which words from the first may, without distortion, be ___ the second.a) danger… meaningless forb) Popularity… created withinc) Etiquette…revitalized byd) Validity … employed by
Sentence CompletionAnswer: d) Validity … employed by
Example - 17Recent investigation into business and morality reveals the way in which apparently ____ business decisions, typically lost sight of in the ordinary operations of commerce, in reality ___ moral choices of major importance.a) unimportant… representb) Unreliable…provokec) Unparalleled…symbolize
Sentence CompletionAnswer: a) unimportant… represent
Example - 18While many people enjoy observing rituals and customs not ___ their culture, they _____ participating in them.a) Sanctioned by… encourageb) Endemic to …eschewc) Upheld in…. Condoned) Central to …relishe) Accustomed to … avoid
Sentence CompletionAnswer: b) Endemic to …eschew
Example - 19The sparring of the two lawyers appeared ____; however, it is well known that, outside the courtroom, the friendship between the two is____.a) pointless…cooperativeb) Hostile…obviousc) Lighthearted…abrogatedd) Heightened… concealede) Brilliant … precluded
Sentence CompletionAnswer: b) Hostile…obvious
Example - 20In radio, a morning broadcasting time often ___ a larger and more ____ audience and, thus, one that is more appealing to advertisers of expensive products.a) Demands … attractiveb) Denotes… agreeablec) Indicates… prosperousd) Overlooks… practical
Sentence CompletionAnswer: c) Indicates… prosperous
Spotting Errors• Grammatical Errors form the most Probable Error in Error Spotting exercises.• Mistakes in Preposition and Tenses is more Common.
Examples1) The car is / almost / the same / like mine.2) The weather / feels / as / spring.3) Mary‟s job / is as / hard / than Bill‟s.4) Some of the M.P‟s absented/ from lok sabha even/ when issues of the highest/ importance were being discussed.
Examples5) India is one of/ those few countries/ whichhas maintained /steady growth rate.6) Let you and I/ press our minds/ intothinking/ out the best solution.7) None of the boys/ who were/ present therecame/ for help.
Examples8) Shangai is/bigger than/ any city in/ the world.9) I shall /leave this /place when /he will come.10) When I returned /my home from office/ I saw the flower pots are/ broken infront of my home/No error. (Wipro 2008).11) The walls are/ now wet/ because yesterday/ it has been raining./ No error. (Wipro 2008).
Examples12). At the music recital, Alexandra enjoyedlistening to her friend Mohammed‟sinsightful Interpretation, which she thought wasmore sophisticated than the other performers.No error. (infosys)13). If one is interested in learning even moreabout Zora Neale Hurston, you should readRobert Hemingways biography. No error. (infosys)
Examples14. Sponsors of the Olympic games who bought advertising time on united states television includes at least a dozen international firms whose names are familiar to American consumers. No error. (infosys)15. Originally a protest on conventional painting, the pre-Raphaelite movement exerted great influence on the art of its time. No error. (infosys)
Examples16). In financial matters / it is important to / get disinterested advice. / no error.17). Credit cards have / brought about a revolution / in people‟s spending habits. / no error.18). A cogent remark / compels acceptance because / of their sense and logic. / no error.19). He had been / saved of death as if / by divine intervention. / no error.
Examples20). The film was so disjointed / that I could not tell you / what the story was about. / no error.21). Take two spoonful / of this medicine / every three hours. / no error.22). Some women admit that / their principle goal in life / is to marry a wealthy man. / no error.23). If the allegations / made against him / are found to be true / he could face rigorous imprisonment. / no error
Examples24). On discovering that / it was a forgery / he torn up the agreement / he had signed. / no error.25). With regard to implementation the / details of the proposal / the committee was divided / in its opinion. / no error.
Solution16). In financial matters / it is important to / get neutral advice / no error.17). Credit cards have / bought about a revolution / in people‟s spending habits / no error.18). A cogent remark / compels acceptance because / of it sense and logic / no error.19). He had been / saved from death as if / by divine intervention / no error.
Solution20). The film was so disjointed / that I can not tell you / what the story was about / no error.21). Take two spoonfuls / of this medicine / every three hours / no error.22). Some women admit that / their principal goal in life / is to marry a wealthy man / no error.23). If the allegations / made against him / are found to be true / he could face rigorous imprisonment / no error
Solution24). On discovering that / it was a forgery / he torn up the agreement / he had signed / no error.25). With regard to implementation the / details of the proposal / the committee was divided / in its opinion / no error.
Reading ComprehensionIts Tests your Ability to UnderstandContent, Technique and your LogicalInterpretation Skills.
Some Strategies For Use• Look carefully at the Parts of Speech specially in the Synonym and Antonym variation questions.• Look for Secondary Meanings of words if the Primary ones do not seem to fit.• If the Meaning of a Word is not known, try and place it within a Context, and then see what Sense it makes.
Tactics• Tackle Passages with Familiar Subjects before passages with unfamiliar ones.• First Read the Passage, then Read the Questions.• Learn to Spot the Major Reading Question types. a) Main idea. b) Finding specific details. c) Inference. d) Application to other situations. e) Tone. f) Technique. g) Vocabulary.
Idioms•Idioms are the Expressions whose Meaningscannot be easily worked out from the wordsthey contain.• It is Expression in the Sentence.• It is Different from Slang / Colloquial.
Example:1The manager‟s bark is worse than his bite.a) He shoutsb) He punishesc) His action is worse than his speechd) His speech is worse than action
IdiomsAnswer: a) His speech is worse than action
Example: 2It is bad to pass the buck on somebody.a) Infectb) Inflictc) Blamed) Shift responsibility
Example:1A. It was never denied and seemed to be integrated into the city life.B. The poverty was there right in the open in all the streets.C. But, somehow it did not depress me as much as I had.D. Indian society is associated with great poverty, and indeed I saw a lot of poverty in Mumbai.
Jumbled SentenceD) Indian society is associated with great poverty, and indeed I saw a lot of poverty in Mumbai.C) But, somehow it did not depress me as much as I had.B) The poverty was there right in the open in all the streets.A) It was never denied and seemed to be integrated into the city life.
Example:2a) Their growing costs and a growing economy must be reckoned with realistically.b) Central programmes persist and in some cases grow.c) As demand expands, programmes expand.d) It is extremely difficult to curtail them.
Jumbled SentenceB) Central programmes persist and in some cases grow.C) As demand expands, programmes expand.D) It is extremely difficult to curtail them.A) Their growing costs and a growing economy must be reckoned with realistically.
Jumbled SentenceRearrange the jumbled sentences. The first andthe last are in their proper places. Find the propersequence of ABCD.
Example:31. Eventually, tim brought in a communications consultant named Gloria Hoffman to mediate.A. She also forced them to talk about what they respected about each other.B. With Hoffman‟s help, they came to an agreement to help ensure a smooth transition.C. For the year that Ray planned to remain CEO, he could veto tim‟s ideas. But after that year he would pack up, leave the building and not interfere.D. For six months, Ray and Tim met independently with Hoff man to vent their frustration with each other.6. „they began to think like that and ended up doing it on their own‟, say Hoffman, „it changed their „relationship considerably‟
Jumbled Sentence1. Eventually, Tim brought in a communications consultant named Gloria Hoffman to mediate.D. For six months, Ray and Tim met independently with Hoff man to vent their frustration with each other.B. With Hoffman‟s help, they came to an agreement to help ensure a smooth transition.C. For the year that Ray planned to remain CEO, he could veto Tims ideas. But after that year he would pack up, leave the building and not interfere.A. She also forced them to talk about what they respected about each other.6. „They began to think like that and ended up doing it on their own‟, say Hoffman, „it changed their „relationship considerably‟
Example 4a) It was never denied and seemed to be integrated into the city life.b) The poverty was there right in the open in all the streets.c) But, somehow it did not depress me as much as I had feared.d) Indian society is associated with great poverty, and indeed I saw a lot of poverty in mumbai.
Jumbled Sentencea) It was never denied and seemed to be integrated into the city life.d) Indian society is associated with great poverty, and indeed I saw a lot of poverty in mumbai.b) The poverty was there right in the open in all the streets.c) But, somehow it did not depress me as much as I had feared.
Example - 5a) Ask anybody who they work for nowadays, and the answer is likely to be „a small company‟.b) And that company is more likely to go bust.c) Fascination with size is no more revealing in management theory than it is other areas of life.d) Regardless of the relative merits of big and small companies, nowadays you are more likely to work for a small company.
Jumbled SentenceD) Regardless of the relative merits of big and small companies, nowadays you are more likely to work for a small company.A) Ask anybody who they work for nowadays, and the answer is likely to be „a small company‟.B) And that company is more likely to go bust.C) Fascination with size is no more revealing in management theory than it is other areas of life.