Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
DEMOGRAPHY
PRAMOD KUMAR
ETYMOLOGY
• 1. DEMOS - People.
• 2. GRAPHO - To write.
• The word was coined by JOHN
GRUNT
DEFINITION
• Demography is the "study of
human populations in relation
to the changes brought about
by the interplay of bi...
DEFINITION
• "Demography is the
statistical description and
analysis of human
population". - WRONG
• Demography is the "statistical and
mathematical study of the size,
composition and spatial
distribution of human populat...
CONCEPT & SCOPE
• Demography is the branch of
social science, which deals with
the study of size, structure and
distributi...
DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS :
(Eg)
• Crude Birth Rate. (CBR)
• General Fertitlity Rate. (GFR)
• Crude Death Rate. (CDR)
• Infan...
• Life expectancy. (LE)
• Total Fertility Rate. (TFR)
• Gross Reproduction Rate.(GRR)
• Net Reproduction Rate. (NRR)
SCOPE OF DEMOGRAPHY
• Demography is the science of
population. In it's most general
meaning, a population is a set of
peop...
SIZE
• Is the number of units (inhabitants)
in the population
DISTRIBUTION
• Is the arrangement of the
population at a given time,
geographically or among
various types of residential
...
STUCTURE
• Is the distribution of characteristics
such as age, gender groups etc
among the population.
• Additional charac...
CHANGE
• Is the increase or decrease
of the total population or of
the one of it's structural
units.
NARROW SCOPE
• Population is constantly
changing over time.
• The components of change in a
population are births, deaths
...
• Thus one generation will be
replaced by another younger
generation by birth and death
process.
• This is a natural chang...
BROADER SCOPE
• The broader scope of
demographic reproduction
includes migration. It means
the movement of people from
pla...
• Within a country or an area, this
movement does not affect the total
size of the population.
• It changes the structure ...
• This process may also
influence the behaviour of the
inhabitants, especially out
migrants.
• Migrations have great influ...
Source of demography
• POPULATION
CENSUSES
• NATIONAL SAMPLE
• SURVEYS
REGISTRATION
• VITAL EVENTS
Biggest source of data on
 Demography
 Economic Activity
 Literacy & Education
 Housing & Household
 Urbanization
 F...
Importance of Demographic
data
 Health status of a community depends
upon the dynamic relationship between
number of peop...
METHODS OF DATA
COLLECTION
• Primary data collection :collection
is done by the individual by using
the methods such as :
...
..
• Secondary data collection :
• census
• National survey
• Registration of vital events
• Demographic studies
• Records
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
OF DATA
• Data is collection directly or indirectly
from population . The data collected
direc...
.
• The data which is collected from
outside the source such as records .
• Data taken from hospital records
• Data taken ...
Items of Information: NPR
1 Name of person 6 Sex 11 Present
address of
usual
residence
2 Relationship to
Head
7 Date of Bi...
DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSE
• It deals with the five demographic
processes
• FERTILITY
• MORTALITY
• MARRIAGE
• MIGRATION
• SOCIA...
DEMOGRAPHY CYCLE
DEMOGRAPHY
CYCLE
HIGH STATIONARY.
EARLY EXPANDING.
LATE EXPANDING.
LOW STATIONARY.
DECLINING.
DEMOGRAPHY CYCLE
HIGH STATIONARY.
EARLY EXPANDING.
LATE EXPANDING.
LOW STATIONARY.
DECLINING.
High Birth Rate
High Death R...
DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS
• 1. Measurement of Mortality.
• 2. Measurement of Morbidity.
• 3. Measurement of disability.
• 4. ...
`• 6. Measurement of medical needs,
health care facilities, utilization of
health services and other health
related events...
• 8. Measurement of demographic
variables.
TOOLS OF MEASUREMENT
• An epidemiologist usually
expresses the health event as
RATES, RATIOS or PROPOTION.
RATE
• A rate measures the occurence
of some particular event in a
population during a given
period of time period.
• It i...
• It indicates the change in some event
that takes place in a population over a
period of time.
•
X 1000
DEATH RATE = NUMB...
RATE : EXAMPLE
Weekly death rate = Deaths in a week x 52
Mid year population
x 1000
• A rate comprises the following
elements.
• 1. Numerator.
• 2. Denominator.
• 3. Multiplier.
The time dimension is usually a
calender year.
The rate is expresses per 1000 or
some round figure.(selected
according to ...
RATIO
• Ratio expresses a relation in
size between two random
quantities.
E.g., x : y (or) x/y.
• The numerator is not a component
of the denominator.
• The numerator and denominator
may involve an interval of time or
...
PROPORTION
• A Proportion is a ratio which
indicates the relation in magnitude
of a part of the whole.
• The numerator is ...
Example
The number of children with
scabies at a certain time.
The total number of children in
the village at the same tim...
MEASUREMENTS OF
MORTALITY
• Mortality refers to the number of
deaths in a given time or a place or
a proportion odf deaths...
MEASUREMENTS OF
MORBIDITY
• It refers to diseases and illness,
injuries and disabilities in a
population.
• Data on the fr...
Example
• 1. Case Rate : The case rate is
the number of reported cases
of a specific disease or illness
per 100,000 popula...
• 2. Case Fatality Rate : The Case
Fatality Rate is the proportion
of persons contacting a
disease who die of that disease...
MEASUREMENT OF
DISABILITY
• Dependancy Ratio : The ratio of the
economically dependent part of the
population to the produ...
MEASUREMENTS OF
NATALITY
• Natality in population ecology is
the scientific term for Birth Rate.
• Along with mortality ra...
• They are the key factors in
determining whether a population
is increasing, decreasing or
staying the same in size.
• Na...
• Natality is shown as a crude birth rate
or specific birth rate. Crude Birth Rate
is used when calculating population
siz...
FORMULAS
BIRTH RATE (BR)
NUMBER IF LIVE BIRTHS DURING
THE YEAR.
ESTIMATED MID YEAR
POPULATION
X 1000BIRTH RATE =
GENERAL FERTILITY
RATE (GFR)
NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS
DURING A YEAR.
MID YEAR FEMALE POP (15-49)
IN THE SAME YEAR
X 1000GFR =
GENERAL MARITAL
FERTILITY RATE (GMFR)
NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS
DURING A YEAR.
MID YEAR MARRIED FEMALE
POP (15-49) YRS
GMFR = ...
AGE SPECIFIC FERTILITY
RATE (ASFR)
NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN A
PARTICULAR AGE GROUP.
MID YEAR POP OF THE
SAME AGE GROUP
ASF...
AGE SPECIFIC MARITAL
FERTILITY RATE (ASMFR)
NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN A
PARTICULAR AGE GROUP.
MID YAER POP OF THE SAME AGE
...
TOTAL FERTILITY RATE
(TFR)
• It is the average number of children
a women can give birth throughout
the reproductive perio...
TFR
45 - 49
15 - 19
1000
TFR =
5 X ASFR∑
TOTAL MARITAL
FERTILITY RATE (TMFR)
Average number of children
that would be born to a married
women if she experiences th...
TMFR
45 - 49
15 -19
1000
5 X ∑ ASMFRTMFR =
GROSS REPRODUCTION
RATE (GFR)
• Average number of girls that would
be borne to a women if she
experiences the curent ferti...
NET REPRODUCTIVE
RATE (NRR)
• NRR is defined as the number of
daughters a new borne girl will
bear during her lifetime ass...
• If NRR is < 1, then the reproductive
performance of the population is
said to be below replacement level.
MARRIAGE RATES
• The marriage rate (CRUDE
MARRIAGE RATE) is the
number of marriages per 1000
total population in a given y...
MARRIAGE RATE
NUMBER OF MARRIAGES IN
THE YEAR
MID YEAR POPULATION
MR = X 1000
CHILD WOMAN RATIO
• Is the number of children 0 - 4
yrs of age per 1000 women of
child bearing age.
PREGNANCY RATE.
• It is the ratio of number of
pregnancies in a year to married
women in the ages 15-49 yrs.
• The "number...
ABORTION RATE
• The annual number of all types
of abortions, usually per 1000
women of child bearing age
(15-19 yrs).
ABORTION RATIO
• This is calculated by dividing
the number of abortions
performed during a particular
time period by the n...
CRUDE DEATH RATE
(CDR)
NUMBER OF DEATHS DURING A
YEAR
MID YEAR POPULATION
CDR = X 1000
SPECIFIC DEATH RATE
NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM TB DURING A
CALENDER YEAR.
MID YEAR POPULATION
SDR = X 1000
SPECIFIC DEATH RATE IN
AGE GROUP 15-20 YRS
NUMBER OF DEATHS OF
PERSONS AGED 15-20
DURING A CALENDER
YEAR.
MID YEAR POPULAT...
DEATH RATE FOR
JANUARY
DEATHS IN
JANUARY X 12
MID YEAR
POPULATION
DEATH RATE
FOR JAN =
X 1000
WEEKLY DEATH RATE
DEATHS IN THE WEEK
MID YEAR POPULATION
WEEKLY
DEATH RATE = X 1000
CASE FATALITY RATIO
TOTAL NUMBER OF
DEATHS DUE TO A
PARTICULAR DISEASE
TOTAL NUMBER OF
CASES DUE TO THE
SAME DISEASE
X 100...
PROPORTIONAL
MORTALITY RATIO
NUMBER OF DEATHS
FROM THE SPECIFIC
DISEASE IN A YEAR
TOTAL DEATHS FROM
ALL CAUSES IN THAT
YEA...
SURVIVAL RATE
TOTAL NUMBER OF PATIENTS
ALIVE AFTER 5 YEARS
TOTAL NUMBER OF PATIENTS
DIAGNOSED OR TREATED
SURVIVAL
RATE = X...
STANDARDIZED
MORTALITY RATIO
OBSERVED DEATHS
EXPECTED DEATHS
SMR = X 100
INFANT MORTALITY RATE
(IMR)
NUMBER OF DEATHS OF
CHILDREN LESS THAN 1
YEAR OF AGE IN A YEAR
NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS
IN THE SA...
ATTACK RATE
NUMBER OF NEW CASES OF
A SPECIFIED DISEASE
DURING A SPECIFIED TIME
INTERVAL
TOTAL POPULATION AT RISK
DURING TH...
STILL BIRTH RATE (SBR)
FOETAL DEATHS WEIGHING
OVER 1000g AT BIRTH
DURING THE YEAR
TOTAL LIVE + STILL BIRTHS
WEIGHING OVER ...
PERINATAL MORTALITY
RATE (PMR)
LATE FOETAL AND EARLY
NEO NATAL DEATHS
WEIGHING OVER 1000g
AT BIRTH
TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS
WEIGH...
NEONATAL MORTALITY
RATE (NMR)
NUMBER OF DEATHS
OF CHILDREN
UNDER 28 DAYS OF
AGE IN A YEAR
TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS IN
THE SAME YE...
POST NEONATAL
MORTALITY RATE
NUMBER OF DEATHS OF
CHILDREN BETWEEN 28
DAYS AND ONE YEAR OF
AGE IN A GIVEN YEAR
TOTAL LIVE B...
CHILD DEATH RATE
NUMBER OF DEATHS OF
CHILDREN AGED 1-4
YEARS DURING A YEAR
TOTAL NUMBER OF
CHILDREN AGED 1-4
YEARS AT THE ...
CHILD MORTALITY RATE
NUMBER OF DEATHS OF
CHILDREN LESS THAN 5
YEARS OF AGE IN A
GIVEN YEAR
NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS
IN THE SA...
MATERNAL MORTALITY
RATIO
TOTAL NUMBER OF FEMALE DEATHS
DUE TO COMPLICATIONS OF
PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH OR
WITHIN 42 DAYS OF ...
EMIGRATION RATE
NUMBER OF EMIGRANTS
DEPARTING AN AREA OF
ORIGIN
1000 POPULATION AT THAT
AREA OF ORIGIN IN A GIVEN
YEAR
LIFE EXPECTANCY
The number of years which an
individual at a given age could
expect to live, at present
mortality levels
USES OF DEMOGRAPHIC
DATA
• Analysis patterns and trends
related to human religion,
nationality, education and
ethnicity.
•...
• Estimates size and flow of
populations; in population
ecology, the focus is on birth,
death and movement of firms and
in...
• Provides insight into the links
between these characteristics and
cultural, economic, geographic and
other social attrib...
• Used to establish the percentage
of the total population involved in a
particular resource use activity,
such as fishing...
• Analyzes the relationship between
economic, social, cultural and
biological process influencing a
population.
• Time and...
• Relates to whole societies or to a
smaller groups defined such as
education, religion or ethnicity.
• Develops targeted ...
Demography
Demography
Demography
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Demography

14,012 views

Published on

COMPLETE DEMOGRAPHY

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Demography

  1. 1. DEMOGRAPHY PRAMOD KUMAR
  2. 2. ETYMOLOGY • 1. DEMOS - People. • 2. GRAPHO - To write. • The word was coined by JOHN GRUNT
  3. 3. DEFINITION • Demography is the "study of human populations in relation to the changes brought about by the interplay of births, deaths, and migration" PRESSAT
  4. 4. DEFINITION • "Demography is the statistical description and analysis of human population". - WRONG
  5. 5. • Demography is the "statistical and mathematical study of the size, composition and spatial distribution of human populations, and of the changes over time, in these aspects through the operation of the five processess of fertility, mortality, marriage, migration and social mobility" - BOGUE
  6. 6. CONCEPT & SCOPE • Demography is the branch of social science, which deals with the study of size, structure and distribution of populations, along with the spatial and temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, ageing and death.
  7. 7. DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS : (Eg) • Crude Birth Rate. (CBR) • General Fertitlity Rate. (GFR) • Crude Death Rate. (CDR) • Infant Mortality Rate. (IMR)
  8. 8. • Life expectancy. (LE) • Total Fertility Rate. (TFR) • Gross Reproduction Rate.(GRR) • Net Reproduction Rate. (NRR)
  9. 9. SCOPE OF DEMOGRAPHY • Demography is the science of population. In it's most general meaning, a population is a set of people who live in a specific land area : a commune, a district, a country or a continent,etc. • A formal demography is concerned with the size, distribution, structure and changes of population
  10. 10. SIZE • Is the number of units (inhabitants) in the population
  11. 11. DISTRIBUTION • Is the arrangement of the population at a given time, geographically or among various types of residential areas.
  12. 12. STUCTURE • Is the distribution of characteristics such as age, gender groups etc among the population. • Additional characteristics of the uinits such as marital status, occupation educational level, ethnic characteristics, socio economic status etc.
  13. 13. CHANGE • Is the increase or decrease of the total population or of the one of it's structural units.
  14. 14. NARROW SCOPE • Population is constantly changing over time. • The components of change in a population are births, deaths and migration.
  15. 15. • Thus one generation will be replaced by another younger generation by birth and death process. • This is a natural change or demographic reproduction.
  16. 16. BROADER SCOPE • The broader scope of demographic reproduction includes migration. It means the movement of people from place to place. • Migration has great influence on population change.
  17. 17. • Within a country or an area, this movement does not affect the total size of the population. • It changes the structure of the population and area as well as the living conditions of immigrants and out-migrants.
  18. 18. • This process may also influence the behaviour of the inhabitants, especially out migrants. • Migrations have great influence on population change.
  19. 19. Source of demography • POPULATION CENSUSES • NATIONAL SAMPLE • SURVEYS REGISTRATION • VITAL EVENTS
  20. 20. Biggest source of data on  Demography  Economic Activity  Literacy & Education  Housing & Household  Urbanization  Fertility and Mortality  Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes  Language, Religion & Migration
  21. 21. Importance of Demographic data  Health status of a community depends upon the dynamic relationship between number of people, their composition& distribution  Planning of health services can be guided by demographic variables, for example: How many health units do we need? How to distribute them in the community in order to be accessible to the target population? What type of manpower is needed?
  22. 22. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION • Primary data collection :collection is done by the individual by using the methods such as : • Observation • Interviews • Questionnaires • Diaries
  23. 23. .. • Secondary data collection : • census • National survey • Registration of vital events • Demographic studies • Records
  24. 24. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA • Data is collection directly or indirectly from population . The data collected directed from individuals by face to face survey . • Data collected during census. • Data related to health from an individual. • Data related to illness from an individual.
  25. 25. . • The data which is collected from outside the source such as records . • Data taken from hospital records • Data taken from census • The data collected need to be arranged in table ,charts ,diagrams, graphs picture
  26. 26. Items of Information: NPR 1 Name of person 6 Sex 11 Present address of usual residence 2 Relationship to Head 7 Date of Birth 12 Duration of stay at present address 3 Father’s Name 8 Marital Status 13 Permanent Residential Address 4 Mother’s Name 9 Place of Birth 14 Occupation / Activity 5 Spouse’s Name 1 0 Nationality as Declared 15 Educational Qualification AbovedetailstobecollectedfromallUsualResidents Photograph, Finger Print and Iris (if approved) to be collected for Usual Residents aged 15 years and above
  27. 27. DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSE • It deals with the five demographic processes • FERTILITY • MORTALITY • MARRIAGE • MIGRATION • SOCIAL MORBILITY
  28. 28. DEMOGRAPHY CYCLE DEMOGRAPHY CYCLE HIGH STATIONARY. EARLY EXPANDING. LATE EXPANDING. LOW STATIONARY. DECLINING.
  29. 29. DEMOGRAPHY CYCLE HIGH STATIONARY. EARLY EXPANDING. LATE EXPANDING. LOW STATIONARY. DECLINING. High Birth Rate High Death Rate Unchanged Birth Rate Decline Death Rate Fall in Birth Rate Death Rate further Low Birth Rate Low Death Rate Birth rate lower than Death Rate
  30. 30. DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS • 1. Measurement of Mortality. • 2. Measurement of Morbidity. • 3. Measurement of disability. • 4. Measurement of natality. • 5. Measurement of the presence, absence or distribution of the characteristics or attributes of the disease.
  31. 31. `• 6. Measurement of medical needs, health care facilities, utilization of health services and other health related events. • 7. Measurement of the presence, absence or distribution of the environmental and other factors suspected of causing the disease.
  32. 32. • 8. Measurement of demographic variables.
  33. 33. TOOLS OF MEASUREMENT • An epidemiologist usually expresses the health event as RATES, RATIOS or PROPOTION.
  34. 34. RATE • A rate measures the occurence of some particular event in a population during a given period of time period. • It is the statement of the risk of of developing a condition.
  35. 35. • It indicates the change in some event that takes place in a population over a period of time. • X 1000 DEATH RATE = NUMBER OF DEATHS MID YEAR POP X 1000
  36. 36. RATE : EXAMPLE Weekly death rate = Deaths in a week x 52 Mid year population x 1000
  37. 37. • A rate comprises the following elements. • 1. Numerator. • 2. Denominator. • 3. Multiplier.
  38. 38. The time dimension is usually a calender year. The rate is expresses per 1000 or some round figure.(selected according to convenience or convention to avoid fraction).
  39. 39. RATIO • Ratio expresses a relation in size between two random quantities. E.g., x : y (or) x/y.
  40. 40. • The numerator is not a component of the denominator. • The numerator and denominator may involve an interval of time or may be simultaneous in time. The number of children with scabies at a certain time. The number of children with malnutrition at a certain time
  41. 41. PROPORTION • A Proportion is a ratio which indicates the relation in magnitude of a part of the whole. • The numerator is always included in the denominator. • A Proportion is usually expressed as percentage.
  42. 42. Example The number of children with scabies at a certain time. The total number of children in the village at the same time x 100
  43. 43. MEASUREMENTS OF MORTALITY • Mortality refers to the number of deaths in a given time or a place or a proportion odf deaths in relation to a population. • E.g., : 1. Crude Death Rate. 2. Infant Mortality Rate. 3. Maternal Mortality Rate 4. Life Expectancy.
  44. 44. MEASUREMENTS OF MORBIDITY • It refers to diseases and illness, injuries and disabilities in a population. • Data on the frequency and distribution of a disease helps in controlling its spread, and in some cases it may lead to the identification of cases.
  45. 45. Example • 1. Case Rate : The case rate is the number of reported cases of a specific disease or illness per 100,000 population during a given year.
  46. 46. • 2. Case Fatality Rate : The Case Fatality Rate is the proportion of persons contacting a disease who die of that disease during a specified time period.
  47. 47. MEASUREMENT OF DISABILITY • Dependancy Ratio : The ratio of the economically dependent part of the population to the productive part; arbitrarily defined as the ratio of the elderly ( ages 65 and older) plus the young (under age 15) to the population in the "working ages".
  48. 48. MEASUREMENTS OF NATALITY • Natality in population ecology is the scientific term for Birth Rate. • Along with mortality rate, natality rate is used to calculate the dynamics of a population.
  49. 49. • They are the key factors in determining whether a population is increasing, decreasing or staying the same in size. • Natality is the greatest influence on a population’s increase.
  50. 50. • Natality is shown as a crude birth rate or specific birth rate. Crude Birth Rate is used when calculating population size (number of births per 1000 population/year). • whereas Specific Birth Rate is used relative to a specific criterion such as age. By calculating specific birth rate, the results are seen in an age-specific schedule of births.
  51. 51. FORMULAS
  52. 52. BIRTH RATE (BR) NUMBER IF LIVE BIRTHS DURING THE YEAR. ESTIMATED MID YEAR POPULATION X 1000BIRTH RATE =
  53. 53. GENERAL FERTILITY RATE (GFR) NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS DURING A YEAR. MID YEAR FEMALE POP (15-49) IN THE SAME YEAR X 1000GFR =
  54. 54. GENERAL MARITAL FERTILITY RATE (GMFR) NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS DURING A YEAR. MID YEAR MARRIED FEMALE POP (15-49) YRS GMFR = X 1000
  55. 55. AGE SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATE (ASFR) NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN A PARTICULAR AGE GROUP. MID YEAR POP OF THE SAME AGE GROUP ASFR = X 1000
  56. 56. AGE SPECIFIC MARITAL FERTILITY RATE (ASMFR) NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN A PARTICULAR AGE GROUP. MID YAER POP OF THE SAME AGE GROUP. ASMFR = X 1000
  57. 57. TOTAL FERTILITY RATE (TFR) • It is the average number of children a women can give birth throughout the reproductive period. • It is represented by summing the age specific fertility rates for all ages; if 5 - year age groups are used, the sum of the rates is multiplied by 5.
  58. 58. TFR 45 - 49 15 - 19 1000 TFR = 5 X ASFR∑
  59. 59. TOTAL MARITAL FERTILITY RATE (TMFR) Average number of children that would be born to a married women if she experiences the current fertility pattern through her reproductive span.
  60. 60. TMFR 45 - 49 15 -19 1000 5 X ∑ ASMFRTMFR =
  61. 61. GROSS REPRODUCTION RATE (GFR) • Average number of girls that would be borne to a women if she experiences the curent fertility pattern throught her reproductive span (15 - 49 years) having no mortality.
  62. 62. NET REPRODUCTIVE RATE (NRR) • NRR is defined as the number of daughters a new borne girl will bear during her lifetime assuming fixed age-specific fertility and mortality rates. • At presesnt in India NRR is about 1.5
  63. 63. • If NRR is < 1, then the reproductive performance of the population is said to be below replacement level.
  64. 64. MARRIAGE RATES • The marriage rate (CRUDE MARRIAGE RATE) is the number of marriages per 1000 total population in a given year.
  65. 65. MARRIAGE RATE NUMBER OF MARRIAGES IN THE YEAR MID YEAR POPULATION MR = X 1000
  66. 66. CHILD WOMAN RATIO • Is the number of children 0 - 4 yrs of age per 1000 women of child bearing age.
  67. 67. PREGNANCY RATE. • It is the ratio of number of pregnancies in a year to married women in the ages 15-49 yrs. • The "number of pregnancies" includes all pregnancies, whether or had terminated as live births, stillbirths or abortions or had not yet terminated.
  68. 68. ABORTION RATE • The annual number of all types of abortions, usually per 1000 women of child bearing age (15-19 yrs).
  69. 69. ABORTION RATIO • This is calculated by dividing the number of abortions performed during a particular time period by the number of live births over the same period.
  70. 70. CRUDE DEATH RATE (CDR) NUMBER OF DEATHS DURING A YEAR MID YEAR POPULATION CDR = X 1000
  71. 71. SPECIFIC DEATH RATE NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM TB DURING A CALENDER YEAR. MID YEAR POPULATION SDR = X 1000
  72. 72. SPECIFIC DEATH RATE IN AGE GROUP 15-20 YRS NUMBER OF DEATHS OF PERSONS AGED 15-20 DURING A CALENDER YEAR. MID YEAR POPULATION OF PERSONS AGED 15-20 SPECIFIC DEATH RATE (15-20 YRS) = X 1000
  73. 73. DEATH RATE FOR JANUARY DEATHS IN JANUARY X 12 MID YEAR POPULATION DEATH RATE FOR JAN = X 1000
  74. 74. WEEKLY DEATH RATE DEATHS IN THE WEEK MID YEAR POPULATION WEEKLY DEATH RATE = X 1000
  75. 75. CASE FATALITY RATIO TOTAL NUMBER OF DEATHS DUE TO A PARTICULAR DISEASE TOTAL NUMBER OF CASES DUE TO THE SAME DISEASE X 100CFR =
  76. 76. PROPORTIONAL MORTALITY RATIO NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM THE SPECIFIC DISEASE IN A YEAR TOTAL DEATHS FROM ALL CAUSES IN THAT YEAR X 100PMR =
  77. 77. SURVIVAL RATE TOTAL NUMBER OF PATIENTS ALIVE AFTER 5 YEARS TOTAL NUMBER OF PATIENTS DIAGNOSED OR TREATED SURVIVAL RATE = X 100
  78. 78. STANDARDIZED MORTALITY RATIO OBSERVED DEATHS EXPECTED DEATHS SMR = X 100
  79. 79. INFANT MORTALITY RATE (IMR) NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN LESS THAN 1 YEAR OF AGE IN A YEAR NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN THE SAME YEAR X 1000IMR =
  80. 80. ATTACK RATE NUMBER OF NEW CASES OF A SPECIFIED DISEASE DURING A SPECIFIED TIME INTERVAL TOTAL POPULATION AT RISK DURING THE SAME INTERVAL X 100AR =
  81. 81. STILL BIRTH RATE (SBR) FOETAL DEATHS WEIGHING OVER 1000g AT BIRTH DURING THE YEAR TOTAL LIVE + STILL BIRTHS WEIGHING OVER 1000g AT BIRTH DURING THE YEAR X 1000SBR =
  82. 82. PERINATAL MORTALITY RATE (PMR) LATE FOETAL AND EARLY NEO NATAL DEATHS WEIGHING OVER 1000g AT BIRTH TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS WEIGHING OVER 1000g AT BIRTH X 1000PMR =
  83. 83. NEONATAL MORTALITY RATE (NMR) NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN UNDER 28 DAYS OF AGE IN A YEAR TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS IN THE SAME YEAR X 1000NMR =
  84. 84. POST NEONATAL MORTALITY RATE NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN BETWEEN 28 DAYS AND ONE YEAR OF AGE IN A GIVEN YEAR TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS IN THE SAME YEAR X 1000PNMR =
  85. 85. CHILD DEATH RATE NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN AGED 1-4 YEARS DURING A YEAR TOTAL NUMBER OF CHILDREN AGED 1-4 YEARS AT THE MIDDLE OF THE YEAR X 1000CDR =
  86. 86. CHILD MORTALITY RATE NUMBER OF DEATHS OF CHILDREN LESS THAN 5 YEARS OF AGE IN A GIVEN YEAR NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN THE SAME YEAR X 1000CMR =
  87. 87. MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO TOTAL NUMBER OF FEMALE DEATHS DUE TO COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH OR WITHIN 42 DAYS OF DELIVERY FROM PUERPERAL CAUSES IN AN AREA DURING A GIVEN YEAR TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN THE SAME AREA AND YEAR X 1000 / 100000MMR =
  88. 88. EMIGRATION RATE NUMBER OF EMIGRANTS DEPARTING AN AREA OF ORIGIN 1000 POPULATION AT THAT AREA OF ORIGIN IN A GIVEN YEAR
  89. 89. LIFE EXPECTANCY The number of years which an individual at a given age could expect to live, at present mortality levels
  90. 90. USES OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA • Analysis patterns and trends related to human religion, nationality, education and ethnicity. • Estimates are reliable standards for judging the accuracy of the census information gathered at any time.
  91. 91. • Estimates size and flow of populations; in population ecology, the focus is on birth, death and movement of firms and institutional forms. • Uses administrative records to develop an independent estimate of the population.
  92. 92. • Provides insight into the links between these characteristics and cultural, economic, geographic and other social attributes present in a given area. • Demographic analysis is a powerful tool that can explain a number of sociological phenomena.
  93. 93. • Used to establish the percentage of the total population involved in a particular resource use activity, such as fishing or tourism. • Apply to whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion and ethnicity.
  94. 94. • Analyzes the relationship between economic, social, cultural and biological process influencing a population. • Time and age have special relationships in population studies, from which cross sectional and cohort analysis are developed.
  95. 95. • Relates to whole societies or to a smaller groups defined such as education, religion or ethnicity. • Develops targeted outreach and training activities for local communities.

×