Chapter 9 Asynchronous Communication


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Chapter 9 Asynchronous Communication

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Asynchronous Communications
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define the role and function of asynchronous communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how electronic mailing lists work. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the rules for good mailing list and forum behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the function of newsgroups. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate how to configure Windows Mail for use with newsgroups. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Differentiate between Usenet newsgroups and Web-based newsgroups. </li></ul><ul><li>Define weblogs (blogs) and maintain a weblog. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how wikis work and create and edit wiki pages. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Focus <ul><li>Electronic Mailing Lists </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based Forums </li></ul><ul><li>Weblogs (Blogs) </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><li>Also known as e-mail discussion lists or groups </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail based, topic-focused discussion environments </li></ul><ul><li>Posts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail messages sent to a mailing list </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading options available in most mailing lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posts can arrive as individual e-mail messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posts can arrive in a digest form sent as one message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posts can be viewed via a Web page </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Electronic Mailing Lists Mailing List Reading Options Posts can arrive as individual e-mail messages, in a digest form, or viewed via a Web page.
  7. 7. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><li>Thread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of posts on the same subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subscribing and unsubscribing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional method is to send a command such as HELP or SUBSCRIBE in the subject or body or an e-mail message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation or welcome message will usually be sent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing commands are not case sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except for passwords </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Electronic Mailing Lists Mailing List Web Page Archive
  9. 9. Electronic Mailing Lists Mailing List Archive Sorted by Thread message thread
  10. 10. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><ul><li>List server address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address that commands should be sent to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail address that posts are sent to for distribution to other list members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List manager or administrator address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open mailing list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can subscribe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed mailing list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted, such as a university alumni list </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Electronic Mailing Lists list address list server address list manager address
  12. 12. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><li>Moderated and unmoderated lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderated lists have a list moderator who reviews the posts to a mailing list before they are forwarded to other members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderating is time-consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lists are unmoderated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List owner or administrator may step in if a problem is known </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><li>Basic Communication Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violating expected behavior may result in other list members flaming the offender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An abusive e-mail message or post </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violating list rules in a moderated list can result in warnings or even blacklisting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lurking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading mailing list posts without actively participating </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><li>Basic Communication Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep posts related to the mailing list topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not top-post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not post in HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trim replies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use appropriate subject headers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not post attachments, advertising material, or spam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep signatures short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not write directly to any list members unless requested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect copyright rules </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Electronic Mailing Lists Catalist LISTSERV Mailing List Database
  16. 16. Electronic Mailing Lists Yahoo!Groups Mailing List Description Web message list subscription button addresses for e-mail subscription Reproduced with permission of Yahoo! Inc. © 2007 by Yahoo! And Yahoo! Logo are trademarks of Yahoo! Inc.
  17. 17. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><li>Finding Mailing Lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of Web sites and databases catalog mailing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L-Soft maintains searchable database called the Catalist ( ) for mailing lists created using LISTSERV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Groups offers comprehensive mailing list descriptions that allow users to learn more about particular mailing lists they are interested in </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Electronic Mailing Lists <ul><li>Finding Mailing Lists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing lists with Web-based access often offer additional features such as the ability to post photos and links, create polls, and so on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users also can find a mailing list using a search engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typing a query containing the desired mailing list subject or topic followed by the key terms mailing list will often turn up search results for mailing lists related to the topic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Electronic Mailing Lists Google Mailing List Results Page
  20. 20. Electronic Mailing Lists Review <ul><li>What are the different methods that can be used to read mailing list posts? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between moderated and unmoderated lists? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you find mailing lists? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Newsgroups <ul><li>Also known as Internet discussion groups or forums </li></ul><ul><li>Function like electronic bulletin boards that allow users to post and read messages </li></ul><ul><li>Predate the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Have their origin in a network of electronic bulletin boards known as Usenet </li></ul><ul><li>Today most newsgroups operate through the Internet through newsreader programs or via a Web page interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example - Google Groups Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many e-mail clients include a built-in newsreader </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Newsgroups <ul><li>Newsgroups are handled by special servers known as news servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicly accessible news servers, such as newzbot!, provide an alternative for those without ISP news server service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups are an example of a distributed database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The contents of the database are stored on a number of different servers in different locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents of a newsgroup file, known as a newsfeed, is replicated news servers around the world using the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Newsgroups <ul><li>Subscription process is as simple as selecting a newsgroup name and then clicking a subscribe button </li></ul><ul><li>Like mailing lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A user contribution is called a post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of posts under the same topic is a thread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups can be moderated or unmoderated </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Newsgroups <ul><li>Usenet newsgroup names are structured as hierarchies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are currently eight major top-level hierarchies referred to as the Big Eight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt (alternative) newsgroups were created to handle nonmainstream topics that were too controversial for the Big Eight </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Newsgroups Windows Mail with Newsgroup Threads selected post newsgroup posts
  26. 26. Newsgroups XNews Stand-Alone Newsreader post selected posts current newsgroup
  27. 27. Newsgroups
  28. 28. Newsgroups Google Groups
  29. 29. Newsgroups Review <ul><li>What are two methods that can be used to read newsgroups? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the Big Eight refer to? </li></ul><ul><li>What protocol do most news servers use? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Web-based Forums <ul><li>Also known as bulletin boards or message boards </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to newsgroups in function, but the technology behind them is different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forum data is handled in a single server location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offered by many commercial Web sites to draw customers </li></ul>
  31. 31. Web-based Forums Web-based Forum
  32. 32. Web-based Forums <ul><li>Offer a number of features unavailable through newsgroups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to enable e-mail notification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to use graphical emoticons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to use an avatar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical representation of a forum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single server nature makes Web-based forum more vulnerable to disruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be harder to locate because they are contained in different Web sites rather than grouped together like newsgroups </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Web-based Forums Web-based Forum Reply Notification
  34. 34. Web-based Forums A Web-based Forum Avatar
  35. 35. Web-based Forums Review <ul><li>How do Web-based forums differ from newsgroups? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some advantages and disadvantages of Web-based forums as compared to newsgroups? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an avatar? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Weblogs (Blogs) <ul><li>Also referred to as weblogs or blogs </li></ul><ul><li>A form of personal journal or diary in Web page format </li></ul><ul><li>Weblog entries are referred to as posts </li></ul><ul><li>Posts made by a blog writer known as a blogger </li></ul><ul><li>Permalink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A unique URL, featured by each post, that can be used to display an entry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogrolls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained in most weblogs, a set of hyperlinks that link to other blogs or Web sites </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Weblogs (Blogs) Basic Weblog Features
  38. 38. Weblogs (Blogs) <ul><li>Easiest method to create a blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a weblog service that provides ready-made blog templates as well as hosting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be free with a charge for upgraded services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can also use stand-alone weblog software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User installs software on local computer, but must find a host server for the blog content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more knowledge but gives more options for customization </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Weblogs (Blogs) <ul><li>Most weblogs include comment and/or TrackBack features that make them a form of asynchronous communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way communication between weblogs and readers allows the creation of blogging communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected blogging communities are sometimes referred to as the blogosphere </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Weblogs (Blogs) <ul><li>TrackBack feature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notifies a weblog owner that another blogger has made a reference or comment to a post on the owner’s weblog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TrackBack uses an Internet utility known as ping to create a link to the original blog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many weblogs as well as other Web sites now feature RSS feeds (Really Simple Syndication), an XML format for automatically notifying people of Web site updates </li></ul>
  41. 41. Weblogs (Blogs) <ul><li>Finding weblogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weblog directories such as offer an easy way to find weblogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A search query in a search engine with search terms related to the type of weblog you are looking for with the words blog or weblog will often turn up weblogs </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Weblogs (Blogs) Google’s Blogger Free Weblog Service
  43. 43. Weblogs (Blogs) TrackBack Link and Comment
  44. 44. Weblogs (Blogs) Blogarama Weblog Directory
  45. 45. Weblogs (Blogs) Review <ul><li>What is the blogosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>What is TrackBack, and how is it used? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you find a weblog? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Wikis <ul><li>A type of Web site that allows asynchronous document collaboration enabling people to work together on documents regardless of their location </li></ul><ul><li>Core wiki features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User editability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic linking using the wiki naming convention of two or more capitalized words run together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to create pages without HTML </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Wikis <ul><li>Users create or edit wiki source text using an edit form </li></ul><ul><li>Wikiengine automatically renders user-entered text into text that can be viewed using a browser during the saving process </li></ul><ul><li>Content entries can include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special wiki code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes HTML </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Wikis Wiki Edit Form
  49. 49. Wikis Rendered Edit Form Content Viewed in Browser
  50. 50. Wikis <ul><li>Hyperlinks known as WikiWords provide the main navigational method for wikis </li></ul><ul><li>One of the key features of wikis is the ease with which links and new pages can be created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a topic is saved, wiki software automatically recognizes a WikiWord as a defined link pattern and creates a dangling link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most wikis have a sandbox which is an area that newcomers can use to experiment with creating and editing wiki pages </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Wikis Wiki Sandbox
  52. 52. Wikis <ul><li>Anyone can edit the pages in a public wiki </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of wiki and the wiki community have prevented hacking and vandalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no security makes wiki unattractive to hackers because there is no challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wiki purists argue that only public wikis allow anyone to read or write are true wikis </li></ul>
  53. 53. Wikis Review <ul><li>How do the pages in a wiki differ from the pages in an ordinary Web site? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a WikiWord? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a wiki sandbox? </li></ul>