






Genetic material of living organisms is either
DNA or RNA.
DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA – Ribonucleic acid
G...





Both DNA and RNA are polynucleotides.
They are made up of smaller molecules called
nucleotides.
DNA is made of two...
A nucleotide is made of 3
components:
 A Pentose sugar
 This is a 5 carbon
sugar
 The sugar in DNA is
deoxyribose.
 Th...



A Phosphate group
Phosphate groups are
important because
they link the sugar on
one nucleotide onto
the phosphate of ...


A Nitogenous base



In DNA the four bases are:







Thymine
Adenine
Cytosine
Guanine

In RNA the four bases ar...
Pyramidines

Purines

Thymine - T
Cytosine - C
Uracil - U

Adenine - A
Guanine - G

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



Nucleotides are
connected to each other
via the phosphate on
one nucleotide and the
sugar on the next
nucleotide
A P...
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

The Nitrogenous
Bases pair up with
other bases. For
example the bases of
one strand of DNA
base pair with the
bases on ...
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





Adenine always base pairs with Thymine (or
Uracil if RNA)
Cytosine always base pairs with Guanine.

This is beacu...
Purines

Pyramidines

Adenine
Adenine

Thymine
Uracil

Guanine

Cytosine

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





Property 1 - it must contain, in a stable form,
information encoding the organism’s
structure, function, developm...




Speed of DNA replication:
3,000 nucleotides/min in human
30,000 nucleotides/min in E.coli
Accuracy of DNA replicatio...
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3H-labelled

after one further replication
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chromosomes

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Origins initiate
replication at
different
times.

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Structure of DNA

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Structure of DNA

  1. 1.     Genetic material of living organisms is either DNA or RNA. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid RNA – Ribonucleic acid Genes are lengths of DNA that code for particular proteins. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 1
  2. 2.    Both DNA and RNA are polynucleotides. They are made up of smaller molecules called nucleotides. DNA is made of two polynucleotide strands: Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide Nucleotide  RNA is made of a single polynucleotide strand: Nucleotide Nucleotide Monday, December 09, 2013 Nucleotide Pranabjyoti Das Nucleotide Nucleotide 2
  3. 3. A nucleotide is made of 3 components:  A Pentose sugar  This is a 5 carbon sugar  The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose.  The sugar in RNA is ribose. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 3
  4. 4.   A Phosphate group Phosphate groups are important because they link the sugar on one nucleotide onto the phosphate of the next nucleotide to make a polynucleotide. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 4
  5. 5.  A Nitogenous base  In DNA the four bases are:      Thymine Adenine Cytosine Guanine In RNA the four bases are:     Uracil Adenine Cytosine Guanine Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 5
  6. 6. Pyramidines Purines Thymine - T Cytosine - C Uracil - U Adenine - A Guanine - G Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 6
  7. 7. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 7
  8. 8. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 8
  9. 9. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 9
  10. 10.   Nucleotides are connected to each other via the phosphate on one nucleotide and the sugar on the next nucleotide A Polynucleotide Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 10
  11. 11. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 11
  12. 12.  The Nitrogenous Bases pair up with other bases. For example the bases of one strand of DNA base pair with the bases on the opposite strand of the DNA. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 12
  13. 13. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 13
  14. 14. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 14
  15. 15. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 15
  16. 16.    Adenine always base pairs with Thymine (or Uracil if RNA) Cytosine always base pairs with Guanine. This is beacuse there is exactly enough room for one purine and one pyramide base between the two polynucleotide strands of DNA. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 16
  17. 17. Purines Pyramidines Adenine Adenine Thymine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 17
  18. 18.    Property 1 - it must contain, in a stable form, information encoding the organism’s structure, function, development and reproduction Property 2 - it must replicate accurately so progeny cells have the same genetic makeup Property 3 - it must be capable of some variation (mutation) to permit evolution Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 18
  19. 19.   Speed of DNA replication: 3,000 nucleotides/min in human 30,000 nucleotides/min in E.coli Accuracy of DNA replication: Very precise (1 error/1,000,000,000 nt) Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 19
  20. 20. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 20
  21. 21. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 21
  22. 22. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 22
  23. 23. 3H-labelled after one further replication Pranabjyoti Das in unlabelled media 23 chromosomes Monday, December 09, 2013
  24. 24. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 24
  25. 25. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 25
  26. 26. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 26
  27. 27. Origins initiate replication at different times. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 27
  28. 28. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 28
  29. 29. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 29
  30. 30. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 30
  31. 31. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 31
  32. 32. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 32
  33. 33. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 33
  34. 34. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 34
  35. 35. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 35
  36. 36. Monday, December 09, 2013 Pranabjyoti Das 36

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