What is co-ordination?
CO-ORDINATION implies an orderly pattern
or arrangement of group efforts to
ensure unity of actions in the pursuit of
common objectives. Coordination is the
orderly synchronizing of efforts of the
subordinates to provide the proper
amount, timing and quality of execution
so that their unified efforts lead to the
stated objective, namely, the common
purpose of the enterprise.
The Essence of Management Coming together
is a beginning, Keeping together is progress &
Working together is success. - Henry Ford
“Coordination is balancing and keeping together
the team by ensuring suitable allocation of tasks
tom the various members and seeing that the
tasks are performed with harmony among the
members themselves.- Edward Francis Leopold
Nature & Features:
Nature & Features are Not a distinct
function but the very essence for
Basic responsibility of manager. Does
not arise spontaneously or by force; has
to be through conscious efforts of the
Common purpose Balancing, timing and
integrating are the 3 basic elements to
be executed by management.
Types of co-ordination :
Coordination can be classified as:
Internal and External
Vertical and Horizontal
Procedural and Substantive
Internal Coordination among the
employees of the same department or
section, among workers or managers at
various levels, among branch offices,
plants, departments and sections.
External Coordination with customers,
suppliers, government and outsiders
with whom the enterprise has business
Vertical Coordination This exists within a
department where the departmental
head is called upon to coordinate the
activities of all those placed below him.
This exists between different
departments such as production, sales,
purchasing, finance, personnel etc.
Procedural and Substantive co-
Procedural Coordination: It is the generalized
description of the behaviors and relationships
of the members of the organization. This
establishes the lines of authority and outlines
the sphere of activity and authority of each
member of the organization.
Substantive Coordination: This is concerned
with the contents of the organizations
activities. In an automobile factory, an
organization chart is an aspect of procedural
coordination, while blueprints for the engine
block of the car being made are an aspect of
TECHNIQUES OF CO-
Effective leadership and
supervision Chain of command.
Co-ordination & Co-operation:
Co-ordination: It is an orderly
arrangement of group efforts in
pursuit of common goals.
Co-operation: It means mutual
Scope: It is broader than co-
operation which includes as well
because it harmonizes the group
Scope:It is termed as a part of
Process: The function of co-
ordination is performed by top
Process: The functions of co-
operation are prepared by persons
at any level.
Requirements: Co-ordination is
required by employees and
departments at work irrespective of
Requirements: Co-operation is
emotional in nature because it
depends on the willingness of
people working together.
Relationship: It establishes formal
and informal relationships.
Relationship: It establishes
Need & Significance of Co-
Coordination encourages team spirit .
It gives proper direction.
It facilitates motivation.
It makes optimum utilization of
It helps to achieve objectives quickly.
It improves relations in the organization.
It leads to higher efficiency.
It improves goodwill of the organization.