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Communication across culture part 2


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Communication across culture part 2

  1. 1. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-1 Communicating Across Cultures
  2. 2. Pranav Kulshrestha Vadodara(India) Vadodara Institute Of Engineering(GTU) Skype and Wechat ID : pranavkuls
  3. 3. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-3 The Communication Process Cultural communications are deeper and more complex than spoken or written messages. The essence of effective cross- cultural communication has more to do with releasing the right responses than with sending the “right” messages. —Hall and Hall
  4. 4. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-4 The Communication Process Managers spend between 50% and 90% of their time talking to people Managers communicate to: – Coordinate activities – Disseminate information – Motivate people – Negotiate future plans
  5. 5. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-5 The Communication Process
  6. 6. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-6 Cultural Noise Cultural Noise – cultural variables that undermine the communication of intended meaning Intercultural communication – when the member of one culture sends a message to a member of another culture Attribution – the process in which people look for an explanation of another person‘s behavior
  7. 7. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-7 Cultural Noise
  8. 8. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-8 Trust in Communication Effective communication depends on informal understandings among individuals that are based upon trust When there is trust between individuals an implicit understanding in communication is present
  9. 9. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-9 Trust in Communication Guidelines for developing trust – Create a clear and calculated basis for mutual benefit – Have realistic commitments and good intentions to honor them – Improve predictability: resolve conflicts and keep communication open – Develop mutual bonding through socializing and friendly contact
  10. 10. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-10 Cultural Variables Attitudes – ethnocentric and stereotypical attitudes are a particular source of noise in cross-cultural communication Social Organization – nations, tribes, religious sects, or professions can influence our priorities and values Though Patterns – the logical progression of reasoning varies by culture
  11. 11. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-11 Cultural Variables Roles – the perception of the manager‘s role differs considerable around the world, consider the conversation between the American and Greek Nonverbal Communication – behavior communicated without words; even minor variations in body language, speech rhythms, and punctuality can cause mistrust
  12. 12. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-12 Cultural Variables Language – an inability to speak the local language, and a poor or too literal translation are often causes for mistrust – Pepsi‘s slogan ―Come Alive with Pepsi‖ translated into German as ―Come out of the grave.‖ – Rendezvous lounges on 747‘s were not used on airlines because in Portuguese ‗rendezvous‘ refers to prostitution
  13. 13. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-13 Cultural Variables - Language Britain and America are two nations separated by a common language. - George Bernard Shaw
  14. 14. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-14 Cultural Variables -Time Mono-chronic Cultures – Time is experienced in a linear manner; generally mono-chronic people concentrate on one thing at a time and adhere to time commitments Poly-chronic Cultures – Many things occur simultaneously and emphasize involvement with people
  15. 15. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-15 Context Context in which the communication takes place affects the meaning and interpretation of the interaction Cultures are either high- or low- context
  16. 16. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-16 Context
  17. 17. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-17 Comparative Management Focus: Communicating with Arabs Arabs are warm, emotional, and quick to explode The language aptly communicates the Arabic culture – one of emotional extremes – Contains means for over expression – Words that allow for exaggeration – Metaphors that emphasize a position – Many adjectives – What is said is not as important as how it is said
  18. 18. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-18 Comparative Management Focus: Communicating with Arabs The core of the culture is friendship, honor, religion, and traditional hospitality Family and friends take precedence over business transactions Hospitality is a way of life and is highly symbolic Women play little or no role n business or entertainment – it is a male-dominated society
  19. 19. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-19 Comparative Management Focus: Communicating with Arabs Society values honor – which is brought about when conformity is achieved Shame results not just from doing something wrong but from having others find out about it High contact and High context
  20. 20. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-20 Comparative Management Focus: Communicating with Arabs
  21. 21. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-21 Comparative Management Focus: Communicating with Arabs Be patient. Recognize the Arab attitude toward time and hospitality—take time to develop friendship and trust, for these are prerequisites for any social or business transactions. Recognize that people and relationships matter more to Arabs than the job, company, or contract—conduct business personally, not by correspondence or telephone.
  22. 22. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-22 Comparative Management Focus: Communicating with Arabs Avoid expressing doubts or criticism when others are present—recognize the importance of honor and dignity to Arabs. Adapt to the norms of body language, flowery speech, and circuitous verbal patterns in the Middle East, and don‘t be impatient to ―get to the point.‖ Expect many interruptions in meetings, delays in schedules, and changes in plans.
  23. 23. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-23 Information Systems Communication varies according to – Where and how it originates – The channels and the speed which it flows – Whether it is formal or informal The nature of the organization‘s information system are affected by – Organizational structure – Staffing policies – Leadership style
  24. 24. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-24 Information Technology The Internet as a global medium for communication allows companies to develop a presence in markets globally Companies must adapt their web communication to deal with local cultural variables
  25. 25. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-25 Managing Cross-Cultural Communication Cultural Sensitivity Careful Encoding Selective Transmission Careful Decoding Appropriate Follow-up Actions
  26. 26. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-26 Appropriate Follow-Up Actions Respect (eye contact, posture, tone, etc) Interaction posture – ability to respond in a descriptive, non-evaluative, and non- judgmental way Orientation to knowledge – understand that your beliefs and perceptions are only valid for you and not everyone else Empathy
  27. 27. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-27 Appropriate Follow-Up Actions Interaction management Tolerance for ambiguity Other-oriented role behavior – capacity to be flexible and to adopt different roles for the sake of the greater group cohesion/communication
  28. 28. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-28 Looking Ahead Chapter 5 – Cross-cultural Negotiation and Decision making – Negotiation – The negotiation process – Understanding negotiation styles – Managing negotiation – Decision making
  29. 29. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-29 High Context Feelings and thoughts are not explicitly expressed Meaning is found in the general understanding of the other person and their surroundings Most communication takes place within a context of extensive information networks resulting from close personal relationships Return
  30. 30. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-30 Low Context Feelings and thoughts are expressed n words, and information is more readily available Normally these cultures compartmentalize their business and personal relationships Return
  31. 31. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-31 Nonverbal Communication Kinesic Behavior refers to communication through body movements like posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact
  32. 32. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-32 Nonverbal Communication Proxemics deals with how space influences the communication process – High contact – preferring to stand close, touch, and experience a close sensory involvement – Low-contact – prefer much less sensory involvement, standing farther apart and touching less
  33. 33. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-33 Nonverbal Communication Paralanguage refers to how something is said rather than the content – Rate of speech, tone, inflection, other noises, laughing, yawning, etc. – Silence is a powerful communicator Object language refers to communication through material artifacts – Office design, furniture, clothing ,cars, etc. Return
  34. 34. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-34
  35. 35. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-35 Cultural Sensitivity When sending a message make it a point to know the recipient Encode the message in a form that will most likely be understood as it is intended This means the manager must – Be aware of their own culture – The recipient‘s culture – The expectations surrounding the situation Return
  36. 36. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-36 Careful Encoding The sender must consider the receiver‘s frame of reference to make the best choice regarding – Words – Pictures – Gestures Remember that language translation is only part of the process, consider the nonverbal language as well Return
  37. 37. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-37 Selective Transmission The channel medium should be chosen after considering: – The nature of the message – Level of importance – Context and expectations of the receiver – Timing involved – Personal interactions Return
  38. 38. © 2006 Prentice Hall 4-38 Careful Decoding of Feedback Best means for obtaining accurate feedback is face-to-face interactions Best means for avoiding miscommunication is to improve your own listening and observation skills Three types of miscommunications – Receiver misinterpreted the message – Receiver encoded response incorrectly – Sender misinterprets the feedback Return