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Road map for indoor air quality management in India


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Presentation made at a Seminar in IIT Delhi. Provides a framework how regulatory and market mechanisms could be used to initiate formulation of Indoor Air Quality standards in India. A Road Map to this effect is presented

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Road map for indoor air quality management in India

  1. 1. Road map for Management of IndoorAir Quality Prasad Modak Executive President, Environmental Management Centre, Mumbai
  2. 2. • Indoor Air quality (IAQ)-Air quality within andaround buildings and structures,especially as it relates to thehealth and comfort of buildingoccupants.• Traditionally associated with Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) 4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 2
  3. 3. • IAQ impacts the health, comfort, well being, and productivity of building occupants• On average, people spend at least 90% of their time indoors. Assuming ceteris paribus, exposure from indoor pollutants is 9 times that from ambient pollutants• Good indoor air quality can:1. Safeguard our health2. Contribute to our comfort and wellbeing3. Improve productivity at the workplace4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 3
  4. 4. • IAQ could be addressed through: Standards, Codes Engineering Control • Ventilation & Dilution and Guidelines • Filtration • Standardsa. Standards, codes and guidelines – International • Disinfection governing IAQ-nationally and/or – National internationally • Codes Indoor Air – ASHRAE & Quality ISHRAEb. Source reduction strategies by • Guidelines – NBC, 2005 Source Modification choosing low emission materials – GRIHA • Low VOC emitting and finishes – IGBC household products • Low VOC Building Materials/ interior design materialsc. Engineering control for cleaning • Low VOC paints the air4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 4
  5. 5. • Most countries have used combination of regulatory standards supported by building codes.4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 5
  6. 6. • Early starter on forming IAQ standards• Three stages of legislative history• Starting stage (late 1970s- 1993)- Established two sets of IAQ relevant standards• Developing stage (1994- 2000)• Normative management stage (2001-present) 4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 6
  7. 7. • Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981• National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) first proposed in 1988• NAAQS upgraded in 2009• Aligned as per the international AAQS• No indoor air quality standard4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 7
  8. 8. – Covers Industrial and non industrial use – Standards for ventilation and design of HVAC systems to remove particulate matter – Does not specify concentrations/ interventions for management of IAQ4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 8
  9. 9. – Covers new construction, major renovations and core and shell. – Has stringent requirements. Includes air quality performance and ETS control. Also monitoring and preparing a management plan4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 9
  10. 10. – Areas covered- Homes, townships, SEZ and factory buildings. Separate guide on each type gives information about the credits and requirements – Focuses mainly on tobacco smoke control and VOC. It does not include monitoring and management of indoor air quality4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 10
  11. 11. – Different types of new and existing buildings (commercial, institutional or residential.) – Focus on Low VOC materials and ETS – No emphasis on ventilation rates, monitoring or management of IAQ4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 11
  12. 12. – Focus on HVAC design – Covers all types of buildings – ASHRAE has performance based procedures and not occupancy based – also referred in LEED4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 12
  13. 13. • Maintaining good IAQ requires enhanced ventilation and hence increased consumption of energy and thus higher operating costs.• Reducing ventilation rates to save energy, with no countermeasures, increases indoor-generated VOCs and small particles by an amount that may pose health risks.• To strike balance between two, integrated design approach towards IAQ and energy should be used.• Such an approach needs to be reflected in Indias building codes, standards and rating systems.4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 13
  14. 14. – Most studies based on short term measurement and/or suffer from smaller sample size – Focus on either rural and/or urban poor areas (slums). Cooking stoves as source of pollutants. – Focus of research is limited to conventional pollutants like PM10, NO2 and/or CO. Cumulative aspects not studied – Hardly any studies conducted on urban or peri-urban households, using natural and/or artificial ventilation – Impacts on artificial ventilation on the build up of indoor pollutant levels are yet to be investigated – Very few studies have been conducted at public places (auditoriums, cinema, Metro)4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 14
  15. 15. • Broad scale, sufficiently long term experiments should be conducted in both artificially and naturally ventilated houses in both rural and urban areas in India. Will allow better understanding of IAQ and its health implications to develop appropriate interventions.• Apart from PM10, NO2, SO2 and CO, pollutants like PM2.5, Benzene-Toluene-Xylene, Formaldehyde, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene), Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene should be analyzed in chemical parameters. Biological parameters like growth of molds, spores, dust mites and bacteria should be considered.4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 15
  16. 16. • A networked research project that will address IAQ at 6 to 7 metropolitan cities and 3 to 4 rural clusters could be taken up. This study will not only provide valuable research data but help build capacities, monitoring protocol etc. on lines with the source apportionment study that was coordinated by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). • There is a need to set up a National Centre of Excellence researching on IAQ with appropriate infrastructure. The INDOORTRON facility is one excellent example 4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 16
  17. 17. • Multiple stakeholders involved• Multi agency coordination required• Set up a multi agency Central Coordination Agency (CCA) Ministry of Housing and Urban poverty alleviation Ministry of health and Bureau of Indian family welfare (MoH&FW) standards Ministry of women and Ministry of Environment Child development & Forests (MoEF) (MoWCD) Indoor air pollution and health Ministry of Rural development (MoRD) Ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE)4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 17
  18. 18. –Develop overarching policy – Gradually shift to more regarding IAQ – Assign research projects to develop complex pollutants like PM2.5,–Establish a Central standards on IAQ HCHO, VOCs, BTX etc. – Initiate long term networked Coordinating Agency (CCA) research such as Expolis –Develop monitoring protocol–Develop ToR , responsibility – Create a Centre for Excellence for for above & authority and its delegation research on IAQ with facilities like –Review effectiveness of for CCA INDOORTRAN enforcement mechanism–Identify research gaps and – Hold international dialogues on –Publish emission standards for potential areas for IAQ major or most commonly used interventions – Publish IAQ standards with core building materials and set of criteria pollutants for target–Identify research agencies / areas e,g, public common places products organizations – Develop monitoring protocol –Continue awareness on IAQ–Initiate Standard Setting – Establish enforcement mechanism –Provide Process for IAQ – Demand reporting requirements incentives/disincentives and–Develop plans for generating on IAQ e.g. ESR, SoER awards awareness amongst major – Initiate economic assessment stakeholder – Influence Building Codes and Ratings for addressing IAQ–Plan for economic assessment – Initiate standards for emissions from building materials and products – Launch awareness on IAQ in both urban and rural areas – Ensure inter ministry and inter- agency coordination on IAQ SHORT (6 months – 1 year) MEDIUM (1 year – 3 years) LONG (3 years – 6 years)
  19. 19. –Identify best international –Hold discussions on IAQ with –Develop ties with international practices / benchmarks for international counterparts and agencies for knowledge IEQ in Buildings like research agencies sharing and/or technology ASHREA 189.1 etc. –Encourage / sponsor research transfer–Sensitize members / industries –Modify/strengthen building –Encourage indigenous patents / clients on IAQ & create a codes and rating schemes in IAQ – technologies, demand –Innovate building materials mateials and products–Provide feedback to Govt. to and products that have low –Develop market based ensure that the VOC emissions instruments for IAQ plans/guidelines on IAQ are –Develop cost-effective IAQ technology improvement & aligned to market monitoring systems promotion demands/requirements –Sustain IAQ demand in–Generate awareness amongst market by introducing energy members efficient and innovative air cleaning technologies –Adopt /develop technologies to suit Indian conditions –Help Govt. on improving IAQ related policy/guidelines SHORT (6 months – 1 year) MEDIUM (1 year – 3 years) LONG (3 years – 6 years)
  20. 20. –Identify and collate research –Conduct research & develop – Develop low cost IAQ (s) conducted on IAQ, status new technologies on solutions (incl. retrofits) in India & abroad and improving IAQ – ventilation, suited for Indian conditions linkage(s) with health, air cleaning, monitoring, – Help Govt. in developing exposure, energy, building materials and new IAQ standards / management plan etc. products etc. monitoring protocols–Identify gaps in present –Address the context and – File patents & tie up with research space need of the rural poor and industries for mass–Develop research proposal slums in urban areas – production of IAQ related to Central Coordination develop cheap but cleaner solutions Agency (CCA) fuel substitutes – Help in developing mass–Identify counterpart –Develop ties with awareness on IAQ along international agencies / international agencies for with Industry & Govt. universities working on IAQ knowledge sharing and/or – Apply economic assessment technology transfer , do to make a business case of technology adoption to suit managing IAQ Indian conditions –Build robust framework for economic assessment SHORT (6 months – 1 year) MEDIUM (1 year – 3 years) LONG (3 years – 6 years)
  22. 22. Questions / suggestions ? Email URL: www.emcentre.com4/13/2012 Prasad Modak 22