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Prasanna Bhaskar Leadership


Published on

Leading Change
Retail Head
Louis Vuitton HongKong
Reference: Leading Change (HKUST reference)

Published in: Business

Prasanna Bhaskar Leadership

  1. 1. 1 Leading for ChangeLeading for Change Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  2. 2. 2 Roadmap for Today  Segment 1  Getting acquainted: Team Game  Segment 2  What is leadership?  movie clips and discussion  Leadership vs. Management  Segment 3  Leadership style - analyzing two exemplary leadership styles  What shapes a leader: Case discussion  Segment 4  Leadership and organizational transformation  Leadership within: Know yourself
  3. 3. 3 Team Game Win as much as you can!
  4. 4. Rules  Do not communicate with other groups  Each group must agree on a single choice for each round  Present cards simultaneously Note: Remember your objective at all times: Win As Much As You Can!
  5. 5. 5 Payoffs 4 Reds 3 Reds 1 Green 2 Reds 2 Greens 1 Red 3 Greens 4 Greens Lose Win Lose Win Lose Win Lose Win $10 each $10 each $30 $20 each $20 each $30 $10 each $10 each
  6. 6. 6 Lessons from the ExerciseLessons from the Exercise
  7. 7. 7 Lessons from the ExerciseLessons from the Exercise  The central lesson of this game is that you can often profit more through cooperation than conflict  When you negotiate, you should not try to beat anyone else.  When negotiating, if you are thinking about whether your final outcomes are better than the other party’s, you don’t do as well as you could.  In many bargaining situations, when you bargain well you and everyone else involved will obtain very good outcomes.  Ask for others’ intentions- people like to think of themselves as consistent.
  8. 8. Collaboration “... the process of shared creation: two or more individuals with complementary skills interacting to create a shared understanding that none had previously possessed, or could have come to on their own ... it’s the creation of value.” —Michael Schrage
  9. 9. What is your greatest challenge to collaboration? What does it take to truly collaborate?
  10. 10. Driving Principles  Believe in common ground  Learn to rely on others and to be reliable  Partner for results  Build trust and be trust worthy
  11. 11. 11  What is your own personal definition of leadership?  Why is leadership important?
  12. 12. 12 What Is Leadership?  Leadership is a source of influence  by Max Weber  Leadership appears to be the art of getting others to want to do something that you are convinced should be done  by Vance Packard  Leadership is creating constructive or adaptive change  by John Kotter  Leadership is creating a context in which people can achieve their full potential in serving the organization’s mission  by Morgan McCall, Jr.
  13. 13. 13 Video I -George Patton  While watching the video, take notes on how leadership is exhibited.  Note how Patton promotes change and commitment  Pay attention to details, spoken as well as non-spoken.
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 Without Words: How can you see Patton is a leader? Listening to Words: How can you tell Patton is a leader?
  16. 16. 16 Leadership Without Words  Flag  Uniform  Medals  Pistol (non-standard)  Body language  Voice tone  Staff (stick)  Eyes  Confident posture  An older man who is very fit
  17. 17. 17 Leadership Conveyed via Words  Speaks soldier’s language, one of them  Clear goals, vision, high standards  Decisive, encouraging, motivating, energetic  Dogmatic, American spirit, confidence  Intimidation, shock, fear, aggression
  18. 18. 18 What are the Soldiers Thinking About?  Will I die ? (the unspoken fear)  Will I be a coward?  Can I kill?  Will we win?
  19. 19. 19 How is Patton a Leader?  Reaches out to subordinates  Confronts their passion, anxieties, fears as well as potential  Operating at a deeper, human level  Connecting through empathy to his troops  Using symbols, stories and their own languages  Not crafting rules and regulations
  20. 20. 20 Video II: Mahatma Gandhi  While watching the video, take notes on what Gandhi teaches us about leadership  How he influenced and created change  Pay attention to ideas, spoken as well as non-spoken
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22 What We Learn from Gandhi  Vision and ambitious goals  Conviction and strong associates  Moral authority  Selfless  Personal strength  Art of framing issues
  23. 23. 23  What are the similarities between Patton and Gandhi?  What are the differences between Patton and Gandhi?
  24. 24. 24  Leadership not personality-bound. Question is “will you be?”  Leadership involves risks (assume deeper responsibility for people)  Leadership involves simultaneous attention to big ideas - understand past and present, create vision for the future, develop a path from past to future  Leadership involves small acts - listening, humility, confidence, trust, and influence  Leadership may differ depending on cultures and environments  The bottom line: “Do you really care?” Summary of Patton and Gandhi
  25. 25. 25 What is Leadership? Leadership is influence!
  26. 26. 26 Leadership As Incremental Influence LOW HIGH Degree of influence Management Leadership 30% - 70% of untapped human potential
  27. 27. 27 Comparing Management and Leadership Management Leadership Creating an agenda Planning and budgeting Establishing Direction Developing a human network for achieving agenda Organizing and staffing Aligning people Execution Controlling and problem solving Motivating and inspiring Outcomes Produces results expected by various stakeholders Produces change
  28. 28. 28 LEADERSHIP Superiors PeersCustomers Subordinates Which ways did Patton lead? Which ways did Gandhi lead? Which ways do you need to lead? How about yesterday? Multidirectional Leadership Process
  29. 29. 29 Leadership Research Period Research Focus 1920’s-1950’s traits of effective leaders 1950’s-1960’s behaviors of effective leaders 1960’s-1970’s situational leadership 1970’s-1980’s symbolic role of leaders 1980’s-1990’s return to “traits” and “behaviors” 1990’s leadership in multicultural settings the 00s transformational leadership
  30. 30. 30 Case Discussion: The Caring Dictator  How would you describe Jack Harnett’s leadership style?  Why is he successful?  Would you work for him?
  31. 31. 31 Case Discussion: Judy Buchanan  What are the elements of Buchanan’s leadership style?  How would you compare Buchanan’s leadership style with that of Jack Harnett?
  32. 32. 32 Summary of Two Exemplary Leadership Styles People-oriented  primary attention is on the people  Preference for other’s involvement in decisions  Major concern is on employee well being and development  Emphasis is on delegation and freedom Task-oriented  Primary attention is on the task  Preference for making own decisions  Major concern is on task quality and production efficiency  Emphasis is on control and structure
  33. 33. 33  Leadership effectiveness: Contingent on both the situation and on the leader
  34. 34. 34 Situational Factors Influencing Leadership Effectiveness  The nature of societal culture e.g., tolerance for ambiguity  The nature of the corporate culture e.g., normative leadership style  The stage of the organization’s life cycle e.g., growth versus stable  The nature of the organizational structure e.g., network organizations  The nature of the task e.g., formalization of rules  The nature of the subordinates e.g., professional maturity and
  35. 35. 35 Situational Leadership Willingness Ability Lo Hi Hi (Follower Readiness: Willingness and Ability)
  36. 36. 36 What Shapes a Leader?  Family background  Basic personality  Education  Career path  Accumulated knowledge and relationships  Experiences
  37. 37. 37 Two Leaders of the 1990s  If leadership measured by $$$, consider MVA, “market value added”  In a survey mid 1990s,  Microsoft up US$30 billion ($30,000,000,000)  Merck up $32 billion  Wal-mart up $35 billion  GE up $52 billion  Coca Cola up $61 billion  Why these two firms, GE and Coke, on top??  Each had ONE leader this time period
  38. 38. 38 Jack Welch  Led General Electric from 1981 to 2000  Got out of many businesses, into others  Set goal: # 1 or 2 in all we do  Total value of all stock up $52 billion ($52,000,000,000.00)
  39. 39. 39 Roberto Goizueta  Led Coca Cola from 1981 to 1997  Got out of side businesses, focused on Coke  Reaffirmed Coke as a global company  Total value of all stock up $61 billion ($61,000,000,000.00)
  40. 40. 40 Jack Welch  Born average family, New York  Slow start in education  Start at top? NO Roberto Goizueta  Born well-to-do family, Cuba  Good education  Start at top? NO Is It Where They Started? NO
  41. 41. 41 Jack Welch  Fighter, athlete  Focus in college: beer  Entertain guests? Get into sports! play hard!  Polite to bosses, others? NO  respected, hated  Never seen with a coat ON Roberto Goizueta  High culture, smooth  Studied hard, Yale  Entertain? Opera?  In the bureaucracy, kept quiet, did his job  respected, liked  Never seen with his coat OFF Is It Their Style? NO
  42. 42. 42 Jack Welch  Came into a stagnant business  Looked to find right business to be in  Focused on making tradition bound bureaucracy accept change Roberto Goizueta  Came into a stagnant business  Looked to find right businesses to be in  Focused on making tradition bound bureaucracy accept change Was It Their Approach? MAYBE!
  43. 43. 43 Roberto Goizueta vs. Jack Welch  How can we explain the extraordinary success by both Goizueta and Welch in spite of the stark differences between them?  How did their life experiences influence their leadership styles and beliefs?  Would Jack Welch have been as effective at Coke? Goizueta at GE? Why and why not?
  44. 44. 44 Why Some Companies Failed In The 80’s  Observations:  Between 1981 to 1990, about half of Fortune 500 companies were dropped from the list.  U.S.: GM, IBM, DEC, Sears, Kodak, Westinghouse, Citicorp.  Europe: Volkswagen, Philips, Lloyd’s of London.  Asia: Mazda, NEC.
  45. 45. 45 Why Some Companies Succeeded  Suppose that in 1972, you were asked to pick and invest in the five best performing firms over the next 20 years in the U.S., how would you approach your assignment? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________
  46. 46. 46 Michael Porter’s Framework  Five fundamental forces that Porter says determine the ability of firms in an industry to earn above normal returns:  entry of new competitors  threat of substitutes  bargaining power of buyers  bargaining power of suppliers  rivalry among existing competitors
  47. 47. 47 Best Performing Firms in the U.S. (1972 –1992) Company Stock Return Industry Southwest Airlines 21,775% Airline Wal-Mart 19,807% Retailing Tyson Foods 18,118% Food Circuit City 16,410% Retailing Plenum Publishing 15,689% Publishing What are their common characteristics?
  48. 48. 48 Case Discussion: Southwest Airlines (SW)  Questions:  Why is Southwest a success?  What is their strategy?  What does it take to execute this strategy?  Are these sustainable? Imitatable?  What can we learn from Southwest Airlines?
  49. 49. 49 Some Facts About Southwest.. AMR DELTA NW SW UAL USAIR Cost per available seat mile 8.9 cents 9.6 cents 7.0 cents 9.4 cents 10.8 cents Passengers per employee Employee per aircraft 840 1,114 919 2,443 795 1,118 11115781127134152 9.1 cents
  50. 50. 50 Southwest Airlines: Case Discussion
  52. 52. The McKinsey 7-S Framework SHARED VALUES SYSTEMS STYLE STAFF SKILLS STRATEGY STRUCTURE StrategyStrategy: A set of actions aimed at gaining a sustainable advantage over the competition. StructureStructure: The organization chart and associated information that shows who reports to whom and how tasks are both divided up and integrated. SystemsSystems: The processes and flows that show how an organization operates on a daily basis (e.g. information systems, capital budgeting systems, manufacturing processes, quality control systems, and performance measurement systems). StyleStyle: What managers consider to be important by the way they collectively spend their time and attention and how they use symbolic behavior. It is more important how management behaves than what management says
  53. 53. The McKinsey 7-S Framework SHARED VALUES SYSTEMS STYLE STAFF SKILLS STRATEGY STRUCTURE Staff:Staff: What companies do to foster the process of developing managers and shaping the basic values of the management team. Shared values:Shared values: The values that go beyond, but usually include, statement of goals and objectives in determining a firm’s destiny. These values are shared by most of the people in the organization. Skills:Skills: Those dominant attributes of capabilities that are possessed by an organization.
  54. 54. Analysis of SW Using 7S Model StyleStyle •Role Model •Playful •Service-oriented •Committed Shared Values •Speed  Cost focus •Fun  Team StaffingStaffing •Friendly •Versatile •Hard Working •Youthful •Flexible StructureStructure •Lean •Few layers VisionVision •Friendly flying car SystemSystem •737 aircraft •Profit-sharing •Low cost •Reservations •Boarding •Luggage •No hubs TacticsTactics •Low Fares  Reliable •Frequent  Point to point SkillsSkills •Customer friendliness •Speed •Teamwork
  55. 55. 55 SW Strategy  Limited passenger service  Low cost  High volume  Customer satisfaction  Employee commitment and productivity
  56. 56. Low cost Limited passenger service High volume Customer satisfaction High employee productivity No meals No travel agents Secondary airports Low prices No CRS No connections High employee ownership Friendly service On-time High employee commitment Flexible union contracts High-volume city pairs No assigned seats Fast turnaround Standard fleet ‘Ticketless’ travel Point-point routes Frequent flights Meet expectations; ‘Low Fare Airline’ Strategy of Southwest Airlines
  57. 57. 57 What Does It Take to Execute This Strategy?  Critical Tasks  keep costs down, productivity up  consistency (strategy and service)  high utilization  People  energetic  positive  committed  interpersonally skilled  affiliative (family)  friendly
  58. 58. 58 What Does It Take to Execute This Strategy?  Culture  initiative  fun  teamwork  cost conscious  Formal Organization  flat structure  compensation  Leadership  egalitarian  hard work  autonomy  teams  unionized
  59. 59. 59 Lessons about Leadership from Herb Kelleher  How would you describe Kelleher’s leadership style?  How does Kelleher lead?  Why is he effective?
  60. 60. 60 Five Leadership Practices  Challenge the process  Model the way  Inspire a shared vision  Enable others to act  Encourage the heart Kouzes, J. & Posner, B. The leadership challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organizations, Jossey-Bass, 1995.
  61. 61. 61 Fundamental Practices of Exemplary Transformational Leadership Practice #1:  Challenging the process, searching out opportunities, experimenting
  62. 62. 62 Fundamental Practices of Exemplary Transformational Leadership Practice #2:  Setting high personal standards; Role modeling; Acting with integrity Building Credibility
  63. 63. 63 Fundamental Practices of Exemplary Transformational Leadership Practice #3:  Creating a shared vision and set of common core values, focusing on future, including followers’ vision Exercise: Developing an effective mission statement.
  64. 64. 64 Fundamental Practices of Exemplary Transformational Leadership Practice #4:  Enabling followers to implement vision through collaboration and empowerment
  65. 65. 65 Fundamental Practices of Exemplary Transformational Leadership Practice #5:  Encouraging the heart through enthusiasm, frequent positive feedback, and effective use of language.
  66. 66. 66 Understand Yourself: Strength Deployment Inventory (SDI)  Background  Developed to measure individuals’ styles in absence or presence of conflict  Based on the Relationship Awareness Theory  Allows individuals to identify their strength deployment patterns when things are going well and when things are in conflict
  67. 67. 67 Scoring the SDI ---1  Complete the SDI survey  Verify that the three numbers in Column 1,2, and 3 on page 1 equal 100. Columns 4,5,and 6 on page 2 equal 100  Transfer these number to lower right hand corner boxes on page 5.
  68. 68. 68 Scoring SDI ---2  For each number, divide by 10.  Use a ruler to help locate the point on the blue scale where your column 1 number falls. Draw a straight line perpendicular to the scale. Repeat for red and green scales.  The three lines shown intersect at the same point. If not, check additions and drawing
  69. 69. 69 Scoring SDI---3  Make a heavy dot at the intersection of the three lines and erase the lines.  Repeat for the scores in columns 4, 5, and 6.  Connect the two dots. Draw a line and add an arrow at the end of the line where the scores for 4, 5, and 6 are pointed  If you finish early, read the rest of the survey
  70. 70. Col. 6 (1.0) Col. 5 (7.5) Col. 2 (4.0) Col. 4 (1.5) Col. 1 (2.5) Col. 3 (3.5) 2.5 1.5 4.0 7.5 1.0 3.5 Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 4 Col. 3 Col. 6Col. 5 B A
  71. 71. 71 Patterns of Motivation  Assertive-Directing (Red)  Analytic-Autonomizing (Green)  Altruistic-Nurturing (Blue)  Flexible-Cohering (Rainbow)
  72. 72. 72 Characteristics of an Assertive-Directing Individual (Red)  Doer  Fighter  Pushes for authority, responsibility, and leadership  Uses persuasion  Challenges others  Takes Risks  Is alert to opportunity
  73. 73. 73  Thinks  Plans  Searches for meaningful order  Control emotions  Is concerned that things have been properly thought through  Is cautious and thorough  Is fair and principled Characteristics of an Analytic-Autonomizing Individual (Green)
  74. 74. 74  Is friendly helper  Is open and responsive to others  Avoids being a burden to others  Promotes harmony  Makes life easier for others  Is supportive  Is warmhearted Characteristics of an Altruistic-Nurturing Individual (Blue)
  75. 75. 75  Is task-oriented  Is a flexaholic  Show concern for feelings of others  Is thorough  Is supportive  Is open and responsive to the ideas of others  Is strong at times in providing own ideas Characteristics of a Flexible-Cohering Individual (Rainbow)
  76. 76. 76 How We Deal with Conflict from Strength Deployment Theory  Strengths are deployed sequentially during conflict and opposition, and therefore behavior changes as a conflict escalates  At first appearance of conflict -  Blues press for harmony or deny the seriousness of the problem  Reds challenge the opposition and present their solution forcefully  Greens become cautions and rely on analysis to provide a solution
  77. 77. 77 How We Deal with Conflict from Strength Deployment Theory  If conflict is not resolved, people try different angles -  Blues preserve whatever harmony can be salvaged  Reds accept that a fight is required and prepare for it  Greens retreat to prevent further intrusion and chaos
  78. 78. 78 How We Deal with Conflict from Strength Deployment Theory  When conflict continues despite all efforts for resolution -  Blues surrender in complete defeat  Reds fight to the bitter end  Greens break off contact and leave
  79. 79. 79 How Others See Us Characteristic Known As Also Known As Altuistic-Nuturing (Blue) Friendly helpers, nice guys, and warm- hearted caretakers Pushovers, bleeding hearts, and doormats Assertive-Directing (Red) Winners, go-getters, and fighters Dictators, task masters and bullies Analytic- Autonomizing (Green) Thinkers, planners, organizers and analyzers Nit-pickers, loners, and analysis- paralysis sufferers Flexible-Cohering (Rainbow) Team players, socializers and compromisers Wishy-washies, the unpredictables, chameleons and company people
  80. 80. 80 Assertive-Directing (Red) Characteristic Strengths If Overdone Become Self-confident Enterprising Ambitious Organizing Persuasive Forceful Quick to act Imaginative Competitive Proud Bold Risk-taking Arrogant Opportunistic Ruthless Controlling Abrasive Dictatorial Rash Dreamer Combative Conceited Brash Gambler
  81. 81. 81 Analytic-Autonomizing (Green) Characteristic Strengths If Overdone Become Cautious Practical Economical Reserved Methodical Analytic Principled Orderly Fair Persevering Conserving Thorough Suspicious Unimaginative Stingy Cold Rigid Nit-picking Unbending Compulsive Unfeeling Stubborn Possessive Obsessive
  82. 82. 82 Altruistic-Nurturing (Blue) Characteristic Strengths If Overdone Become Trusting Optimistic Loyal Idealistic Helpful Modest Devoted Caring Supportive Accepting Polite Undemanding Gullible Impractical Blind Wishful Smothering Self-effacing Subservient Submissive Self-sacrificing Passive Deferential Masochistic
  83. 83. 83 Flexible-Cohering (Rainbow) Characteristic Strengths If Overdone Become Flexible Open to change Socializer Experimenter Curious Adaptable Tolerant Open to compromise Looksfor options Socially sensitive Team player Meditor Wishy-wishy Inconsistent Unable to stand alone Aimless Nosy Spineless Uncaring Unprincipled No clear focus Deferent to others Other dependent Without own convictions
  84. 84. 84 STRENGTH DEPLOYMENT INVENTORY (Additional Information)
  85. 85. 85 ALTRUISTIC - NURTURING  VALUE RELATING STYLE  Being open and responsive to the needs of others  Seeking ways to bring help to others  Trying to make life easier for others  Trying to avoid being a burden to others  Ensuring others reach their potential  Ensuring others are valued  Defending the rights of others Concern for the Protection, Growth and Welfare of Others
  86. 86. 86 ASSERTIVE - DIRECTING  VALUE RELATING STYLE  Competing for authority, responsibility and positions of leadership  Exercising persuasion  Being alert to opportunity  Claiming the right to earned rewards  Accepting challenges  Accepting risk-taking as necessary and desirable  Demonstrating competitiveness Concern for Task Accomplishment Concern for Organization of People, Time, Money and Any Other Resources to Achieve Desired Results
  87. 87. 87 ANALYTIC - AUTONOMIZING  VALUE RELATING STYLE  Being objective  Being right, Being principled  Being in control of one’s emotions  Being practical  Being cautious and thorough  Being fair  Being resolute  Being serious  Being their own “judge and jury”  Being their “own person”  Thinking things through before acting Concern for Assurance That Things Have Been Properly Thought Out Concern for Meaningful Order Being Established and Maintained Individualism, Self-Reliance & Self-Dependence
  88. 88. 88 FLEXIBLE - COHERING  VALUE RELATING STYLE  Being curious about what others think and feel, open minded and willing to adapt  Experiments with different ways of acting  Proud to be a “member”  Likes to know a lot of people  Likes to be known by a lot of people  Likes to be known as flexible Concern for Flexibility Concern for the Welfare of the Group Concern for the Members of the Group & for Belonging in the Group
  89. 89. 89 ASSERTIVE - NURTURING  VALUE RELATING STYLE  Actively seeking opportunities to help others  Persuading others to ensure maximum growth and development of others  Being open to proposals for creating welfare and security for others  Creating enthusiasm and support in tackling obstacles to success Concern for the Protection, Growth and Welfare of Others Through Task Accomplishment and Leadership
  90. 90. 90 JUDICIOUS - COMPETING  VALUE RELATING STYLE  Providing rational leadership that can assess risks and opportunities  Being decisive and proactive when all the facts are in  Challenging opposition through thoughtful process and strategy Concern for Intelligent Assertiveness, Justice, Leadership, Order, and Fairness in Competition
  91. 91. 91 CAUTIOUS - SUPPORTING  VALUE RELATING STYLE  Building effective processes and resources to protect or enhance welfare of others  Offering assistance for greater self-sufficiency and independence  Supporting activities that lead to growth  Fighting for principles that are fair Concern for Affirming and Developing Self-Sufficiency in Self & Others Concern for Thoughtful Helpfulness with Regard for Justice
  92. 92. 92 Individual Feedback: What Color is Your Dot?  Each person has colored dots representing the 4 styles of behavior  You are to go around the room and put the color dot on the page you think represents the behavior of every other person in the room.  If you do not know the person at all do not put a dot on that person’s page
  93. 93. 93 Reflection  Is this what you expected? Why or why not?  How can you use this strength to help your team and your organization?  How can you be sure not to overdo the strength?
  94. 94. 雁的啟示 Lessons from Geese
  95. 95. 95 雁的啟示 - Lessons from Geese  當每隻雁展翅高飛 , 也為後邊的隊友提供了“向上之風” ,“V” 字隊形 , 為雁 群增加了 71% 的飛行范圍 : As each goose flaps its wings, it creates an uplift for the birds that follow. By flying in a V formation, the whole flock adds 71% extra flying range. 啟示啟示 - Lesson:  分享團隊默契 , 能互相幫助 , 更輕鬆地到達目的地 .. 因為他們的旅程建立 在相互信任的基礎上 . People who share a sense of community can help each other get where they are going more easily, because they are traveling on the trust of one another.
  96. 96. 96 雁的啟示 - Lessons from Geese  當某隻雁偏離隊伍時 , 它會立即發現單獨飛行的辛勞和阻力 . 它會立即 飛回隊伍 , 善用同伴的“向上之風” . When a goose falls out of formation, it suddenly feels the drag and resistance of flying alone. It quickly moves back to take advantage of the lifting power of the birds in front. 啟示 - Lesson :  若我們與雁一般 , 我們就會緊跟大隊伍 , 樂於接受他人的協助 , 并幫助 別人 . If we have as much sense as geese, we stay in formation with those headed where we want to go. We are willing to accept their help and give our help to others.
  97. 97. 97  飛在隊伍的雁會發出“呱呱”叫聲 , 鼓勵前導的雁保持速度 . The geese flying in formation honk to encourage those up front to keep with their speed. 啟示 - Lesson :  我們必須確定發出的聲音是鼓勵 . 在團隊中 , 有鼓勵表現就會更好 . 最完美的自我表現 , 通常來自正面的鼓勵 . We need to make sure our honking is encouraging. In groups where there is encouragement, production is much greater. Individual empowerment results from high quality honking. 雁的啟示 - Lessons from Geese
  98. 98. 98  當前導的大雁疲倦時 , 它會退到隊伍的後方 , 而另一隻雁則會飛到 前導位置彌補 . When the lead goose tires, it drops back into formation and another goose flies to the point position. 啟示 - Lesson :  艱巨的任務需要輪流付出 . 我們要尊重、保護每個人獨特的技術、 才能、天分資源 . It pays to take turns doing the hard tasks. We should respect and protect each other’s unique arrangement of skills, capabilities, talents, and resources. 雁的啟示 - Lessons from Geese
  99. 99. 99  當某隻雁生病時 , 會有兩隻雁飛出隊伍 , 跟在後邊 , 幫助并保護它 . When a goose gets sick, two geese drop out of formation to follow it down to help and protect it. 啟示 - Lesson :  如果我們如雁一般 , 就會在困境中彼此支持 , 一如我們在順境中茁 壯 . If we have as much sense as geese, we will stand by each other in difficult times as well as when we are strong. 雁的啟示 - Lessons from Geese
  100. 100. 100 Where Have We Been?  Management is important, but leadership is essential. The key is “will you be?”  Leadership… influence  Many ways to lead (videos)  People? Task?
  101. 101. 101 Where Have We Been?  What shapes a leader?  Leadership Practices in Transformation:  Challenge the process  Inspire shared vision  Model the way  Enable others to act  Encourage the heart  Leadership within: Understand yourself
  102. 102. 102 Thank you!