Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chapter 1Into the Internet

4,826 views

Published on

Published in: Education

Chapter 1Into the Internet

  1. 1. Discovering the Internet Complete Concepts and Techniques, Second Edition Chapter 1: Into the Internet
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the Internet is used </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the history of the Internet and the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how individuals and businesses connect to the Internet </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining the Internet <ul><li>The Internet is a worldwide network of computers that allows individual and business users to share information and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is an interconnected network of networks where each Internet host has a number of other computers connected to it </li></ul><ul><li>Users who connect to the Internet to access information are online </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Internet is a worldwide network of networks.
  5. 5. Using the Internet <ul><li>The Internet has profoundly changed nearly every aspect of life by revolutionizing how individuals and businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access information and electronic files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication personally and professionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shop for products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share resources </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. People use the Internet for many different purposes.
  7. 7. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Who Uses the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homemakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hobbyists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsing and searching for information on the World Wide Web (Web) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating with others via e-mail, chat, newsgroups, and mailing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading and uploading files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging on to remote computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting business activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities – the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages – created using HTML or Web authoring software and connected by hyperlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web site – groups of related Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College, university, corporate, retail, non-profit, personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server – computer on which Web pages are stored </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities - Web (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser – software used to view Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to browse or &quot;surf&quot; the Web </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Web sites include college and university, corporate, retail, non-profit, and personal sites.
  12. 12. Web pages are connected by text or graphic hyperlinks.
  13. 13. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based resource to help find specific information on the Web </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail - sending messages and files over a local computer network or the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant messaging – exchanging brief real-time messages with others on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat – real-time online discussions between two or more individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing lists – online newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups – online bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weblogs (blogs) –Internet diaries </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Internet offers several ways for people to communicate.
  16. 16. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading and uploading files – using FTP to send or retrieve electronic files from a server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music, video, data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging on to a remote computer – using Telnet to log on to a remote computer to use its computing power </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. FTP is used to download and upload files.
  18. 18. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting business activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-business models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2B </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2E </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C2C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. History of the Internet <ul><li>Origins in ARPANET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defense founded ARPA to promote computer and scientific research (1958) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J.C.R. Licklider headed computer and information research (1962) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Kleinrock developed packet switching (1966) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET – prototype network connecting ARPA and university research centers (1969) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Growth and Development of ARPANET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ray Tomlinson developed e-mail (1971) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed standard or protocol for communications over a network TCP and IP (1972) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beyond Research, to the Public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NSFnet replaced ARPANET (1985) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress authorized commercial activity on the NSFnet (1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSFnet moved connections to commercial network providers (1995) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The AT&T Backbone.
  22. 22. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>The Beginnings and Rise of the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gopher at University of Minnesota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directory-based system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made it easier to find documents on Internet-connected servers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>The Beginnings and Rise of the Web (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee (1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Web browser and Web server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOSAIC browser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark (1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape Communications and Netscape Navigator browser </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Berners-Lee’s original WorldWideWeb browser and HTML documents.
  25. 25. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>The Beginnings and Rise of the Web (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New research networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet2 (I2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CANARIE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet Service Providers (ISPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide access to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerations for choosing an ISP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed and type of connection desired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of customer service and technical support </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Thousands of local, regional, and national ISPs offer a variety of services.
  28. 28. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer uses standard telephone lines and a modem to access the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly home users </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An “always on” high-speed Internet connection over standard telephone lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband transmission splitting telephone wire into data and voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires firewall protection to prevent intrusion by outsiders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An “always on” high-speed Internet connection over cable TV lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable modem and line splitter required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall protection needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line-of-sight transmission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless connections (cont'd) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One way or two way satellite transmissions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) technologies to connect to networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless access point – hardware that connects wireless devices to a network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hotspot – specific geographic location in which a wireless access point provides public Internet access </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Wireless (cont'd) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM/GPRS card installed in a computer to allow it to connect to a wireless network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones, PDAs, tablet PCs can connect to the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Speed Business Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses typically use high-speed fiber-optic cable such as a T1 line connected to their local area network to provide Internet access to employees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Chapter Review <ul><li>The Internet is a worldwide network of networks </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet allows individuals to communicate, access information, and purchase products and services from online stores or other individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses use the Internet and the Web to conduct a variety of business transactions </li></ul>
  36. 36. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>People of all ages and interests use the Internet for school, work, hobbies, and personal enrichment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the Web for specific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send e-mail or participate in mailing lists, newsgroups, blogs, and online chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upload and download files </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>The Internet has its origins in ARPANET, a research network developed by ARPA under the auspices of the Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists developed and used packet switching technologies and the TCP and IP protocols that allow communications over and between networks </li></ul>
  38. 38. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>Some scientists instrumental in the development of early network technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J. C. R. Licklider – concept of Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Kleinrock – packet switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Kahn – TCP and IP protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vinton Cerf – TCP and IP protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ray Tomlinson – e-mail </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>The Web is a subset of the Internet consisting of Web pages containing text and multimedia content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related Web pages are grouped together in a Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages are stored on a Web server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages are viewed with a Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages are linked together via hyperlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee is the “father” of the Web </li></ul>
  40. 40. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>The National Science Foundation (NSF) developed NSFnet to replace ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>NSF turned research and commercial portions of NSFnet over to commercial network providers creating the Internet as we know it today </li></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>Home computers can be connected to the Internet via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up telephone access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL high-speed telephone access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DSL and cable access are “always on” connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be protected by a firewall </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>When choosing an ISP, key considerations include the cost of the equipment and monthly subscription, as well as the connection speed </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses require high speeds and large capacity lines such as T1, T3, or other fiber-optic connections from local area network to their Internet Service Provider (ISP) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Chapter 1 Complete Into the Internet

×