7. broad spectrum ab

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  • Cessatin, bulging fontanelles= unossified space or soft spot lying between cranial bones of the skull of the foetus.
  • I & II food retards absorption.
    Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+2, Al+3, milk chelating action
  • Tulaeremia= plague like infectioucs. Transmitted by bite of an infected tick or blood sucking insect. Transmeted through Water/ uncooked food
  • Gray baby syndrome – Abdominal distension, progressive cyanosis ,hyptohermia– occurs due to cannot adequently conjugation, slow rate of flomerular filtration
  • Gray baby syndrome – Abdominal distension, progressive cyanosis ,hyptohermia– occurs due to cannot adequently conjugation, slow rate of flomerular filtration
  • 7. broad spectrum ab

    1. 1. BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS  TETRACYCLINES  CHLORAMPHENICOL
    2. 2.  Tetra cyclines have four cyclic ring  Produced by genus Streptomyces
    3. 3. Tetracycline divided into: a) Naturally occurring: Tetracycline Oxytetracycline Chlortetracycline Demeclocycline b) Semisynthetic occurring: Doxycycline Meclocycline Methacycline Minocycline Lymecycline Rolitetracycline
    4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF TETRACYCLINES  GROUP I : (6-10hr)  GROUP II : (12-13hr) GROUP III : (18-20hrs) Chlortetracycline Tetracycline Oxytetracycline Demeclocycline Methacycline Doxycycline Minocycline
    5. 5. Mechanism of Action BACTERIOSTATIC 1. Drug enter by :  Active Transport (+Ve)  Porin channels (-Ve) Enter into periplasmic place Protein Carrier system Inner cytoplasmic membrane Binds to 30s ribosome Inhibits attach of aminoacyl t RNA to “A”site Inhibition of protein synthesis
    6. 6. ANTIMICROBIAL SPECTRUM  G +ve Bacilli : * Clostridia * Corynebacteria * B. Anthracis * P. acnes  G –ve Bacilli : * V. Cholerae * H. ducryi * Y. pestis * Brucella * H. pylori * Y. enterocolitica  G +ve Cocci : * Streptococci * Staphylococci  G –ve Cocci : * N. gonococci * N. meningococci
    7. 7. ANTIMICROBIAL SPECTRUM cont…  Rickettiae  Chlamydiae  Mycoplasma  Actinomyces  Spirochetes  Entamoeba  Plasmodia
    8. 8. RESISTANCE 1. Active transport Mechanism 2. Pumping Out of Drug √ 3. Protective Protein – Microorganism 4. Complete Cross Resistance 5. Partial Cross Resistance
    9. 9. PHARMACOKINETICS  ABSORPTION : * Group I & II – Incomplete; Empty Stomach * Group III – Complete * Chelating Property  DISTRIBUTION : * Liver, Spleen, Bones & Teeth, cross Placenta  EXCRETION : * Group I & II – Kidney (70-75%) * Group III – Bile & Faeces - Enterohepatic Circulation (Doxy) * All Tetracycline – Milk * Mino- saliva and tears
    10. 10. ADVERSE EFFECTS 1. LOCAL IRRITANCY (IM) 2. HEPATOTOXICITY (preg., Inc. blood urea levels) 3. NEPHROTOXICITY (I &II) 4. TOXICITY TO TEETH & BONES 5. PHOTOSENSITIVITY –III (Sun burn, Doxy)
    11. 11. ADVERSE EFFECTS cont… 6. VESTIBULAR TOXICITY –III 7. SUPERINFECTION 8. HYPERSENSITIVITY 9. Pseudotumor cerebri (Adults) & Bulging (acc.lipid cells of inner ear) fontanelles 10. DIABETES INSIPIDUS LIKE CONDITION (Mino, Anti ADH action)
    12. 12. THERAPEUTIC USES  FIRST CHOICE DRUG : 1. Venereal Diseases 2. Chlamydieal Infections 3. Brucellosis (with streptomycin) 4. Atypical Pneumonia 5. Plague prophylaxis 6. Cholera 7. Rickettseial Infections (Doxy) 8. Relapsing Fever (Doxy)
    13. 13. THERAPEUTIC USES  SEACOND CHOICE DRUG :  To Penicillin * Tetanus * Anthrax *Actinomycosis  To Cotrimoxazole : E. coli infection  To Streptomycin : Tulaeremia  To Ciprofloxacin : Gonorrhoea & Syphilis  Azithromycin : Chlamydial Infection
    14. 14. THERAPEUTIC USES cont…  MISCELLANEOUS CONDITION : 1. Amoebiasis 2. Malaria 3. Acne 4. COPD  MINOCYCLINE: 1. Meningococal meningitis 2. Community Acquired Pneumonia 3. Chronic Intestinal Amoebiasis
    15. 15. Glycylcyclins  Synthetic deriv. of Minocyclines  Potent than Mino  Effect Gm +ve, -Ve, aerobes, Anaerobes, resistant tetracyclines  Same mech, resistance
    16. 16. CHLORAMPHENICOL
    17. 17. CHLORAMPHENICOL MECHANISM OF ACTION :  Inhibits Protein Synthesis : 50 s Ribosomes (Inhibit formation of peptide bond)  High Doses : Inhibits Mammalian Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis
    18. 18. ANTIMICROBIAL SPECTRUM  BACTERIOSTATIC  BACTERIOCIDAL – H. influenzae  BROAD SPECTRUM as TETRACYCLINES Additional Spectrum:  HIGHLY ACTIVE– Salmonella  MORE ACTIVE - H. influenzae, B. pertusis, Klebsiella & Anaerobes  LESS ACTIVE – G+ve cocci, Spirochetes.  INACTIVE – Entamoeba & Plasmodia
    19. 19. RESISTANCE 1. Transfer of R Factor 2. Formation of Acetyl Transferase 3. Decreased Permeability 4. Lowered Affinity of Bacterial Ribosome
    20. 20. PHARMACOKINETICS  Oral Absorption : Complete  Distribution : CSF, Bile, Synovial Memb Milk, Placenta.  Metabolism : Conjugation in Liver  Excretion : Unchanged in Urine
    21. 21. ADVERSE EFFECTS
    22. 22. ADVERSE EFFECTS 1. Bone Marrow Toxicity  Non Dose Related (3-4g/day for 1-2week) Inhibition of mitochondrial enzymes  Dose Related  Aplastic Anaemia  Thrombocytopenia  Agranulocytosis 1. Gray Baby Syndrome 2. Superinfection 3. Irritative Effects
    23. 23. THERAPEUTIC USES 1. H. Influenza Meningitis 2. Anaerobic Infections 3. Enteric Fever 4. Intraocular Infection 5. As Second Choice Drug :  To Tetracycline : Cholera, Brucelosis, etc.  To Erythromycin: Whooping Cough  To Penicillin : Meningitis  To Cotrimoxazole : Shigella Dysentry
    24. 24. IMP  All undergoes enterohepatic circulation  CI in pregnancy and ,8 ye.old  Outdated lead to Fanconi’s syndrome ( Renal tubular acidosis)  Minocyclines cause dose dependent vestibular toxicity  Tetracycline's posses anti anabolic effects

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