K E M Hospital, Mumbai A F M C Hospital, Pune G K N M Hospital, Coimbatore JIPMER, Pondicherry IPGMER, Calcutta SCTIMST, Trivandrum
TTK CHITRA VALVE A REVIEW
TTK CHITRA VALVE
• Materials of Construction
The three main components of TTK Chitra Heart
• Sewing Ring
• Tilting Disc
– pivoted eccentrically in the metallic frame.
– MADE FROM ULTRA HMW POLY ETHYLENE
• The sewing ring
– POLYETHYLENE TEREPTHALATE (PET)
– fitted snugly around the frame
– used to suture the valve in the intended position in the
FRAME: COBALT CHROMIUM ALLOY( HAYNES 25)
• The frame and the disc are hydro dynamically
designed to reduce drag and inertia and polished
to minimize the chances of clotting.
• Complete Structural Integrity
• Absence of cavitation related damage.
• Silent operation
• Rotatable within the sewing ring to assure its
freedom to rotate if repositioning is required
• Low profile
• In 1976, with a project funded by the
Department of Science and Technology,
• M.S. Valiathan initiated efforts to make heart
valves within the country.
• Four years later, the Institute, which had been
started by the Kerala Government, was taken
over by the Central Government.
• The artificial valve must withstand the stress of
opening and closing some 40 million times a year.
• The materials used for the valve have to be
compatible with blood and human tissues.
• When open, the valve should allow the blood to flow
• Once closed, the back flow of blood had to be
• In the first model,
• the major and minor struts were electron beam welded
and the valve was expected to withstand 360 million cycles
of disc movement.
• Unfortunately, the major strut fractured at the weld after a
mere 100,000 cycles due to weld embrittlement.
• In the second model, the disk was made of single crystal
sapphire which was inert and blood compatible.
• The housing was carved out of a block of titanium.
• This model failed as well, because of the extensive wear of
titanium struts and the escape of the disc.
• The third model had a housing made of a
• highly wear – resistant aerospace superalloy, called "Haynes-25",
a cobalt based alloy of chromium, nickel and tungsten.
• This model went through all the tests successfully and several sheep
with the implanted valve were alive and well for months
• until the death of one animal at 3 months after valve implantation.
• Necropsy showed that the sapphire disc had fractured in the
• This was a major crisis as critics and media did not spare the team
• and the search for a material to replace it had to start a new.
• The first human implant was December 6, 1990 at Sree Chitra
Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum.
• In Clinical use for over 14 years.
• More than 55,000 TTK Chitra Heart Valve has been implanted so far in
India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and South Africa, Thialand
• Crossed over 1,00,000 patient years
• Award for TTK Chitra heart valve prosthesis
• Award for TTK Chitra heart valve prosthesis
May 17, 2001, Medindia
• TTK Chitra Heart Valves bagged the following patents
• US patent No.5,458,826 dated October 17, 1995 for the
"method of producing a heart valve disc" - one of the three
major component of this critical, life saving device
• European patent No.0622060 relating to "Improvement in or
relating to Prosthetic Cardiac Valve and to the method of
• Nearly 250 centres using TTK Chitra Heart Valves.
• More than 300 Surgeons using our valves
Trial And Evaluation
• Invitro Evaluation
• A specially designed computerized accelerated durability test system is used to
validate the mechanical performance
• and wear of the valve in simulated use conditions for above 380 million cycles -
which is equal to 10 years in actual use.
• is also tested for its haemodynamic performance, which is an important factor in
artificial heart valves.
• A comprehensive evaluation is also done through a computerized special purpose
pulse duplicator and steady state and dynamic measurements are made for all sizes
of the valve.
• The results of all the tests conducted are comparable with the best international
brands of mechanical Heart Valves
• and the TTK Chitra Heart Valve has been proven to equal the best international
brand of mechanical heart valves.
• All the materials used in the valve have undergone extensive
toxicological and implant evaluation that is applicable to
• As per the ISO protocol for artificial heart valves, the TTK Chitra
Heart Valve has passed through rigorous in vivo animal trials in
• During the trial, the valves were implanted in the mitral position
without any anticoagulation regimen for the animals.
• The long time survival of these animals even under these difficult
conditions was uneventful.
• Based on the data obtained from the evaluations and trials,
• the ethics committee of the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical
Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum,
• chaired by a sitting judge of a high court of the land gave formal permission
for controlled clinical trials in 1990.
• The TTK Chitra Heart Valve was implanted in a human for the first time in
• Six institutions in India took part in a multicentric trial that lasted till 1995.
• N= 306
• The trials were monitored by a national level monitoring committee,
• and the results were periodically presented at the annual conference of the
society of the Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Surgeons.
• The ethics committee cleared the valve for commercial production during
Hemodynamic Conditions and Clinical Implications.
• can occur in two regions:
– downstream of a valve
• ﬂow expands into the wider lumen beyond a valve, velocity
and kinetic energy will decrease and pressure will be
– within some prosthetic valves, typically bileaﬂet or
•The smaller central oriﬁce in bileaﬂet valves may give rise to a high-velocity jet
• that corresponds to a localized pressure drop
• that is largely recovered once the central ﬂow reunites with ﬂows originating from
two lateral oriﬁces
Velocity and Gradients.
• Resemble those of mild native aortic stenosis
• maximal velocity usually >2 m/s
• Triangular shape of the velocity contour
• occurrence of the maximal velocity in early systole.
• Short AT
• High gradients may be seen with normally functioning valves with
• a small size,
• increased stroke volume,
• valve obstruction.
• Conversely, a mildly elevated gradient in the setting of severe LV
• may indicate signiﬁcant stenosis.
• AT: the time from the onset of ﬂow to maximal
• NORMAL: AT < 100MSECS
• AT/ET < .04
• DVI is a dimensionless ratio of
• the proximal velocity in the LVO tract to that
of ﬂow velocity through the prosthesis:
DVI = V LVO / V PrAV
• much less dependent on valve size.
• HELPFUL when the CSA of the LVOT cannot be
obtained or valve size is not known.
• There were 200 patients, 118 males and 82 females, who received
249 TTK Chitra valve implants in the mitral and/or aortic position
• The mean duration of followup was 2.5 years (range 1 month to 4.5
• minimum follow-up of survivors was 1 year, and the total follow-up
observed was 451 patient-years (pt-yr).
• Assesed relative risk associated with 6 factors
• age, sex,
• Preoperative NYHA class
• primary valve lesion
• Preoperative atrial ﬁbrillation and CCF
Early mortality was low in all 3 groups
• there were 3 (1.5%) deaths overall.
• MVR group 2
– valve thrombosis
– intractable ventricular arrhythmias.
• DVR group 1
– due to myocardial dysfunction.
These patients were in an advanced NYHA class of disability
• Late deaths occurred in 18 patients (4.0% 0.9%/ptyr)
• The striking features
• The patient proﬁle in our study are the young age
(mean 28.9 years)
• advanced disability (75.6% in NYHA classes III and IV).
• Postoperative conversions to a lower NYHA class were
• The gradients for various valve sizes were found to be
comparable to those of other widely used valves
• The absence of any reports of paravalvular leak
or discomfort due to valve sounds is a notable
feature of the Chitra heart valve.
• The closing sounds are soft and dull due to the
use of an ultra-high molecular weight
• This was clearly highlighted by the pressure
ﬁeld and cavitation measurements of Chandran
and colleagues at the University of Iowa,
• They studied the in-vitro and in-vivo closing dynamics of
the current clinical models of mechanical heart valves,
including the Chitra heart valve.
• While the in-vitro studies showed an absence of cavitation
even at the highest valve closing rates,
• the in-vivo tests demonstrated that the negative transients
were relatively low and did not reach magnitudes close to
the vapor pressure for the ﬂuid
• Therefore, compared to valves with rigid occluders, in-vivo
cavitation is regarded as unlikely.
• CHV (n=65)
• between January 1992 and December 1995
• Forty three patients FOLLOWED UP.
• The age ranged from 8 to 62 yrs.
• The male to female ratio was 1.6:1
• No structural complications were noted in this
group of patients.
• Conclusion CHV has good haemodynamics with
MORTALITY 20 % 9
4.6 % 2
I/E 4.6% 2
MI 2.3% 1
LV DYSFUNC 2.3% 1
UNKNOWN 6/9 3
• No structural deterioration
• Good hemodynamics and
• Acceptable thrombo-embolic events.
• LOW COST
• to determine the normal Doppler parameters of
CHVP in the mitral position
• and to assess whether derivation of MVA using
the CE and PHT method is comparable in the
• 40 consecutive patients
– RHD 95% (38 patients)
– MVP in 5% (2 patients).
Doppler evaluation of mitral
• Early velocity
• peak gradient
• mean gradient
• MVA derived by PHT and the CE.
• The actual oriﬁce area
• (AOA) is calculated from the valve oriﬁce
diameter (VOD) provided by the manufacturer as
• AOA = 0.785 X VOD2
• Mean and peak gradients did not show signiﬁcant
correlation with MVA by PHT .
• Similarly, no correlation was noted between meanand
peak gradients and MVA by the CE.
• Peak gradient did not correlate well with AOA
• However, the mean gradient decreased signiﬁcantly
with an Increase in the AOA.
• The MVA calculated by both PHTand CE increased
signiﬁcantly with an increase in the AOA
• The MVA by PHT showed a signiﬁcant linear correlation
– with MVA derived by CE (r ¼ 0.041, P ¼ 0.009)
– tends to be higher than that calculated by the CE,
– and this difference was statistically signiﬁcant (P , 0.001, t-test).
• This difference was irrespective of whether PHT is > or<110 ms
• The subgroup analysis between groups with PHT is > or<110 ms
– showed no difference in the mean or peak mitral gradients.
– Calculation by CE also showed no difference for calculated MVA
between the two groups.
• Our study also showed signiﬁcant correlation
between the valve area derived by CE and
AOA, similar to published studies of other
547 consecutive patients,
310 males 237 females
634 implants with the TTK Chitra
in mitral and/ or aortic positions.
Age -9 years to 64 years
(mean age = 26±5 years).
• NYHA CLASS
• II 238
• III 235
• IV 74
• NSR 233
• AF 314
• PREVIOUS PROCEDURE
• PTMC 80
• OMC 6
• BIOPROS VALVE 8
• (MVR 6, AVR 2)
• ADDED SURGERY
• ASD CLOSURE 20
• TV REPAIR 47
• CAD 4
E ARLY DEATH < 30 DAYS NO PERCENTAGE
MVR 7 1.25
AVR 4 1.4
DVR 1 1
REXPLORATION 15 2.6
502 PTS 93% CAME FOR F/U
PERIOD 120-990 DAYS
NO STRUCTURAL VALVE DETORIATION
NYHA CLASS I 391 78%
NYHA CLASS II 80 16%
NYHA CLASS II 31 6.2%
LINEARISED RATE MAJOR
MVR 1 % 3.8%
AVR 2.1% 2.1%
DVR 1.75% 3.7%
• G.K.N.M. Hospital, Coimbatore
• Initially this valve was used as part of a multi-centric
trial and later it was the valve of choice in our
• December 1992 and July 1998 -- a total of 152 Chitra
• 65 aortic and 64 mitral implants and the rest were
dou b le valves.
• 144 patients were followed up ( 10 EARLY DEATHS)
• (a total of 622 patient years of follow-up)
• There were 11 patients (7.2%) TEE
• (5 major events)
• a linearized rate of 1.8 percent patient year.
• Haemodynamic studies in postoperative patients were
comparable to other prosthetic valves.
• The thrombo-embolism free survival was 82% at 5 years. The
actuarial survival was 78% at 5 years.
• The Chitra valve is comparable to other mechanical valves
Conclusion: At 20 years the Medtronic Hall valve demonstrates excellent
durability, good hemodynamic performance, and very low thrombogenicity,
with a valve thrombosis rate lower than those reported for bileaflet designs.
With this prosthesis, both survival and thromboembolic events are
predominantly determined by patient risk factors.(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
• Objective: To assess the performance of the Medtronic Hall valve
(Medtronic, Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) in one institution over a 20-year
• Methods: Since 1979, Medtronic Hall valves have been used in 1766
procedures (736 aortic, 796 mitral, and 234 double). Patients were followed
up prospectively at 6- to 12-month intervals for a total of 12,688 follow-up
years. Anticoagulation data (international normalized ratio) were recorded
for all patients (approximately 95,000 observations).
• Results: Linearized rates of valve-related late death for aortic, mitral, and
double valve replacement were 0.8%/y, 0.9%/y, and 1.1%/y, respectively.
Risk factors for late mortality were (relative risk) diabetes (1.9), decade of
age (1.6), concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (1.4), hypertension
(1.3), non-sinus rhythm (1.3), large valve size (1.1), valve regurgitation (1.3),
and male sex (1.2). For aortic, mitral, and double valve replacement,
linearized rates (percent per year) of adverse events were valve thrombosis
0.04, 0.03, and 0.0; all thromboembolism 2.3, 4.0, and 3.4; stroke 0.6, 0.8,
and 0.6; major hemorrhage 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6; and prosthetic endocarditis
0.4, 0.4, and 0.7. Risk factors for thromboembolism were (relative risk)
mitral valve replacement (1.9), diabetes (1.8), hypertension (1.5), and
history of embolism (1.4).
• Tilting disk valves have separate projections into the orifice,
either single arms or closed loops to retain and guide the disk-
• Among the metals use for the housing are stainless steel and
• The disks are graphite with a coating of pyrolitic carbon.
• The Bjork-Shiley valve was the first successful tilting valve.
• It became available in 1971 with a carbon-coated disk and both
struts (inflow and outflow) welded to the chromium alloy
• The Medtronic Hall valve has a titanium housing
machined from a solid cylinder and a thin carbon
coated disk with flat parallel sides
• The Omniscience valve is a streamlined elegant
looking valve. It has a curved pyrolitic Carbon disk
with no indentations, a one- piece titanium cage,
and a seamless polyester knit sewin ring.