Principles of Heredity


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Principles of Heredity

  1. 1. Laws of Heredity Pranabjyoti Das 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 1
  2. 2. Mendel’s Laws of Heredity 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 2
  3. 3. Pages from Mendel’s Notebook… 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 3
  4. 4. What is heredity? The passing on of characteristics (traits) from parents to offspring Genetics is the study of heredity 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 4
  5. 5. Mendel used peas... They reproduce sexually They have two distinct, male and female, sex cells called gametes Their traits are easy to isolate 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 5
  6. 6. Mendel crossed them Fertilization - the uniting of male and female gametes Cross - combining gametes from parents with different traits 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 6
  7. 7. Questions What did Mendel cross? What are traits? What are gametes? What is fertilization? What is heredity? What is genetics? 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 7
  8. 8. What Did Mendel Find? He discovered different laws and rules that explain factors affecting heredity. 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 8
  9. 9. Rule of Unit Factors Each organism has two alleles for each trait – Alleles - different forms of the same gene – Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 9
  10. 10. Rule of Dominance The trait that is observed in the offspring is the dominant trait (uppercase) The trait that disappears in the offspring is the recessive trait (lowercase) 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 10
  11. 11. Law of Segregation The two alleles for a trait must separate when gametes are formed A parent randomly passes only one allele for each trait to each offspring 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 11
  12. 12. Law of Independent Assortment The genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other. 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 12
  13. 13. Questions... How many alleles are there for each trait? What is an allele? How many alleles does a parent pass on to each offspring for each trait 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 13
  14. 14. Questions... What do we call the trait that is observed? What case (upper or lower) is it written in? What about the one that disappears? What case is it written in? 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 14
  15. 15. Phenotype & Genotype Phenotype - the way an organism looks – red hair or brown hair genotype - the gene combination of an organism – AA or Aa or aa 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 15
  16. 16. Heterozygous & Homozygous Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa) Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa) 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 16
  17. 17. Dihybrid vs Monohybrid Dihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits (AAEE with aaee) Monohybrid Cross crossing parents who differ in only one trait (AA with aa) 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 17
  18. 18. Questions... What is the phenotype? What is the genotype? What is homozygous? What is heterozygous? What is monohybrid crossing? 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 18
  19. 19. 12/08/13 Pranabjyoti Das 19