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Vulture and Diclofenac seminar paper.pps


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Vulture and Diclofenac seminar paper.pps

  1. 1. 06/06/09 04:45 AM RESIDUES OF THERAPEUTICS IN THE ENVIRONMENT A Novel Environmental Hazard Responsible For The Population Decline Of White-Backed Vultures ( Gyps Bengalensis ) Of Southern Asia? Dr P R Arun & Dr P A Azeez Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology & Natural History
  2. 2. Oriental White-backed Vulture ( Gyps bengalensis )
  3. 3. Vulture Decline <ul><li>Common in south Asia in early last century </li></ul><ul><li>Declined in eastern range by mid century </li></ul><ul><li>Population peak in western parts by 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Population plummeting in 1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive & mysteriously drastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprecedented in any vertebrate sp. In 20 th century </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Studies on the Species <ul><li>Preliminary literature survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short notes 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters 34 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ph.D thesis 01 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of behavioural data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head drooping symptom! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal behaviour in response to higher temperatures ! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Proposed Hypothes e s <ul><li>Mass killing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shooting/ poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pesticide poisoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organo-chlorides/ phosphates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A new contagious disease </li></ul>
  6. 6. Diclofenac Hypothesis <ul><li>Lindsay Oaks (2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peregrine foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study in Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lethal to vultures at veterinary doses </li></ul></ul>Common painkiller (NSAID) available in Medical stores (Dicloran, Diclofenac gel etc.)
  7. 7. Who the Killer ? <ul><li>Major cause of mortality was ‘gout’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by Diclofenac (in Pakistan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other possible causative agents of gout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidosis, dehydration, lead poisoning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation, skin diseases, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gut sterilization by antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation exposure ..Etc </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Other possibilities ? <ul><li>A lethal mutation hampering the metabolic pathway ? </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of vitality due to new sedentary habits? </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple factors appears to have acted behind the vulture mortality </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pharmaceuticals <ul><li>Continuous release results in persistency </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause undetectable effects that may cause cascad ing effects culminat ing in i rreversible ecological disasters </li></ul>
  10. 10. Double role of Drugs Kill Vultures (Pakistan) Analgesic, Antipyretic Diclofenac A vicide. In M ultiple sclerosis 4- aminopyridine Kill C oqui frog s and slugs at > 0.5%. (Hawai) Beverage, stimulant Caffeine Kill b rown tree snake (Indonesia) A nalgesic Acetaminophen G eneral biocide Gingivitis ( toothpaste ) . T riclosan Rodenticide A nticoagulant W arfarin Other uses Medical Use Drug
  11. 11. 06/06/09 04:45 AM Pharmaceuticals in Environment <ul><li>A neglected, but potential source of pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly being recognized recently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delayed recognition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily by limitations in analytical environmental chemistry (ultra-trace enrichment and detection) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicological significance of ecological exposure is poorly understood </li></ul>
  12. 12. 06/06/09 04:45 AM Major Sources <ul><li>L eaching from municipal landfills and S ewage. </li></ul><ul><li>T ransgenic production of proteinaceous therapeutics by genetically altered plants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ molecular farming / biopharming”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S orption of drugs to SPM could also serve as a potential route of exposure. </li></ul>
  13. 13. US EPA site
  14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>The Vulture mortality is likely to be caused by a host of conducive conditions for Gout, </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights the need for tracing the Environmental fate and ecological impacts of Pharmaceutical compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate methodologies and standard guidelines need to be developed </li></ul>
  15. 15. 06/06/09 04:45 AM Thank You <ul><li>“ Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted ” </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul>06/06/09 04:45 AM