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Public Relations by Pramit J Nathan


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A compilation of online resources on PR to give a glimpse of Public Relations.

Published in: Business, Technology

Public Relations by Pramit J Nathan

  1. 1. Content Collated & Presented by: Pramit J. Nathan [] Founder (Idea to Impact) [] A compilation of online resources for an at-a-glance understanding of PR Public Relations
  2. 2. References Miyamoto's PR Resource News Place PR Influences All about Public Relations - Steven Van Hook Entrepreneur The PR Academy KC Writer Worldwide Media Relations About Market for Profits PR Disasters Marketing Communications Smith & Taylor Kogan Page Marketing Management Philip Kotler Prentice Hall Public Relations for David Wragg Kogan Page Sales and Mktg. Mgmt.
  3. 3. Authors <ul><li>Mark Coker </li></ul><ul><li>Apryl Duncan </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Lautenslager </li></ul><ul><li>Robert A. Kelly </li></ul><ul><li>Craig Miyamoto </li></ul><ul><li>Gerry McCusker </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey Orenstein </li></ul><ul><li>Robert L. Dilenschneider </li></ul><ul><li>Laura Schneider </li></ul><ul><li>Kelle Campbell </li></ul><ul><li>Pari Noskin Taichert </li></ul><ul><li>Robbie Vorhaus </li></ul><ul><li>Kyle Potvin </li></ul><ul><li>Mitchell Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Dali Singh </li></ul>
  4. 4. Public - Definition A PUBLIC is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve its objectives
  5. 5. Publics - Categories <ul><li>Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Investors </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Hubs </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audiences </li></ul>
  6. 6. Actual Potential Interest in Impact on <ul><li>Job Seekers </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Hubs </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Suspects </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Prospects </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Investors </li></ul>Publics - Segmentation
  7. 7. Public Relations – Simple Definition Development and maintenance of good relationships with different publics
  8. 8. Definition – UK Institute of PR The planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics
  9. 9. Definition – World Assembly of PR Assocn.s PR Practice is the art and science of 1. analyzing trends, 2. predicting their consequences, 3. counseling organization leaders and 4. implementing planned programs of action serving both organization’s & public’s interest
  10. 10. PR Specialization – Major Reasons <ul><li>Marketing function and its disciplines are evolving </li></ul><ul><li>Domain knowledge is becoming extremely important </li></ul><ul><li>PR companies on rise so they specialize their offerings </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is using the PR too, so companies want more </li></ul><ul><li>Division of PR activity both internally and externally </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization gets better results and client satisfaction </li></ul>
  11. 11. PR Specialization: Audience-wise <ul><li>Media Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Investor Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Community Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Government Relations </li></ul><ul><li> … </li></ul>
  12. 12. PR Specialization: Function-wise <ul><li>Product PR </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate PR </li></ul><ul><li>Financial PR </li></ul><ul><li>Event PR </li></ul><ul><li> … </li></ul>
  13. 13. PR Specialization: Industry-wise <ul><li>Technology PR </li></ul><ul><li>Public Affairs PR </li></ul><ul><li>Food Services PR </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare PR </li></ul><ul><li> … </li></ul>
  14. 14. PR vs. Advertising Advertising Public Relations           Paid Space Content Control Longer Shelf Life Less Credibility Scope for Creativity Agency/Media Sales Target Audiences Limited Contact Direct Sales Pitch Dependent on PR Free Publicity No Control Only One Exposure More Credibility Nose for News (buzz) Media Properties Target Editors/Reporters Unlimited Contact Third Party Opinion Self Willed
  15. 15. Important Tip <ul><li>Publicity/visibility should not be raised before </li></ul><ul><li>a solid platform of credibility is developed through </li></ul><ul><li>excellent quality products, </li></ul><ul><li>friendly customer service, </li></ul><ul><li>caring ethics/values and </li></ul><ul><li>socially responsible policies </li></ul>
  16. 16. PR Mix – Developing Credibility Product Quality Assurance Third-party Endorsement Customer Relations Customer Service Information Services Grievance Handling Corporate Image Corporate Communications Design Management Corporate Advertising Sponsorship Logo, Letterhead, Annual Reports, Signage, Literature, Buildings etc. Ethics & Social Resp. Employee Relations Community Relations Crisis Management Internal Communication Disaster Management Community Involvement Open Days Issue Management Education, Safety, Employment, Health, Environment etc.
  17. 17. PR Mix – Raising Visibility Publicity Public Speaking Media Relations Events Press Conferences Interviews, Photo-calls Press Releases Corporate Communications News Event Management Lectures, Conferences Speeches, Presentations Miscellaneous Advertising and Sales Promotion, Direct Mail Exhibitions Event Management Sponsorship Event Management
  18. 18. <ul><li>A great friend </li></ul><ul><li>An enigmatic acquaintance and, </li></ul><ul><li>A formidable foe </li></ul>Media Relationships Media can be:
  19. 19. Media Myth # 1 Only we need the media The media needs us as much
  20. 20. Media Myth # 2 Only large organizations and reputed people get coverage Good news and interesting stories get coverage: only media focus required
  21. 21. Media Myth # 3 Only significant news is a good story Stories don’t always transpire, they can be created too
  22. 22. Media Myth # 4 Its very difficult to get across to editors / journalists With the right story in hand they might actually be waiting for you
  23. 23. Media Myth # 5 One needs to entertain reporters to get covered Gifts might work, but they don’t have time otherwise for socializing
  24. 24. Media Myth # 6 Being in news means free publicity Mostly yes, but you can even pay for being visible and for self glory
  25. 25. Other Media Myths One can leverage media relationships to generate coverage One can negotiate editorial coverage on back of advertising Journalists spend hours hunting down stories and following up leads A journalist needs to know everything about a story
  26. 26. Other Media Myths (contd.) A journalist is obliged to write about an event if they accept the invitation Journalists don’t make changes to the media releases Journalists need a follow-up call after submitting a release An editor is the one who decides what stories will appear
  27. 27. Press or Media Kit <ul><li>Letter of introduction (pitch letter) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate charter </li></ul><ul><li>Information capsule on the company, management etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Profiles of offerings with reviews, testimonials etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent press publications and articles </li></ul><ul><li>PRESS RELEASES </li></ul><ul><li>AV of speeches, interviews, events etc. (with hard copies) </li></ul><ul><li>A sample news story </li></ul>
  28. 28. Press or Media Kit <ul><li>Financial statements, projections, announcements etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently asked questions (FAQs) </li></ul><ul><li>Photo gallery with camera-ready logo art </li></ul><ul><li>Recent awards and their description </li></ul><ul><li>Factual background material, white papers and articles </li></ul><ul><li>Give-away information </li></ul><ul><li>Significant statistics (wrt competition, industry, customers etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Event calendar (schedule with information) </li></ul>
  29. 29. 36 Reasons to do a corporate press release <ul><li>Starting a new business </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing a new offering (product or service) </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrating an anniversary </li></ul><ul><li>Announcing a sales / marketing promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Announcing a restructuring (pre & post) of the company </li></ul><ul><li>Offering an article series for publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation of offices / Opening up of new offices </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving or filing of patents </li></ul><ul><li>Giving or receiving an award </li></ul><ul><li>Any new appointment at executive (or senior mgmt.) level </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of unique strategy / approach </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of a merger / acquisition / sale (pre & post) </li></ul>
  30. 30. 36 Reasons to do a Press Release <ul><li>Participating in a philanthropic event </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of a significant business contract </li></ul><ul><li>Company or product name change </li></ul><ul><li>Major recognition of the company, product or person </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate availability for interaction on a significant issue </li></ul><ul><li>Election of new board or panel of advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Issuing a statement regarding a local, regional or national issue </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of a website </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of free information available </li></ul><ul><li>Announcing reaching a major milestone </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of a retiring executive </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of getting new customer (s) </li></ul>
  31. 31. 36 Reasons to do a Press Release <ul><li>Announcement of a retirement </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of business expanding / innovating </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting an unusual challenge or rising above adversity </li></ul><ul><li>Certification or accreditation by a buyer or authority </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of a customer advisory group </li></ul><ul><li>Results of research or survey conducted </li></ul><ul><li>An exclusive franchisee to a reputed brand or offering </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsoring a workshop, conference or seminar </li></ul><ul><li>Public statements on future trends, projections or conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of a new strategic partnership or alliance </li></ul><ul><li>A team member to serve in a leadership position elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of a public appearance in an important function </li></ul>
  32. 32. Do you really need a reason ?
  33. 33. Pointers to a Powerful Release <ul><li>Use the six golden keys </li></ul><ul><li>Use the pyramid approach </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t go overboard to sell your story </li></ul><ul><li>Give a summary before the elaborate story </li></ul><ul><li>Use your official correspondence and lend a helping hand </li></ul>Control use of superlatives and descriptors such as pleased, excited, unique or exceptional to the minimum. Answer the questions which start with who, what, when, why, where and if necessary how. Summarize main news succinctly in the first para. Information in its descending order of importance in subsequent paras. A catchy title with a couple of lines of summary is putting the best foot forward thereby eliciting a positive ear and mind. It lends credibility. It will also contain the name of person, company and contact details if interaction is required.
  34. 34. Pointers to a Powerful Release <ul><li>Refrain from verbosity </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity is beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>To err is blasphemy </li></ul><ul><li>Be human and think like humans do </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a good story </li></ul>Shorter is better when writing for media. The release should be no more than two pages long. Use one side of the sheet only. Try to keep the sentences short and without using exceptional powers of vocabulary. Take extra care of syntax and semantics. Typos is an unpardonable crime. No point either being too matter of fact or too pompous. Think and talk like a normal person. If and when possible romanticize and even sensationalize the new when appropriate ... it will be remembered for times to come.
  35. 35. PR and Story Telling Know your story, know your audience, and tell your story better than anyone else. And don't forget to smile.
  36. 36. Pointers to a Powerful Release Most importantly, send the release to the right person. Avoid getting discarded as spam. And mention the contact person with contact details for more information.
  37. 37. Sample Release
  38. 38. Media Relations determine the strike rate of the press releases. Strike Rate
  39. 39. Complaints by Editors <ul><li>Hand-delivering a release to make certain they receive it. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading a release to the editor over the phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously giving the release to multiple editors at the same publication. </li></ul><ul><li>Emailing the release and then calling to make certain that the editor received it, or calling to ask if it's okay to a release. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningless personal notes accompanying a release. </li></ul><ul><li>Cute, meaningless and trivial notes in an email before the editor gets to the message. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Excessively long releases. </li></ul><ul><li>Issue press releases on all your new products – including all the features from the sales brochure. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a policy of talking or commenting only in certain circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Let your sales people loose with the media. </li></ul><ul><li>Make it hard for journalists to get information in any other way than talking to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Pestering for a informal meeting to forge media relations. </li></ul>Complaints by Editors
  41. 41. <ul><li>Global releases are submitted as is without localization. </li></ul><ul><li>Spamming the release to 50-100+ editors listing all of their names/addresses before the reporter can get to the reason for the email. </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding the release in the email as heavy attachments. </li></ul><ul><li>Requesting that no changes be made in the release copy. </li></ul><ul><li>Expecting clippings of the printed release. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulatively pointing out that the firm is also an advertiser. </li></ul>Complaints by Editors
  42. 42. Other PR Opportunities <ul><li>Analyst Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Awards PR </li></ul><ul><li>Columnist Campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Contributed Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial Calendaring </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial Onsite Visits </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Sourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Letters to the Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Lists </li></ul><ul><li>Press Tours </li></ul><ul><li>Product Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking @ Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Show Meetings </li></ul>
  43. 43. 1. Analyst Relations <ul><li>Build relationships with industry analysts in relevant product areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Reporters and customers seek out analysts for their opinions on important industry announcements, trends and vendor suitability. </li></ul><ul><li>Well-briefed analysts are indispensable advocates for a company. </li></ul><ul><li>Many analysts publish newsletters and reports, which are often well-read within corporate computing sites. </li></ul><ul><li>The downside to analyst relations is that their services are often retained by your competitors. “When you communicate with analysts … you're also communicating with your competitors”. </li></ul>
  44. 44. 2. Application Stories and Case Studies <ul><li>Customers are the secret weapon in PR. Application story is written by media and case study by the PR team. </li></ul><ul><li>PR team locates customers with interesting or unique applications of products and interview them to create a compelling story. </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies make powerful marketing collateral on a website but downside is that they tend to be time consuming to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative to a case study is to encourage media to cover the story on their own to an appropriate reporter often as an exclusive. </li></ul><ul><li>Application stories make wonderful reprints, and carry greater credibility than a company-written case study. The only disadvantage of an application story is that the PR team cannot exercise control over content, whereas with a case study, they exercise total control. </li></ul>
  45. 45. 3. Awards PR <ul><li>Many publications offer a variety of awards for innovative new products, or the best products in a review. </li></ul><ul><li>In instances where the editors (as opposed to the readers) make the nominations, PR teams can play a big role in having the products considered. </li></ul><ul><li>If the awards are determined based on a reader ballot, then PR teams contact the publication far enough in advance so that the company or its products can be listed on the ballot. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>It's a tough job being a columnist, who each week or each month needs to come up with a fresh opinion about an important subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The PR team should familiarize themselves with the columnists who write for the top target publications and offer column ideas for which the company can assist the columnist. </li></ul><ul><li>As a vendor of a cool product or service, company executives often possess insight into important trends and issues that could serve as great column topics. </li></ul>4. Columnist Campaigns
  47. 47. <ul><li>Several publications publish articles written by vendors. </li></ul><ul><li>These articles are a great vehicle to further establish company executives, the company itself and its ideas in the marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>The most credible contributed articles don't even mention the vendor's products. </li></ul><ul><li>The one negative of contributed articles is that they tend to be extremely time consuming to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>If the company doesn't have the talent or the time to write the article in-house, the PR team can contract with a professional writer, typically a freelance journalist. </li></ul>5. Contributed Articles
  48. 48. <ul><li>One of the most important ongoing media relations activities is editorial calendaring - To gain inclusion in planned editorial features and position executives as experts for trends, insight and opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Take an aggressive, proactive approach to editorial calendaring. Make early contact with editors, and help narrow the general topics in areas of strength. </li></ul><ul><li>PR team can take editorial calendaring to the next level by actually working with the publications to help them define their editorial calendar schedules for the following year and include topics of interest to the company. </li></ul>6. Editorial Calendaring
  49. 49. <ul><li>A key responsibility of PR is to build valuable relationships with the media over a long-term. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever possible, the PR team should attempt to arrange for editors and reporters to visit the offices. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally, the visit is associated with a news announcement. </li></ul><ul><li>The PR team should attempt to have most important reporters and analysts visit at least once every year or two. </li></ul>7. Editorial Visits
  50. 50. <ul><li>Attach company (directly or indirectly) to another story. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if a company produces anti-virus software and there's a sudden outbreak of a new computer virus, the PR team can arrange for the media to speak with the company's experts for their perspective and insight. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't just limit expert sourcing outreach to print media -- broadcast media are constantly on the outlook for articulate &quot;talking heads&quot; who are experts in various fields. </li></ul>8. Expert Sourcing
  51. 51. <ul><li>Letters to the editor are an excellent option to gain additional publicity, because the section is one of the best read in every publication. </li></ul><ul><li>These letters give an opportunity to clarify errors and omissions of past articles. </li></ul><ul><li>They also give a chance to repeat and reinforce key marketing messages about your products or company. </li></ul><ul><li>One can even comment on articles that omitted reference to the company. </li></ul><ul><li>A well-written letter will reinforce the image of the company and its executives as leaders and experts in their field. </li></ul>9. Letter to the Editor
  52. 52. <ul><li>Increase awareness by getting the company included in the lists or rankings of the top entities in your field. </li></ul><ul><li>Important databases which include profiles can be an option too. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the company earns a place on a list, consider issuing a media release. </li></ul><ul><li>The media most likely won't cover the release, but the customers will be impressed to see the accomplishment / listing when they view the news on the web site. </li></ul>10. Lists
  53. 53. <ul><li>Press tours are one of the best ways to communicate complex messages and build face-to-face relationships, but they are not always necessary for a successful announcement. </li></ul><ul><li>PR team can help determine the best strategy for communications effort. It is recommended that companies hit the road at least once or twice a year with a nationwide press tour. </li></ul>11. Press Tours
  54. 54. <ul><li>Product reviews make or break a product, so it's important that the PR team does everything possible to influence outcome of the review. </li></ul><ul><li>PR Team and PR agency work together to create a reviewer's guide that helps the reviewer easily recognize product's attributes. Most negative reviews are result of simple reviewer misunderstandings. </li></ul><ul><li>Once review slot is obtained, PR team should ensure that reviewer and editors understand product positioning and key differentiating features. Arrange phone briefings in advance if required. </li></ul><ul><li>While review is in progress, PR team should maintain contact with the reviewer to monitor progress and respond to inevitable glitches. </li></ul><ul><li>Best review management process can't compensate for a bad product. Don't send products for review until there is absolute confidence that it's a solid product that will work as advertised. </li></ul>12. Product Reviews
  55. 55. <ul><li>Speaker and moderator slots at industry conferences help establish executives and company as leaders in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>PR team will work with company executives and conference managers to place key executives as speakers. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker placement requires special planning and advance preparation, since speaker proposals are often due 12 months prior to a conference. </li></ul>13. Speaking Engagements
  56. 56. <ul><li>Trade shows are typically a great place to meet editors face-to-face, build relationships and show off products. </li></ul><ul><li>But due to the circus-like atmosphere and noise created by hundreds of other announcements, trade shows are not always the best forum to make new product announcements to the press. </li></ul><ul><li>One alternative that works well is to brief the press several weeks in advance of an announcement so that the coverage appears the week before or the week of the trade show. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether or not one announces products at a show, trade shows provide a great opportunity to set up one-on-one meetings with attending press. The PR team should work weeks in advance to arrange the meetings either at booth as an exhibitor or at press office as participant. </li></ul>14. Trade Shows - Meetings
  57. 57. <ul><li>Events could be either workshops, seminars, conferences or even road-shows, talent shows etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Events can be used either as sponsor, organizer or participant. Create a tentative calendar in advance. Send invites to media contacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Set tangible goals/milestones for every event in terms of output and outcomes … business results will eventually follow if everything goes as planned. </li></ul>15. Events
  58. 58. PR Roles - 1 <ul><li>Communicate the brand values internally so that all staff are aware of, understand, and support the brand vision, as well as ‘live’ the brand values. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – run an internal program in advance of a new major product introduction or a change in brand name. Domain knowledge is becoming extremely important. </li></ul>
  59. 59. PR Roles - 2 <ul><li>Ensure that important brand or product milestones are exploited and leveraged at a corporate level as well as to relevant trade, business or consumer media.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example – the sale of your millionth widget may provide publicity opportunities and could also warrant an internal ‘thank you’ celebratory function within the company. </li></ul>
  60. 60. PR Roles - 3 <ul><li>Create the right environment for new brand or product launches. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – Microsoft traditionally introduces all its major products through PR well before the product reaches the market.  Car marketers have also always done this. </li></ul>
  61. 61. PR Roles - 4 <ul><li>Access hard-to-reach audiences who are either suspicious of, or cynical about, advertising and traditional marketing techniques.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example – teenagers may be reached through media exposure and promotional techniques rather than conventional advertising. </li></ul>
  62. 62. PR Roles - 5 <ul><li>Utilize media channels that advertising cannot, either because the budget won’t stretch that far or because it doesn’t warrant the advertising spend.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example – while you might choose to advertise in only a few consumer magazines, PR can seek editorial in the others, thus spreading your reach. </li></ul>
  63. 63. PR Roles - 6 <ul><li>Communicate to sub or secondary groups of the target market.   </li></ul><ul><li>For example – seniors might not be a core initial market, but they may be seen as a potential market. In this case, PR can be used for ‘seeding’ this market. </li></ul>
  64. 64. PR Roles - 7 <ul><li>Fill the valleys and troughs in your advertising campaign.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example – if you plan three flights of concentrated advertising through the year you should look to use PR between these flights to ensure consistency and continuity of communication. </li></ul>
  65. 65. PR Roles - 8 <ul><li>Deliver more rounded messages. </li></ul><ul><li>For example ­– advertising for a household appliance may need to focus on just one or two core messages whereas PR can be used to deliver other messages that actually increase the appeal of the brand. </li></ul>
  66. 66. PR Roles - 9 <ul><li>Exploit issues or trends.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example – when anti-bacterial kitchen cleaners came on the market it was necessary to use PR to tell consumers that there was a problem with germs in the kitchen first, before heavy advertising began. </li></ul>
  67. 67. PR Roles - 10 <ul><li>Protect your brand or category from criticism.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example – some brands, or product categories, face questioning and attacks from all sorts of experts and activists who seem to get more than their fair share of media coverage.  PR can help counter this. </li></ul>
  68. 68. PR Charter <ul><li>Reach </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Move To Action </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul>OBJECTIVES GOALS
  69. 69. <ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Business Results </li></ul>Measure effectiveness of work done. Who did we reach? Did it convey the right message? Was it done cost efficiently? Measure changes resulting from communication. Did we create greater awareness? Did we change attitudes? Did our target audience change their behavior? Measure return on investment and effort. How did PR help the organization achieve its business objectives? Measuring / Evaluating PR
  70. 70. PR Outputs <ul><li>Impressions Readership (as opposed to circulation) of clips </li></ul><ul><li>Value Equivalent advertising value of media coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Cost per media impression or cost per thousand of a campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency Number of times we gained exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Reach Degree of coverage across our target audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Prominence How and where the coverage occurred within specific media </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Did the story deliver specific pre-determined messages? </li></ul><ul><li>Tone Was the story positive, neutral or negative? </li></ul><ul><li>Share of Ink Total amount of coverage devoted to a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Share of Voice % of coverage devoted to a client/product WRT competitors </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude / Desire </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul>PR Outcomes What you want the audience to know or become aware of that they weren’t before. What you want your audience to understand based on their new awareness. What you want your audience to feel based on those understandings. What you ultimately want them to do based on those feelings.
  72. 72. PR Business Results (Amalgamated) <ul><li>Sales of products </li></ul><ul><li>Total Revenues </li></ul><ul><li>Market Share / Status </li></ul>Sales of specific products, growth in sales, price acceptance or resistance, demand-supply situation in territories (favorable to PR activities). Total sales of related (product line) and unrelated (product mix), growth in total revenues. Product-wise and company-wise. Rankings WRT competitors.
  73. 73. PR Plan – Questions to be Asked <ul><li>Who are we? </li></ul><ul><li>What is our company name, location, and contact information? Who are our people? What business are we in? For example, are railroads in the business of running trains or of providing transportation services? </li></ul><ul><li>What is distinctive about us? </li></ul><ul><li>What is our unique selling proposition that makes us stand out from our competition and all other businesses? ) Don't have one? Better develop one if you want good publicity. </li></ul><ul><li>What have we done lately? </li></ul><ul><li>What news have we made? What accomplishments have we achieved in the last year or two? What crisis or uncomfortable moments have we encountered? </li></ul>
  74. 74. PR Plan – Questions to be Asked <ul><li>What are we planning to do that the public might care about? </li></ul><ul><li>Think carefully about this, and be consistent with your other answers. </li></ul><ul><li>What are we really selling? </li></ul><ul><li>Products? An image? Success? A better lifestyle? The ability to help our customers do their jobs better? </li></ul><ul><li>To whom do we want to sell? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is our ideal customer? Who buys now? Whom would we like to sell to? </li></ul><ul><li>What are our potential customers like? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they live and work? From whom do they buy products like ours? What do they read and watch? </li></ul>
  75. 75. PR Plan – Questions to be Asked <ul><li>Who is already speaking to our target market? </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors? Wannabe competitors? Which media?) </li></ul><ul><li>How are we perceived? </li></ul><ul><li>Image? Credibility? Quality of our products and public presentations?) </li></ul><ul><li>Given our industry/situation, how can we create +ve perceptions? </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising? News releases? Media kits? Philanthropy and sponsorships? Doing newsworthy things? </li></ul><ul><li>Now that we have committed to become a business legend through publicity for our business/products, what can go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>What if the media say untrue things about us? What if our products are defective? What if we cannot deliver on time? </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>Identify Key Communication Groups (KCG) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure Images /Attitudes towards the Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Image / Attitude Goals for KCG </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Cost-effective Public Relations Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare Anticipated Crisis Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Select Communication Media and Modes </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Plan of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Measure Results with Benchmarks </li></ul>PR Plan - Steps
  77. 77. PR Plan - Elements <ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Executive summary </li></ul><ul><li>Situation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign goal </li></ul><ul><li>Audience identification </li></ul><ul><li>Message Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Audience objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation plans </li></ul><ul><li>Pertinent research </li></ul><ul><li>Communication samples </li></ul>
  78. 78. PR Plan – Executive Summary <ul><li>The Problem: State here what you believe the problem to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Program Goal: State here what your ultimate goal is. </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audiences: (1) Your primary audience, (2) your secondary (intervening) audience(s), and (3) your tertiary (special) audience(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Audience Objectives: (1) What you expect your primary audience to do, (2) what you expect your intervening audience(s) to do, and (3) what you expect your special audience(s) to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Strategy: State your major strategy here, listing the key tactics that you will use in your campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Budget: State your total anticipated income and sources, your anticipated expenses, and the anticipated net profit or loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Plans: State how you expect to evaluate (and expect to know) whether or not you've achieved each of your campaign and audience objectives. </li></ul>
  79. 79. PR Plan – Situation Analysis <ul><li>INTERNAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Statements of organization's mission, charter, bylaws, history and structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Lists, bios, and photos of key individuals – officers, board members, and program managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed descriptions of programs, products, services, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics about resources, budget, staffing and programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Summaries of interviews with key personnel about the problem situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Copies of policy statements and procedures related to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete descriptions of how the organization currently handles the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Lists and descriptions of the organization's controlled communication media. </li></ul>
  80. 80. PR Plan – Situation Analysis <ul><li>EXTERNAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Clippings from newspapers, magazines, trade publications, and newsletters. </li></ul><ul><li>Reports of radio, television and cable placements. </li></ul><ul><li>Content analyses of media coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Lists of relevant media, journalists, columnists, and free-lance writers. </li></ul><ul><li>Lists, descriptions of individuals/groups that share organization's concerns, interests, and views (including their controlled print and broadcast media). </li></ul><ul><li>Lists, descriptions of individuals/groups that oppose the organization's positions on the issues (including their controlled print and broadcast media). </li></ul><ul><li>Survey results of public's awareness, knowledge, opinions, and behaviors related to the organization and problem situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules of special events, observances, and other important dates related to the organization and problem. </li></ul>
  81. 81. PR Plan – Situation Analysis <ul><li>EXTERNAL FACTORS (Contd.) </li></ul><ul><li>Lists of government agencies, legislators, and officials with regulatory or legislative power affecting the organization and the problem situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Copies of relevant government regulations, legislation, bills pending, referenda, publications, and hearing reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Copies of published research on topics related to the problem situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Lists of important reference books, records, and directories, as well as their locations in the organization. </li></ul>
  82. 82. PR Plan – Problems & Consequences <ul><li>Based on research and preliminary interviews with client, isolate the overriding problem and determine consequences if the problem is not solved. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem statement itself should be concise and very specific. </li></ul><ul><li>This step is crucial to your plan and to the success of your campaign. Mess up here and you will end up 'way off course. </li></ul><ul><li>It's the same with the problem statement. Identify the wrong problems, and you may as well not even turn in your plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Get to the root cause of your problem, and try to identify exactly what attitude (what they think) or behavior (what they do) you need to influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want attitudes crystallized, modified or reinforced? Be especially conscious of the ultimate behavior you want to evoke. Answer this question: &quot;What exactly is it that we want them to do as a result of this campaign“? </li></ul>
  83. 83. PR Plan – Problems & Consequences <ul><li>Proper problem identification and statement is still not enough. The client may recognize that there is a problem, but unless there is a consequence – unless the client will lose something of value, whether it be profits, members, or quality of service – the client may remain unconvinced about your plan. </li></ul><ul><li>You must show the client what could result if something isn't done to correct the problem identified above. Explain in one concise declarative sentence what the consequences will be. </li></ul>
  84. 84. PR Plan – Campaign Goal <ul><li>Here's a brief review of goals and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals are general directions, somewhat nebulous, that are not specific enough to be measured. Think of the word &quot;go“ … It has no end. </li></ul><ul><li>A good example is the signature line of the Star Trek television series: &quot;To boldly go where no man (&quot;no one&quot; in Generations ) has gone before.&quot; You can't measure it, and you probably will never know if the goals were accomplished, because once humans have gone somewhere, we've been there, and there are still other places to go since the universe is infinite and has no end. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives, on the other hand, are specific and measurable. They can be output objectives, or they can be attitudinal or behavioral. But most of all, they can be measured. They are concise. They are specific. Think of the word &quot;object.&quot; You can touch it, it's there, it's actual, it's finite. </li></ul><ul><li>Back to the goal. State your campaign goal simply and resolutely. State it confidently, with all the bravado you can muster, secure in the knowledge that the question, &quot;Did you accomplish your goal?&quot; can never be answered. </li></ul>
  85. 85. PR Plan – Audience Identification <ul><li>Who exactly is going to be affected by your public relations campaign? Who exactly are you trying to persuade? </li></ul><ul><li>You're going to need some cooperation from others; who will this be? Where are these people located? How can you find them? How can you get in touch with them? </li></ul><ul><li>The people you want to reach listen to opinion leaders; exactly who are these opinion leaders? Who and where are those credible, authoritative sources that your intended audience believes, and who can help you get your messages across? </li></ul><ul><li>Your audiences generally act the way you do -— they do the same things you do. What magazines and newspapers do they read? What radio stations do they tune in to? What TV shows do they watch? To what clubs and organizations do they belong? What professional associations do they join? What are their favorite charities? What are their children's favorite participation sports? </li></ul>
  86. 86. PR Plan – Types of Audiences <ul><li>PRIMARY: This is the audience or public that you specifically want to influence. It's the people whose behavior you're trying to change. Influence them, and you've done your job well. </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY: These are &quot;intervening&quot; audiences. These are people who can intervene on your behalf and influence the primary audience. Convince them that you're right, and they can help you get to the primary audience. You've heard of &quot;third-party testimonials&quot; that are more credible than your direct communication? Secondary audiences are those &quot;third-party&quot; people. Influence the secondary audiences and your job will become a bit easier. Their &quot;endorsement&quot; of your cause serves as their &quot;testimonial.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>TERTIARY: (Pronounced &quot;ter-she-arry&quot;) These are &quot;special&quot; publics composed primarily of organized groups (e.g., clubs, councils, associations) that can mobilize quickly and endorse your cause. They usually have an established means of communication with their membership via newsletters and other media. </li></ul>
  87. 87. PR Plan –Audience Objectives <ul><li>What are the objectives for each audience identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives should measure impact. Behavioral objectives are preferred (&quot;Exactly what is it you want to get them to do?&quot;), but the objectives can also be attitudinal (&quot;What do you want them to think?&quot;), or informational (&quot;What do you want them to know that they didn't know before?&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives also measures output – what you did. But unless output is central to the problem and contributes to solutions, try to keep these to a minimum. </li></ul><ul><li>State objectives in specific and quantifiable (measurable) terms whenever possible. Set them in a time frame, and if you know what the budget is, tell the client what you expect the cost to be. The objectives should be reachable, they should be acceptable to the client, and they must be ethical. </li></ul><ul><li>A crystal-clear objective would read something like this: &quot;Our objective is to deliver X results by Y date at a cost of Z dollars.&quot; </li></ul>
  88. 88. PR Plan – Strategies <ul><li>There are four basic strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Do nothing (inactive). </li></ul><ul><li>Do something only if necessary (reactive). </li></ul><ul><li>Do something before a problem arises (proactive). </li></ul><ul><li>Involve others in solving or heading off problems (interactive). </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy finally selected will help determine the success or failure of your proposed program. You may find it easier to select a strategy after reviewing the list of public relations initiatives (tactics, activities) that you will develop after conducting a number of creative brainstorming sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss pros and cons of each strategy considered. Offer options. If you can identify business risks and opportunities, you give the client an opportunity to exercise informed judgment. Clients need viable options – they need to know each option's advantages and disadvantages – in order to make decisions based on fact instead of emotion. Give a RECOMMENDED STRATEGY. </li></ul>
  89. 89. PR Plan – Communication Tactics <ul><li>ACTION EVENTS: Non-written tactics such as special events, demonstrations, exhibits, parades, community contributions (manpower, talent, advice, money) and other non-verbal activities. Separate action events into message tactics (used to get your message across to the audience) and media tactics (how you will utilize the news media to publicize your action events). </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS: Verbal tactics (oral and written) that use words or pictures. These include newsletters, flyers, news releases, brochures, direct mail, advertising, themes, slogans, the World Wide Web (WWW), and other initiatives that use words and language as their basis. As with your action events, separate communications initiatives into message tactics (which will be used to get your message directly to the audience), and media tactics (how you will utilize the news media to communicate your messages). </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a brief description of each tactic, especially noting the audiences to which the tactic is directed, the message you expect the audience to receive, your reasons for selecting this particular tactic (cite your research, focus group results, etc.), and the anticipated results. </li></ul>
  90. 90. PR Plan – Schedule <ul><li>Present your planning calendar. Be specific and comprehensive. Include specific dates whenever possible. When to conduct action events and communication tactics. Also, who will be doing the work. </li></ul><ul><li>List milestones and deadlines for each of the events and tactics (in detail). </li></ul><ul><li>You may either present a separate calendar for each tactic, or combine them into a comprehensive timetable. Ideally, you should do both. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't forget to correlate once again the events with the audiences you expect to address, and what you expect to accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, don't forget to include any research you will be conducting, as well as on-going and end-of-project evaluation dates. </li></ul>
  91. 91. PR Plan – Budget <ul><li>Putting a budget together is especially difficult when you are working on a hypothetical case, or if you are not sure of the client's requirements (&quot;Why don't you present three scenarios -- minimal, moderate and optimal -- and we'll pick the one we can afford&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>This may seem incredible, but the client often has absolutely no idea how much is available for your campaign. More often than we suspect, the client may simply be &quot;fishing&quot; for a cheap way to obtain some publicity for the company. Or, the client may want to know how much a pet project would cost if it were done correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>You must have an accurate representation of how much things are going to cost. The information may be close at hand ( e.g. , previous experience, other plans, informative co-workers), or ... make a lot of phone calls. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate your anticipated income from your proposed expenses, and present both totals. Finally, give the client a bottom-line figure. Tell the client exactly what the campaign is going to cost. </li></ul>
  92. 92. PR Plan – Evaluation <ul><li>IMPACT: Ask yourself what behavioral or attitudinal changes the campaign effected. Impact measurement documents the extent to which you achieved the outcomes spelled out in your objectives for each target public. It also tells you to what extent your overall program goal was achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT (or implementation): In other words, what did you DO? How much effort went into the campaign? How many publications and releases were prepared and distributed? How many column inches and minutes of air-time coverage did you get? How many people were exposed to your message? </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize impact -- impact is paramount. Emphasize output only if the communications &quot;products&quot; are central to your problem and contribute to solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the client exactly how you are going to measure the results of what you did, and how they relate to your objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, you cannot evaluate effectively unless you have good objectives. If you don't have good objectives, then you have nothing to measure against. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Crisis Management – Goals <ul><li>Avoid a crisis in the first place </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly address and resolve crisis issues before they escalate </li></ul><ul><li>Seek possible ways to turn your crisis into an opportunity </li></ul>
  94. 94. Crisis – Reasons <ul><li>Acts of God (Natural Catastrophes etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents (Damage, Injury, Negligence etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Operations (Overcharging, Defects, Hazards etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Moves (M&A, Takeovers, Splits) </li></ul><ul><li>Legalities (Legal suits, PIL, Grievances etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Rumours (Gossip, Information Leakage etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff (Errors / Strikes etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Scandal (Harassment, Security Breach, Espionage etc.) </li></ul>
  95. 95. Other Reasons
  96. 96. Crisis Management – Roles <ul><li>Acknowledge situation and concerns surrounding it </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate silence will be filled by other interests </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Team key influencers of opinion; look after them </li></ul><ul><li>Respect audiences, competition, media etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond prompt response and proactive action </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario Plan be primed for any negative outbreak </li></ul><ul><li>Truth honesty is the best policy; selective revelation </li></ul>
  97. 97. Crisis Management – Plan <ul><li>Crisis Communication Team </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Designated Spokespersons </li></ul><ul><li>Media Policies and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Releases </li></ul><ul><li>Collateral Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Key Audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Center / Contact Log </li></ul>Mock Interviews Speakers Presentations Handling Media Questions
  98. 98. Crisis Management – Communication Team <ul><li>CEO / COO </li></ul><ul><li>PR Head </li></ul><ul><li>VP / Head of Division / Office involved </li></ul><ul><li>Security Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Others … </li></ul>
  99. 99. Crisis Management – Position <ul><li>Human Error </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorized Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Quality Control </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential Info. Misuse </li></ul><ul><li>Error of Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate SOPs </li></ul>
  100. 100. Crisis Management – Spokesperson <ul><li>Primary Spokesperson </li></ul><ul><li>Backup Spokesperson </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Business Advisors </li></ul><ul><li>CRITERIA </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasantly Interactive, Charisma </li></ul><ul><li>Sincere & Straightforward </li></ul><ul><li>Confident and Mature </li></ul><ul><li>Cool, Calm and Composed </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled Communicator </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Mind / Quick Wit </li></ul><ul><li>Good Relations with Media </li></ul>
  101. 101. Crisis Management – Prepared Statements <ul><li>Make them timely even if incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>Give confirmed facts – don’t overdo and speculate </li></ul><ul><li>Show concern; make them feel like insiders </li></ul><ul><li>Matter of fact prepared statement </li></ul><ul><li>As more information is available, issue further statements </li></ul>
  102. 102. Crisis Management – Key Audiences Employees management, full-time, part-time and prospective employees, families union members, and retirees Community neighborhood coalitions, community organizations, plant locations, chambers of commerce Customer - Geographical local, regional, national and international Customer - Functional distributors, dealers, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers Customer - Business suppliers, partners, competitors, professional societies, subcontractors, joint ventures, and trade associations Media general, local, national and international, foreign trade, specialized
  103. 103. Crisis Management – Key Audiences Financial analysts, FII s, shareholders, bankers - commercial /investment, brokers, portfolio managers, investors Government - Geographical local, state, regional, national and international Government - Functional Legislative, regulatory, executive, and judicial Academia trustees, directors, advisors, students, prospects, administration, faculty and staff, alumni Special Interests environmental, safety, handicapped/disabled, minority, think-tanks, consumer, health, senior citizens, and religious
  104. 104. Crisis Management – Handling Media <ul><li>How To prepare for Broadcast Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare &quot;talking paper&quot; on primary points you want to make. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate questions--prepare responses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice answering questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover controversial areas ahead of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know who will be interviewing you, if possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how much time is available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiences often remember impressions, not facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do's and Don'ts During the Interview process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do build bridges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do use specifics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do use analogies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do use contrasts, comparisons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do be enthusiastic/animated. </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Crisis Management – Handling Media <ul><li>Do's and Don'ts During the Interview process (contd.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do be your casual likable self. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do be a listener. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do be cool. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do be correct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do be anecdotal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do admit and move on if you don't have the answer or can't answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't accept &quot;what if&quot; questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't accept &quot;laundry list&quot; questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't go off the record. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't think you have to answer every question. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't speak for someone else --beware of the absent-party trap. </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. Crisis Management – Handling Media <ul><li>How To Handle Yourself During A TV Talk Show Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk &quot;over &quot; lavaliere mike. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio check-- use regular voice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If makeup is offered, use it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit far back in the chair, back erect...but lean forward to appear enthusiastic and force yourself to use hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember... TV will frame your face--be calm, use high hand gestures, if possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep eyes on interviewer-- not on camera. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smile, be friendly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tips On Appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid wearing pronounced strips, checks or small patterns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grey, brown, blue or mixed colored suits/dresses are best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grey, light-blue, off-white or pastel shirts or blouses are best. </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Crisis Management – Handling Media <ul><li>How To Respond During A Newspaper Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain advanced knowledge of interview topics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared in detail; print reporters are often more knowledgeable than broadcast reporters and my ask more detailed questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin the interview by making your point in statement by making your major points in statement form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to maintain control of the interview . Set a time limit in advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't let reporter wear you down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't be so relaxed that you say something you wish you hadn't. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid jargon or professional expressions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporters repeat in different ways to gain info. you don’t want to give. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't answer inappropriate questions; simply say it is &quot;not an appropriate topic for you to address at this time“. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared for interruptions … it is legitimate for reporters to do so. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not speak &quot;off the record&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, the interview lasts as long as a reporter is there. </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. Crisis Management – Handling Media <ul><li>After The Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can ask to check technical points, but do not ask to see advance copy of the story. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never try to go over reporter's head to stop a story. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not send gifts to reporters--it might be considered unethical. </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>Thou shalt not intentionally lie or mislead the media </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not release information that hasn’t been authorized </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not say, write anything to a reporter – on or off the record – you would not want to see in print </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not work for an organization, promote an idea, product or activity – that you find objectionable in any way </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not issue “no news” press releases merely to give the impression of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt always return a phone call from the media – and as promptly as possible </li></ul>25 Commandments of Media Relations
  110. 110. <ul><li>Thou shalt not “cross” a reporter/editor no matter how rudely, arrogantly, or unfairly you feel you have been treated in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not telephone a reporter or editor at, or near, deadline unless the call concerns a major breaking story </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not ask a reporter or editor for story approval before publication </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not make a pitch to any publication until you have read it and understand its “style”, editorial needs, and its audience </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not ask for a list of questions in advance of an interview </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt be inoffensively persistent – but never insistent – when pitching a story </li></ul>25 Commandments of Media Relations
  111. 111. <ul><li>Thou shalt not inflate a pitch letter with obvious information a reporter or editor already knows through covering a particular beat </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not request an advance copy of a story scheduled for publication unless a reporter/editor has volunteered to provide it </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not promise exclusive access to an individual within your organization if that is not your intention </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not issue news releases that deliberately--and usually, transparently--attempt to bury negative news </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt make a thorough review of your media lists at least quarterly and update them accordingly </li></ul>25 Commandments of Media Relations
  112. 112. <ul><li>Thou shalt not promise anything to your boss or organization that you may not be able to deliver </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not address a reporter or editor – on the telephone or in a written communication – by a first name unless you actually know him, or her, from ongoing telephone contacts or in-person meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt try to be present at all pre-arranged client media interviews--including those on the telephone – to make introductions, listen and learn </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not book a company representative or take part in an interview without some pre-interview training and briefing – especially if new at the game </li></ul>25 Commandments of Media Relations
  113. 113. <ul><li>Thou shalt not denigrate the efforts of a competitor. That's unseemly, unprofessional, and unnecessary. Inferior work will self-destruct sooner or later </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt follow religiously all press release format and writing guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt read, read, read all the media you can get your hands on </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt be creative in the literal sense of the word </li></ul>25 Commandments of Media Relations