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Project Management

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Prarthan PStudent at home

introduction, project management life cycle, waterfall model, v-model, scrum methodology, advantages and disadvantages.

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PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
PRARTHAN.P
ENG19CS0228
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT
A project is generally initiated by a perceived need
in an organisation. Being a one off undertaking, it
will have a start and an end, constraints of
budgets, time and resources and involves a
purpose built team.
Project management is the discipline of managing
all the different resources and aspects of the
project in such a way that the resources will deliver
all the output that is required to complete the
project within the defined scope, time, and cost
constraints.
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT
These are agreed upon in the project initiation stage and by the time the
project begins all stakeholders and team members will have a clear
understanding and acceptance of the process, methodology and expected
outcomes.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE
Projects are split into five phases: Project
Initiation, Project Planning, Project Execution,
Project Monitoring and control and Project
Closure.
Initiation, Implementation and Closure. Each
phase then has multiple checkpoints that must
be met before the next phase begins.
The degree to which a project is managed will
depend on the size of the project. For a
complex project in a large organisation that
involves a number of people, resources, time
and money, a more structured approach is
needed, and there will be more steps built into
each stage of the project to ensure that the
project delivers the anticipated end result.
PROJECT INITIATION PHASE
Project initiation is the first phase of the project
management life cycle and in this stage,
companies decide if the project is needed and
how beneficial it will be for them. The two metrics
that are used to judge a proposed project and
determine the expectations from it are the
business case and feasibility study.
It explains: Why a project was undertaken, What
problems need to be addressed, specific
strategic gaps and initiatives need to be served,
needs, objectives and profits were served by this
project, are the roles and responsibilities of each
person associated with the project, project
entail, exactly delivered and left out of the
deliverables, Who are the key stakeholders,
sponsors and project team and lastly who is in
charge and authorized to run the project.
PROJECT PLANNING PHASE
● Planning is the second yet most important
phase in the project management life cycle.
Project planning is at the heart of the project
life cycle, and tells everyone involved where
you’re going and how you’re going to get
there.
● The planning phase is when the project plans
are documented, the project deliverables and
requirements are defined, and the project
schedule is created.
● It involves creating a set of plans to help
guide your team through the implementation
and closure phases of the project.
● The plans created during this phase will help
you manage time, cost, quality, changes, risk,
and related issues. They will also help you
control staff and external suppliers to ensure
that you deliver the project on time, within

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Project Management

  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT A project is generally initiated by a perceived need in an organisation. Being a one off undertaking, it will have a start and an end, constraints of budgets, time and resources and involves a purpose built team. Project management is the discipline of managing all the different resources and aspects of the project in such a way that the resources will deliver all the output that is required to complete the project within the defined scope, time, and cost constraints.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT These are agreed upon in the project initiation stage and by the time the project begins all stakeholders and team members will have a clear understanding and acceptance of the process, methodology and expected outcomes.
  • 4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE Projects are split into five phases: Project Initiation, Project Planning, Project Execution, Project Monitoring and control and Project Closure. Initiation, Implementation and Closure. Each phase then has multiple checkpoints that must be met before the next phase begins. The degree to which a project is managed will depend on the size of the project. For a complex project in a large organisation that involves a number of people, resources, time and money, a more structured approach is needed, and there will be more steps built into each stage of the project to ensure that the project delivers the anticipated end result.
  • 5. PROJECT INITIATION PHASE Project initiation is the first phase of the project management life cycle and in this stage, companies decide if the project is needed and how beneficial it will be for them. The two metrics that are used to judge a proposed project and determine the expectations from it are the business case and feasibility study. It explains: Why a project was undertaken, What problems need to be addressed, specific strategic gaps and initiatives need to be served, needs, objectives and profits were served by this project, are the roles and responsibilities of each person associated with the project, project entail, exactly delivered and left out of the deliverables, Who are the key stakeholders, sponsors and project team and lastly who is in charge and authorized to run the project.
  • 6. PROJECT PLANNING PHASE ● Planning is the second yet most important phase in the project management life cycle. Project planning is at the heart of the project life cycle, and tells everyone involved where you’re going and how you’re going to get there. ● The planning phase is when the project plans are documented, the project deliverables and requirements are defined, and the project schedule is created. ● It involves creating a set of plans to help guide your team through the implementation and closure phases of the project. ● The plans created during this phase will help you manage time, cost, quality, changes, risk, and related issues. They will also help you control staff and external suppliers to ensure that you deliver the project on time, within
  • 7. PROJECT PLANNING PHASE ● Creating a Project Plan:- The Project Plan is you project blueprint and a project manager’s best friend. It helps the Project Manager to be in-sync with the roadmap and maintain progress accordingly by taking informed decisions at the right time. ● Creating a Resource Plan:- A Resource Plan provides information about the level of resources that is needed to complete a project. A properly documented Resource Plan will specify the exact quantities of labor, equipment and materials needed to complete your project. At here, we also consider the skill of the resources that is whether the resources have the relevant expertise required for the project. ● Creating a Financial Plan:- A Financial Plan helps set budget for your project. To deliver your project within budget, you need to produce the project deliverables at a total cost which does not exceed allotted budget. ● Creating a Quality Plan:- Quality Planning is an essential part of any project. It helps you to monitor and control the level of quality produced by the project, to ensure that you meet the required quality targets.
  • 8. PROJECT PLANNING PHASE ● Creating a Risk Plan:- A Risk Plan helps you to identify the potential risks and how to mitigate them. The Risk Management Plan is created as part of the Risk Planning process. The risk plan contains lists of all potential risks, their ranking or level and priority, the preventive actions, along with a process for tracking them. ● Creating an Acceptance Plan:- Acceptance plan is the list of the task that is designed to meet the customer requirement. The Acceptance Plan includes a list of the deliverables, the acceptance test activities, the criteria and standards to be met, and the plan for their completion. ● Creating a Communication Plan:- A communication plan describes the approach to provide information to the stakeholders. A communication plan contains the list of information that should be shared with the stakeholders, project members and the PMO, at what schedule and frequency, the right means of communication (email, standup meeting, daily meeting, weekly meeting, ppt. etc.) and how/where the relevant documents and reports can be accessed and by whom. ● Creating a Procurement Plan:- Procurement planning is the process to decide what to buy, what are procedure should be followed to buy and sources from which required materials to be purchased.
  • 9. PROJECT EXECUTION MONITOR AND CONTROL PHASE Execution relies heavily on the planning phase. The work and efforts of the team during the execution phase are derived from the project plan. The key tasks performed are:- ● Assemble Execution Phase Project Team:- Acquiring required resources who can work on the project. ● Team Development:- Dividing the resources into small teams to work on certain modules. For example, if you are working on website development, one team can be assigned for UI/UX design of the website, other team for the backend design, similar a team to perform testing and so on.
  • 10. PROJECT EXECUTION MONITOR AND CONTROL PHASE ● Assign Resources:- Assigned skill or expert resources to the project. Obtaining the right resources for the project is crucial for project success. A high skill to requirement mapping will enable smoother and timely task execution. ● Execute Project Management Plans:- Set your schedule into action. ● Direct and Manage Project Execution:- This involves leading and performing the work defined in the project plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project's objectives. ● Conduct Progress Status Meetings:- Having periodic status checks helps keep the team motivated, stay on track, address any real or perceived threats in advance and take corrective measures as required.
  • 11. PROJECT EXECUTION MONITOR AND CONTROL PHASE ● Update Project Schedule and Management Plans:- As the project progresses, we must update the project schedule and plans in order to ensure the project is set to be delivered within the agreed timelines. However, this phase is optional if the project is already on track. ● Quality Assurance:- Review tasks and deliverables are up to the mark or not. And what corrective actions are required to meet the defined quality guidelines. ● Acceptance of Deliverables:- Verify if the developed project meets the deliverables, fulfills all the standards and criteria set by the customer. ● Complete Execution Phase Review:- Lastly, ensure all the key execution activities are performed properly.
  • 12. PROJECT CLOSURE PHASE So much time and effort is put into the planning of a project, it is often forgotten that the end of a project is equally important. There’s a lot of work involved even once a project is technically complete. You handover all deliverables to your customers, relevant stakeholders, release the project into business as usual and handover to the operations team, free all your resources, return equipment and notify all of project closure.
  • 13. PROJECT CLOSURE PHASE ● Lessons Learnt:- Managing a project is an experience you can constantly learn from. While you should have been learning throughout the project, now is a great time to look back without the pressure and distractions that might have dulled your focus. ● Complete paperwork:- Acquiring required resources who can work on the project. This includes a complete documentation of the project, approval from the stakeholders, Legal contracts of the projects should be verified and signed up by the stakeholders. All dues must be settled and vendor contracts must be closed before proceeding to project closure. ● Release resources:- This is a formal procedure, in which resources are assigned back to the project pool and made available for new projects. If there were contractors involved then they are released and the contracts cancelled post all due settlement. ● Archive documents:- Having all project documents neatly stacked on a relevant shared portal or with the PMO is in the best interest of the organization and will also come in handy for any issues that may arise in the future.
  • 14. WATERFALL-MODEL The Waterfall Model was the first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as a linear- sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. The Waterfall model is the earliest SDLC approach that was used for software development. The waterfall Model illustrates the software development process in a linear sequential flow. This means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In this waterfall model, the phases do not overlap.
  • 15. WATERFALL-MODEL ● Requirement Gathering and analysis − All possible requirements of the system to be developed are captured in this phase and documented in a requirement specification document. ● System Design − The requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and the system design is prepared. This system design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and helps in defining the overall system architecture. ● Implementation − With inputs from the system design, the system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality, which is referred to as Unit Testing. ● Integration and Testing − All the units developed in the implementation phase are integrated into a system after testing of each unit. Post integration the entire system is tested for any faults and failures. ● Deployment of system − Once the functional and non-functional testing is done; the product is deployed in the customer environment or released into the market. ● Maintenance − There are some issues which come up in the client environment. To fix those issues, patches are released. Also to enhance the product some better versions are released. Maintenance is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment.
  • 16. V-MODEL The V-model is a type of SDLC model where process executes in a sequential manner in V- shape. It is also known as Verification and Validation model. It is based on the association of a testing phase for each corresponding development stage. Development of each step directly associated with the testing phase. The next phase starts only after completion of the previous phase i.e. for each development activity, there is a testing activity corresponding to it.
  • 17. V-MODEL Principles of V-Model: -Large to Small: In V-Model, testing is done in a hierarchical perspective, For example, requirements identified by the project team, create High-Level Design, and Detailed Design phases of the project. -Data/Process Integrity: This principle states that the successful design of any project requires the incorporation and cohesion of both data and processes. Process elements must be identified at each and every requirements. -Scalability: This principle states that the V-Model concept has the flexibility to accommodate any IT project irrespective of its size, complexity or duration. -Cross Referencing: Direct correlation between requirements and corresponding testing activity is known as cross-referencing. -Tangible Documentation: This principle states that every project needs to create a document. This documentation is required and applied by both the project development team and the support team. Documentation is used to maintaining the application once it is available in a production environment.
  • 18. V-MODEL ● Verification: It involves static analysis technique (review) done without executing code. It is the process of evaluation of the product development phase to find whether specified requirements meet. ● Validation: It involves dynamic analysis technique (functional, non-functional), testing done by executing code. Validation is the process to evaluate the software after the completion of the development phase to determine whether software meets the customer expectations and requirements ● Design Phase: It involves Requirement System Design Architectural Design and Module Design ● Testing Phases: It includes Unit Testing- executed to eliminate bugs at code or unit level).Integration testing- the modules are integrated and the system is tested. System testing test the complete application with its functionality, inter dependency, and communication. User Acceptance Testing-UAT verifies that the delivered system meets user’s requirement and system is ready for use in real world.
  • 19. SCRUM METHODOLOGY Scrum as explained by Scrum Alliance is "a process framework that has been used to manage work on complex products since the early 1990s. Scrum is not a process, technique, or definitive method. Rather, it is a framework within which you can employ various processes and techniques. Scrum makes clear the relative efficacy of your product management and work techniques so that you can continuously improve the product, the team, and the working environment.“ The Major Scrum Roles are: ● The Product Owner ● The Scrum Master ● The Development Team ● The Scrum Team or the Scrum Core Team
  • 20. SCRUM METHODOLOGY The Scrum Framework consists of: ● Scrum Team ● Scrum Events ● Scrum Artefacts ● Scrum Rules
  • 21. ADVANTAGES SCRUM METHODOLOGY ● Scrum can help teams complete project deliverables quickly and efficiently. ● Scrum can help teams complete project deliverables quickly and efficiently ● Scrum ensures effective use of time and money ● Large projects are divided into easily manageable sprints ● Developments are coded and tested during the sprint review ● Works well for fast-moving development projects ● The team gets clear visibility through scrum meetings ● Scrum, being agile, adopts feedback from customers and stakeholders ● Short sprints enable changes based on feedback a lot more easily ● The individual effort of each team member is visible during daily scrum meetings
  • 22. DISADVANTAGES SCRUM METHODOLOGY ● Scrum often leads to scope creep, due to the lack of a definite end-date ● The chances of project failure are high if individuals aren't very committed or cooperative ● Adopting the Scrum framework in large teams is challenging ● The framework can be successful only with experienced team members ● Daily meetings sometimes frustrate team members ● If any team member leaves in the middle of a project, it can have a huge negative impact on the project ● Quality is hard to implement until the team goes through an aggressive testing process