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CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Learning Resource Centre (LRC) is a term which is used in the United Kingdom to
describe a type of library that exists within an educational setting such as Secondary
Schools, Further Education Colleges and Universities. LRC can also stand for Library
Resource Centre and in some cases Learning Resource Centre has been shortened to Learning
Centre. Learning Resource Centres are similar to Hybrid library.
State Resource Centre
The State Resource Centre(s) (SRCs) are mandated to provide academic and technical
resource support to adult and continuing education through development and production of
material and training modules. In addition SRC would be required to conduct motivational
and environmental building, action research and evaluation and monitoring.
Scope of Work
The Scope of Work of the State Resource Centre(s) broadly includes the following:
Preparation of teaching learning and training material for Adult Education programme
Training literacy Functionaries
Evaluation and monitoring of literacy projects
Undertaking innovative projects to identify future needs adult education programme
Any other function incidental to accomplishment of the overall objectives of the NLM
or specifically assigned by the ministry of the human resource, govt. of india.
Activities of learning resource centres
The learning center implements a group of activities, designed and implemented by
teachers in cooperation with center specialist. Methods of implementation of these activities
differ according to educational grades and concentrate on implementation of modem
educational and learning methods. Such activities are:
Reading activities: aim to sow reading habits those like; summarization and book
Learning activities: these activities are done by student depending on himself to support
Educational activities: these activities are done by teacher to support student learning.
Information search: search on internet and using references.
Cultural activities: these activities to be done by student in order to improve his cultural
level; school radio, seminars, lectures and competition.
Cooperative activities: these activities are done by students to help center to achieve its
aims as a center group.
Administrative' activities: these activities appear to occupy center with waiting lessons,
school meetings and educational coordinator's meetings etc .
Social activities: the aim of these activities is community service; like anti-terror activity,
The state Institute of Educational Technology, SIET was constitute by Government of
India in all the State with an intention to promote the level of learning and also to educate the
student’s with the help of Radio and Television. SIET Kerala is the latest in the array of 7
SIET’s in the Country. Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development
Government of India. SIET Kerala was constituted under the Travancore Literary Scientific
and Charitable Societies Act 1951 on 08.09.1999 as an autonomous society with register No.
T. 1373/99. It works as an agency under the Department of Education, Government of kerala.
It is responsible for the planning, research, production and evaluation of educational schemes
to generate teaching technologies and learning process in the modern context. The institute
has adopted itself to play a catalytic role in fostering as well as supporting and supplementing
the educational movement in the state particularly in the arena of Primary education. Its area
of operation covers the preparation of video / audio programmes for the children of 5 to 17
years of age (Class 1 to Class 12) and the teachers in the regional language in the form of
supportive factor for the conventional class room teaching.
1. Production of Educational/ Enrichment programmes for telecast/ Broadcast through
TV/ Radio and communication through CD/DVD
2. Designing and production of teaching Aids
3. To administer the Educational Technology Programmes and assignments of work to
agencies in both Govt. and Non-Govt. sector
4. Imparting training to production personnel and teachers
5. Conduct research and evaluation of new media education materials.
6. Assist schools to set up infrastructure to schools and monitoring their utilization
7. Dissemination of TV/ Radio (Audio Visual) Programmes through available
8. Patronizing production of TV and Audio educational materials
9. Patronizing production of TV and Audio Educational materials
10. Implement Cd library project in all the 140 constituencies of Kerala state and declare
Kerala as the 100 percent e- learning state.
Objectives of the Kerala SIET
To promote awareness among students, teachers and parents on the possibilities of
educational technology in the areas of applications like:
1. Educational Radio
2. Educational Television
3. Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Managed. Instruction Audio/Video Cassettes
4. Satellite Communication
6. Local Area Network (LAN)
Film Festivals: SIET Kerala has been keen to take up research and development projects so
as to enhance the impact of Visual Media and Technology.
Children's Film Festivals has a comprehensive content that will naturally cover core
academic topics and a verity of subjects ranging from adulteration and pollution to issues
more relevant to the young world like substance abuse, child labour, problems of the girl-child,
child-centred education and disability will also be dealt with.
TV Programmes: At present the SIET telecasts educational programme through Doordarshan
from 6.30 Am to 7.00 Am in DDI on a daily basis. SIET Kerala now also telecasting
educational programmes through the EDUSAT Channel of the Dept. of Education, Govt. of
Kerala from 7.00 am to 11.00 p.m. every day.
CD Mart facilities: SIET, Kerala have more than 6000 high quality Educational Audio/Video
programmes both in Malayalam and English language in its Library.
SIET Kerala have more than 600 one hour educational CDs for sale in its CD showroom at
Science and Technology Museum PMG Jn. TVM
1. Fosters educational movement in the State particulary in Primary Education
2. Dissemination of TV/ Radio (Audio Visual) Programmes through available
3. Designing and production of teaching Aids
4. Supplementing the curriculum based teaching
5. To administer the Educational Technology programmes and assignment of work to
agencies in both Govt. and Non – Govt. Sector.
1. It has failed to influence larger school systems.
2. Educational system has failed to appreciate the usefulness of the media programmes
in the educational plans.
3. The audio and video programmes do not indicate any definite patterns of suitability
for supporting classroom transactions or supplementing them, either for particular age
groups or for particular subjects.
4. There is long gap between the broadcaster and the classroom teacher which lead to
underutilization of the system.
5. The broadcasting organizations have their own priorities, allotting timings not always
suited to the audiences concerned, often cancelling these when other programming
By satellite instruction we mean with the assistance of artificial satellites, education is
providing for the masses. Aim is to reach education even in the most remote village as
available in metropolitan cities. In India satellite instruction has two stages
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment [SITE]
The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment or SITE was an experimental
satellite communications project launched in India in 1975, designed jointly by NASA and
the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The project made available informational
television programmes to rural India. The main objectives of the experiment were to educate
the poor people of India on various issues via satellite broadcasting, and also to help India
gain technical experience in the field of satellite communications.
The experiment ran for one year from 1 August 1975 to 31 July 1976, covering more
than 2400 villages in six Indian states and territories. The television programmes were
produced by All India Radio and broadcast by NASA's ATS-6 satellite stationed above India
for the duration of the project. The project was supported by various international agencies
such as the UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF and ITU. The experiment was successful, as it played
a major role in helping develop India's own satellite program, INSAT. The project showed
that India could use advanced technology to fulfill the socio-economic needs of the country.
SITE was followed by similar experiments in various countries, which showed the important
role satellite TV could play in providing education. This project was commissioned with an
to educate rural population
role of television as new medium of education
Process of change brought by community with the help of educational television.
General Objectives of SITE
The general objectives of the project were to:
gain experience in the development, testing and management of a satellite-based
instructional television system particularly in rural areas and to determine optimal system
demonstrate the potential value of satellite technology in the rapid development of
effective mass communications in developing countries;
demonstrate the potential value of satellite broadcast TV in the practical instruction of
village inhabitants; and
Stimulate national development in India, with important managerial, economic,
technological and social implications.
Two types of programmes were prepared for broadcasting: educational
television (ETV) and instructional television (ITV). ETV programmes were meant for school
children and focused on interesting and creative educational programmes. These programmes
were broadcast for 1.5 hours during school hours. During holidays, this time was used to
broadcast Teacher Training Programmes designed to train almost 100,000 primary school
teachers during the duration of the SITE. The ITV programmes were meant for adult
audiences, mainly to those who were illiterate. They were broadcast for 2.5 hours during the
evenings. The programmes covered health, hygiene, family planning, nutrition, improved
practices in agriculture and events of national importance. Thus, the programmes were
beamed for four hours daily in two transmissions. The targeted audience was categorized into
four linguistic groups—Hindi, Oriya, Telugu and Kannada—and programmes were produced
according to the language spoken in the cluster.
With the victory of television in rural primary schools, a new programme called
PAST-SITE program comes
The main objective of this are
Familiarize the rural masses with improved and scientific knowledge of farming, use
of fertilizers and maintenance of health and hygiene.
Bring about national and emotional integration
Make rural children aware of the importance of education and healthy environment.
Educational Satellite [EDUSAT]
India successfully launched EDUSAT through GSLV-F01 in September 2004. India’s
first thematic satellite dedicated exclusively for educational services. EDUSAT has multiple
regional beams covering different parts of India.
Uses of satellite instruction in teaching-learning process
1. EDUSAT is providing a wide range of educational delivery modes like video
conferencing, computer conferencing etc.
2. It link schools and colleges to remote classrooms.
3. EDUSAT system is intended mainly for primary and college education but also will
support vocational training.
4. The satellite will enable distance education to take place throughout India.
5. EDUSAT connect urban and rural educational institutions throughout India.
Audio Visual Resource Centre [AVRC]
The Audio Visual - Learning Resource Centre aims to provide high quality audio visual
support and learning opportunities to the faculty, students and staff for curricular, co-curricular
and extracurricular activities.
The AVRC aims to:
1. Deliver updated, reliable and functional instructional equipment and materials;
2. Respond quickly to the needs and requirements related to audio-visual resources.
3. Facilitate the effective orientation and technological skills development of its end-users;
4. Provide efficient and reliable means of ID processing and production; and
5. Acquire feedback and conduct research for the improvement of the AV services and
The Consortium for Educational Communication popularly known as CEC is
one of the Inter University Centres set up by the University Grants Commission of India. It
has been established with the goal of addressing the needs of Higher Education through the
use of powerful medium of Television along with the appropriate use of emerging
Information Communication Technology (ICT).
Realizing the potential and power of television to act as means of Educational
Knowledge dissemination, UGC started the Countrywide Classroom Programmes in the year
1984. For production of such programmes Media Centres were set up at 6 Universities.
Subsequently CEC emerged in 1993 as a nodal agency to coordinate, guide & facilitate such
Educational production at the National level. Today 22 Media Centres are working towards
achieving this goal under the umbrella of CEC.
Objectives of CEC:
1. Close Coordination, facilitation, overall guidance and direction towards the activities
of the Media Centres set up by the UGC in various Universities throughout the
2. Dissemination of Educational programmes through broadcast as well as non-broadcast
modes. Production of Educational programmes (Audio/Visual and Web
Based) and related support material further setting up of appropriate facilities for such
3. Research activities related to optimizing the effectiveness of such programmes.
4. Providing a forum for the active involvement of academic and other scholars in the
creation of appropriate educational programmes.
5. Studying, promoting & experimenting with new technology that will increase the
reach and / or effectiveness of educational communication.
Centre for Development of Imaging Technology(C-DIT) is a unique
organization working in the area of convergence and beyond of information and
communication technologies (ICT) and Content development and dissemination in multi-media
formats. C-DIT is proud of having a talented pool of creative personnel working in
close collaboration with qualified and experienced technological work force. C-DIT has
reorganized its activities through four functional Groups, each specializing in a core area, viz.
Communication Group, Technology Group, Education & Training Group and Operations
Group. C-DIT has been functioning as a Total Solutions Provider to the departments and
agencies under the Government of Kerala in the areas of ICT applications and in supply of
Holography based security products.
The focus of C-DIT is based on certain themes in line with the changes in the realms
of science, technology and the society at large.
Ensuring visual, audio and linguistic localization of information technology
Malayalam as Administrative Language
To evolve technology support for ensuring use of Malayalam as
Digital Heritage Archiving
To develop and popularize tools and processes for archiving heritage
IT for the Disabled
To evolve strategies to ensure that the disabled are not left out of the
benefits of cyber revolution
Freedom in Software
To promote the technical, ethical and economic advantages of free software
To promote the seamless integration of different media formats,
technologies and their delivery
To realize convergence of library, laboratory and playground through
possibilities of the new media
To explore creative avenues in technological advancements
MAJOR SERVICES PROVIDED
Video Production, Non-linear editing, Digital audio processing, 2D and 3D
animation for ads
Technical Support and consultancy in Holograph, Turnkey project support in
holography, holographic NDT, Advanced security imaging & Automation
Total IT solution provider – system study, Software Development, Free Software
Consultancy, Heritage, Archiving, Training and project Management
Linguistic computing solutions, Font development
Web designing & hosting
e-Learning content development
Production of Corporate Multimedia CD ROMS
Interactive educational software, e-books
Franchisee mode Certification courses in IT
Certified Diploma Courses in Media Technologies
The IT @ School Project, is an Information Technology project under the Department of
General Education, Government of Kerala in India. Launched in 2001, the Project has
remodeled conventional teaching methodologies in classrooms through the use of IT.[citation
needed] The project is being implemented in over 12,000 schools in the State of Kerala, and
also in schools in Mahé, Lakshadweep and the Middle East which follow the State syllabus.
IT@School Project has rolled out several programmes which included the
development of its own Operating System - IT@School GNU/Linux- which is now being
used in all the schools in the state. Apart from this, several educational software like Dr.
Geo, Rasmol, K-Tech lab, Geogebra, Chemtool,Kalzium etc. are being extensively
customised by the Project in developing teacher friendly applications for facilitating complete
ICT enabled education in the state. The Project has also prepared interactive multimedia CDs,
Handbooks & Training modules for ICT, as well as Text books for IT in standard 8, 9 and 10.
Every content developed by the Project is strictly as per the new curriculum approach based
on the National Curriculum Framework 2005. The Project has also associated with Intel
Skool for collaborative content development programmes http://kerala.skoool.in . The Project
has also developed contents for Upper Primary classes – for 5-7 classes and the same has
been given to all schools. To add with this, the Project had developed E-Text books for Std 8
IT@SCHOOL- VICTERS channel
IT@School is the nodal agency for implementing EDUSAT network and runs
an exclusive channel for education called VICTERS [fullform:virtual classroom technology
on edusat for rural schools](Versatile ICT Enabled Resource for Students), which is now
aired for 17 hours a day- from 6am to 11pm.India's epoch making first broadband network on
EDUSAT for schools VICTERS [fullform:virtual classroom technology on EDUSAT for
rural schools] (Versatile ICT Enabled Resource for Students) - inaugurated by A P J Abdul
Kalam the President of India on 28 July 2005 in Thiruvananthapuram. VIiCTERS offers
interactive virtual classrooms that enable the school students as well as the teachers to
directly communicate with the subject experts and educationists. It also ensures the
dissemination of high quality education to the students and teachers from the original source.
Various programmes telecast through VICTERS are as follows;
Padanakauthukam, Shastrakauthukam educational programmes
Examination oriented programme for SSLC and Plus 2 level
Shasthramuthukal (Science programmes).
Vazhikaatti ( produced by State Institute of Educational Technology)
Ormayile Malayalam ( Specific date wise regional programme)
Kerala Sree ( Produced by Department of Information & Public Relations, GOK )
Deutsche Welle Time ( DW Programme)
Pusthakangalkkoppam ( Introducing various Books)
Haritha Vidhyalayam (Educational reality show for schools)
Kadhaparayum Neram (Story telling time)
Mozhimuthukal ( Detailing famous quotes)
Drishya paadam ( produced by State Open School)
Naadavismayam ( Introducing Musical instruments and symphonies)
Innalekalile Innu ( Yesterday - Today)
IT for All ( Technology outlook programme for students and public)
Tomorrow Today (DW Programme)
Beyond the text ( text based programme)
Global Three Thousand (DW Programme)
Magic fingers ( tricks and plays on magic)
The Akshaya project, first started in the rural Malappuram
district of Kerala, India, and now spread all around the state, was the first district-wide e-literacy
project in India and one of the largest known Internet Protocol (IP) based wireless
networks in the world. In November 2002, the state government of Kerala put into place a
project, piloted in Malappuram, with the goal for one person in every family to be computer
literate in that district. Malappuram is now what is said to be India's First E-literate District.
The mission continues to make Kerala the First E-literate state in India.
In Malappuram district alone, Akshaya has conducted one of the world's
largest computer literacy drives, claiming to reach over 600,000 households, representing
more than 3.6 million people, in less than 6 months. The project has created a unique brand of
state-funded computer access centers, and simultaneously led to a massive wireless
infrastructure, providing a wide range of services and making way to many future
The project offers a lot of services in 2008: E-Pay (electronic payment of
utility bills like electricity, land phone, drinking water, university fees etc.); E-Krishi (for
farmers to provide online agriculture trading and information portal, A to Z Solution) E-Vidya
(advanced IT learning for e-literates and others); E-Ticketing (online train, flight, bus
ticket reservations); PMRY online registration; online passport registration; a village kiosk
for transparent collectorate program, online communication providers for expatriate Indians;
an online medical transcription course, with extension programs for all the above mentioned
Objectives of Akshaya
The Two objectives of Akshaya are
1. To provide basic e-literacy and
2. To develop appropriate IT infrastructure so as to leverage e-literacy and IT
infrastructure for e-governance in the state.
Imparting basic IT literacy to at least one member of each of the 6.4 million
families in the state is a primary objective of Akshaya. The e-literacy campaign is the
foundation on which the state seeks to bridge the digital divide in the state. The underlying
objective of the campaign is to remove the "fear of the unknown" that common people have
about technology in general and computers in particular. The e-literacy campaign proposes
to impart basic/functional e-literacy to one member of each of the 6.4 million families in
the state. Selection of the member to be trained will be done by the family members.
Extend the training initiative into a service delivery mechanism for the local
citizen. Once the people have been introduced to the immense possibilities of ICT, the next
step envisaged is to make facilities available to them for exploiting the technology for
everyday use. The focus here is to ensure a viable, sustainable service delivery mechanism
for the citizens of the state through Akshaya Centres. These centers are run by private
entrepreneurs selected by the project managers. Each centre will be equipped with
necessary computers, fax, printers, telephones, broad-band Internet connection etc. and
software so as to cater to the information and communication requirements of the local
citizens. The capital required for setting up these facilities are borne by the private
entrepreneurs. The investment for the wireless network for broad-band connectivity will be
shared by the state and the private entrepreneurs equally.
Gyan Darshan offers interesting and informative programmes for different
categories of users such as pre-school kids, primary and secondary school children,
college/university students, youth seeking career opportunities, housewives and adults. These
programmes are contributed by major educational institutions including IGNOU,
UGC/CEC*, NCERT/CIET*, Directorate of Adult Education, IITs, TTTIs* and other
educational/developmental organisations. The time slots are convenient and the programmes
are prepared with the help of experts in the field and experienced production teams.
Programmes from abroad are also broadcast to offer the viewer a window to the world.
Gyan Darshan transmissions, uplinked from the earth station of EMPC-IGNOU
New Delhi, can be accessed all over the country throughout the year and round the
clock without any break. Gyan Darshan signals can be conveniently received without any
Gyan Darshan I
This is the main Gyan Darshan channel. Its programmes include the ‘countrywide classroom’
produced by CEC/UGC, ‘technovision’ produced by IITs and ‘Bhasha Mandakini’ produced
by the Rashtriya Sanskrit Sagathan. Bhasha Mandakini, launched on September 5, 2003,
Under Bhasha Mandakini, the ‘Sanskrit Bhasha’ language series of programmes are
developed by the Rasthriya Sanskrit Sansthan in collaboration with other Sanskrit institutes
of higher learning such as the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (Tirupati), Shri Lal Bahadur
Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (Delhi) and other Sanskrit institute and universities of
repute. Bhasha mandakini is planned to include all languages in the course of time.
Gyan Darshan 2 and TDCC
Gyan Darshan-2 is devoted entirely to interactive distance education.
Gyan Darshan-2 and TDCC (Training & Development Communication Channel) are one-way
video and two-way audio satellite-based interactive systems. Teleconference through
Gyan darshan and TDCC essentially follow the same principle except that the former
operates on C-band while the latter on extended C. The signals can be received across the
Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre is an
Autonomous Inter-University Centre (IUC) of University Grants Commission, Government
of India, involved in creating infrastructure for sharing of library and information resources
and services among Academic and Research Institutions. INFLIBNET works collaboratively
with Indian university libraries to shape the future of the academic libraries in the evolving
The primary objectives of INFLIBNET are:
1. To promote and establish communication facilities to improve capability in
information transfer and access, that provide support
to scholarship, learning, research and academic pursuit through cooperation and
involvement of agencies concerned.
2. To establish INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network a computer
communication network for linking libraries and information centres in universities,
deemed to be universities, colleges, UGC information centres, institutions of national
importance and R & D institutions, etc. avoiding duplication of efforts.
Functions of INFLIBNET
In order to fulfill the broad objectives, INFLIBNET will do the following:
1. Promote and implement computerization of operations and services in
the libraries and information centres of the country, following a uniform standard.
2. Evolve standards and uniform guidelines in techniques, methods,
procedures, computer hardware and software, services and promote their adoption in
actual practice by all libraries, in order to facilitate pooling, sharing and exchange of
information towards optimal use of resources and facilities.
3. Evolve a national network interconnecting various libraries and information centres in
the country and to improve capability in information handling and service.
4. Provide reliable access to document collection of libraries by creating on-line union
catalogue of serials, theses/dissertations, books, monographs and non-book materials
(manuscripts, audio-visuals, computer data, multimedia, etc.) in various libraries in
5. Provide access to bibliographic information sources with citations, abstracts etc.
through indigenously created databases of the Sectoral Information Centres
of NISSAT, UGC Information Centres, City Networks and such others and by
establishing gateways for on-line accessing of national and international databases
held by national and international information networks and centres respectively.
6. Develop new methods and techniques for archival of valuable information available
as manuscripts and information documents in different Indian Languages, in the form
of digital images using high density storage media.
7. Optimize information resource utilization through shared cataloguing, inter-library
loan service, catalogue production, collection development and thus avoiding
duplication in acquisition to the extent possible.
8. Enable the users dispersed all over the country, irrespective of location and distance,
to have access to information regarding serials, theses/dissertations,
books, monographs and non-book materials by locating the sources wherefrom
available and to obtain it through the facilities of INFLIBNET and union catalogue of
9. Create databases of projects, institutions, specialists, etc. for providing on-line
10. Encourage co-operation among libraries, documentation centres and information
centres in the country, so that the resources can be pooled for the benefit of helping
the weaker resource centres by stronger ones.
11. Train and develop human resources in the field of computerised library operations and
networking to establish, manage and sustain INFLIBNET.
12. Facilitate academic communication amongst scientists, engineers, social scientists,
academics, faculties, researchers and students through electronic mail, file transfer,
computer/audio/video conferencing, etc.
13. Undertake system design and studies in the field of communications, computer
networking, information handling and data management.
14. Establish appropriate control and monitoring system for the communication
network and organise maintenance.
15. Collaborate with institutions, libraries, information centres and other organisations in
India and abroad in the field relevant to the objectives of the Centre.
16. Create and promote R&D and other facilities and technical positions for realising the
objectives of the Centre.
17. Generate revenue by providing consultancies and information services.