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Alkaloid is defined as organic products of natural
or synthetic origin which are basic in nature, and
contain one or more nitrogen atoms, normally of
heterocyclic nature, and possess specific
physiological actions on human or animal body,
when used in small quantities.
Colorless, crystalline solid with sharp melting point.
Some alkaloids are amorphous gum while other
like coniine, nicotine are liquid in nature.
Some alkaloid are color in nature,
eg. Betanidine shows red color
Berberine shows yellow color
Salt of most alkaloid are soluble in water.
free bases are insoluble in water and their salts
are very sparingly soluble in organic solvent.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES continue…
Quaternary bases are only water soluble
Pseudo and proto alkaloid give higher
solubility in water.
Solubility and salts of alkaloid is useful in
pharmaceutical industry for extraction
They give color ppted with halogenated
Basic in rxn
Turns to be neutral or acidic when adjacent
functional groups are electron withdrawing like
Salt formation with inorg. Acid – their
decomposition during their storage
Contain 1 or more N
In natural form – exist either in free state as
amine or as salt with acid or alk. N-oxide
IDENTIFICATION OF ALKALOIDS
The different reagents are
1) DRAGENDORFF’S REAGENTS:
(potassium bismuth iodide solution) giving reddish
2) MAYER REAGENT: (polassium mercuric iodine
solution) giving cream colored ppts.
3) WAGNER REAGENT: (iodine potassium iodide
solution) yielding reddish brown ppts.
4) HAGER REAGENT: give yellow ppts with picric
Types of alkaloid
A) Biosynthetic classification
B) Chemical classification
a) True alkaloid
b) Proto alkaloid
c) Pseudo alkaloid
C) Taxonomical classification
D) Pharmacological classification
1) True alkaloid
On the basis of Heterocyclic ring they are
also known as Heterocyclic alkaloids.
They are toxic in nature.
They contain heterocyclic nitrogen which is
derived from amino acids
They are basic in nature.
2) Pseudo alkaloids:
They include mainly steroidal & terpenoid
alkaloid & purines.
They are not derived from amino acids.
eg. Conessine, caffeine
B) Chemical classification
They are also known as biological amines
Or amino alkaloids.
They are simple amines in which the “Nitrogen”
Is not in a heterocyclic ring.
eg. Colchicine, ephedrine
They are the organic compounds occurring most
abundantly in plants that yields sugar & non sugar
substances on enzymatic or acid hydrolysis.
sugar part called Glycon
Non-sugar part called Aglycon
Glycoside Glycon + Aglycon
Glycosides are named on basis of source of glycoside
ending with “in” e.g. Digoxin, Prunasin, Salicin etc…
Glycosides are acetals or sugar ethers formed by
interaction of –OH group each of aglycon & glycon part
with loss of water molecules.
Biologically glycosides involved in
regulatry,protective & sanitory function in plant.
Stereochemically, Two types of glycosides
This both glycosides are obtained by passing dry
hydrogen chloride to methyl alcohol.
α –methyl glycoside hydrolysis α –glucose+methyl alcohol
β – methyl glycoside hydrolysis β –glucose+methyl alcohol
If, sugar is glucose called Glucosides
Other sugars called Glycosides
* Crystalline or amorphous solid
* Soluble in water & alcohol
* Insoluble in ether & chloroform
* Optically active usually levorotatory
CLASSIFICATION OF GLYCOSIDES
Glycosides can be classified as per different way on the
1) Nature of sugar
2) Therapeutic action
3) Glycosidic linkage
4) Chemical nature of aglycon
Based on nature of sugar
According to nature of glycon part present called as
Glucosides if glucose present
Rhemnoside if rhemose present
Cardiac glycoside if
Based on glycosidic linkageClassified as per the linkage formed between aglycon &
In this glycoside sugar is directly attach to carbon
Glycon –OH+HC-Aglycon glycon-C-
This glycoside not hydrolyse by heating with acids
/alkalies but hydrolyse with FeCl3
e.g. Anthraquinone glycoside such as
cascaroside from cascara
Aloin from aloe
In this type glycoside, sugar is combined with phenol or
–OH group of aglycon.
Glycon-OH + OH-Aglycon Glycon-O-
They hydrolyzed by treatment with acid or alkali into
aglycon & sugar.
In this ‘S’ from –SH group of aglycon is combined
with sugar containing –OH group.
e.g. Isothiocynate glycosides such as
sinigrin from Black mustard
In this glycoside ‘N’ from –NH group of aglycon is
attached to sugar containing –OH group.
Glycon-OH +HN-Aglycon Glycon-N-
e.g. Nucleosides & Some enzyme
Based on chemical nature of aglycon
1) Anthracene glycosides
a) Brontrager’s test:
Aqueous layer show
pink, red or violet
2) Sterol or cardiac glycoside
Aglycon part of this glycosides are steroidal moiety.They are
either C23 or C24 due to either five or six membered lactone ring
Two type of cardiac glycoside
1) Baljet test:
2) legal test:
1) Liebermann buchard’s test:
c) Desoxy sugar:
1) Killer killiani test:
Powered drug + Na-picrate
Pink to red
Drug+ glacial acetic
acid+drop of Fecl3
Reddish brown color at
junction of two liquid &
upper layer become bluish
In this glycoside the aglycon part shows the soap like or froth like
Two types of this glycosides
a) Steroidal saponins (Tetracyclic saponin):
b) Pentacyclic saponins:
a) Foam test:
b) Hemolytic test:
Drug powder + water + Shake
Hemolysis of RBCs
4) Cynogenetic glycosides
They are also called as CYNOPHORE GLYCOSIDES due to presence of
hydrocyanic acid in aglycon moiety.
e.g. Bitter almond
Wild cherry bark
Specific test :
a) Grignard reaction or Na-picrate test:
b) Drug +aqueous mercuric nitrate
Filter paper strip
soak in 10%picric
with moist drug
5) Isothiocynate glycosides
They also called as GLUCOSINOLATE COMPOUND.
c) Dip filter paper
strip in guaiacum
resin & CuSO4
Expose it to
Blue stain is
6) Flavanol glycosides
They are phenyl benzo-γ-pyrone derivative
occurs as flavone, flavonol, flavonone,
isoflavonones, isoflavones etc.
a) Shinoda test:
b) Residue + lead acetate Yellow color
c) Residue +
7) Coumarins & Furanocoumarins glycosides
Coumarins are derivative of benzo-α-pyrone.
Furanocoumarins is found by fusion of furan
ring to coumarins at either 6 & 7 position
or 7 & 8 position which is responsible for
the action of drug.
a) Aromatic smell
b) Alcoholic solution on alkalization Blue or green
8) Aldehyde glycosides
e.g. Vanilla pods
9) Phenol glycosides
10) Steroidal glyco-alkaloids
11) Glycosidal bitter & miscellaneous glycosides
Aglycone / sugar Chemical test Examples
1. Anthraquinones i. Microsublimation test
ii. Brontrager’s test
iii. Modified borntrager’s test
2. Cardiac glycoside:
c) Desoxy sugar
i. Baljet test
ii. Legal test
Liebermann Burchard’s test
3. Cyanogenetic Grignard reaction
(sodium picrate test)
Bitter almond, Wild
cherry bark, linseed
Identification Tests Of Glycosides. . .
Aglycone / sugar Chemical test Examples
4. Flavonoids Shinoda’s test Rue
5. Saponins i. Foam production
ii. Haemolytic Zone
6. Coumarins Florescence in alkali media Psoralea
7. Reducing sugar Fehling’s test Honey, Agar,
“The Volatile oils ” a collective term, implying the
preparation of vegetable and animal extracts according
to the rules of the art, or rectification and separation.
Chemistry of volatile oils;
They evaporated when exposed to air at temperature of
15.5 to 16.50c, so they are called as “Ethereal oils.”
They represent essence Or Active constituents of plant,
Hence they are also known as “Essential oils.”
Chemically, they are derived from
terpenes and their Oxygenated compounds.
Diffusing readily into air at R.T.
Sol. in alcohol, ether, other org. solvents
Slightly miscible with water & lighter than water
Most of them are optically active
Detected by smell rec.
Liable to deterioration especially resinification &
Solid essential oil – stearoptene
Liquid essential oil - eleoptene
□ Identification tests
1. Thin section + alcoholic sol. of sudanIII – red colour
2. Thin section + drop of tincture alkane – red colour
Separate volatile oil from distillate and perform following tests.
a) Filter paper is not permanently stained with volatile oil.
b) Solubility test :
Volatile oil are soluble in alcohol, ether… and insoluble in
It is also two type identify
1) PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.
2) CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Following physical properties of the volatile oils are
generally important for the quality control.
1) PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
2) CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Manily,following physicochemical method of analysis,
Found in all vol.oils of plant & animal origin
Colourless liq. Or solids
Pleasant smell & flavour
Insol. – water
Sol. – alcohol, org. solvents, & fixed oils
Readily vol. in steam
Most are optically active
Contain 1 or more double bond – form additive
comp. with halogen, nitrosyl chloride, nitrosyl
Oxidised by oxidising agent
Classification of terpenoids
Sr.no Name of the class No of
1 Hemiterpene or isoprene 1 C5H8
2 Monoterpene or terpene 2 C10H16
3 Sesquiterpenes 3 C15H24
4 Diterpenes 4 C20H32
5 Triterpenes 6 C30H48
6 Tetraterpenes or
7 Pentaterpene 9 C50H80
8 Polyterpenes or rubber n (c5H8)n
Depending upon type & ring reported in
Terpenoids, they are named as,
1) Acyclic terpenoids – open chain
3) Bicyclic terpenoids – two ring
4) Tricyclic terpenoids – three ring
2) Monocyclic terpenoids – one ring
Tannins are complex high molecular, weight,
organic, non nitrogenous, polyphenolic
substances. They have tanning properties and
give Goldbeater’s skin test positive. They are
widely distributed in plants.
They are soluble in water, dilute alkalies,
alcohol, glycerol and acetone; sparingly soluble
in other organic solvents.
Tannins combine with protein of animal hide, prevent
their decay and convert them into leather. This property
is called Tanning property and hence the name ‘tannins’.
The aqueous solution of tannins is acidic in reaction and
astringent in taste.
With ferric salts they give green, blue, violet or black
colour or precipitates.
They give precipitates with antipyrine, gelatin and
They also give precipitates with heavy metal and
alkaloids and hence is used in case of heavy metal and
alkaloid poisoning as an antidote.
They are found in ashoka bark, coffee, pale & black
3) Pseudo Tannin
They don't obey to goldbeater’s test.
eg. Chlorogenic acid in coffee & nuxvomica,
ipecacuanhic acid in ipecacuanha &
catechin in cocoa.
2) Condensed Tannin
It is also known as non hydrolysable or
Phlobatannins or Proanthocyanidins.
DISTRIBUTION OF TANNINS:
Tannins are widely distributed in the plants.
They contribute mainly in the protective function
in the bark and wood.
Roots & Rhizome: Male fern
Bark : Cinchona, Arjuna, Acacia, Ashoka,
Leaf: Tea, Uncaria
Fruit: Amla, Bahera, Myrobalans
Seed: Coca, Areca
IDENTIFICATION OF TANNINS:
1. Gold Beater’s Skin Test:
Gold Beater’s Skin – it is themembrane prepared from intestine of ox.
Test-Sample solution + Pieces of Gold Beater’s Skin wait for five minutes and
Add 1% Ferrous Sulphate
Brown or Black color on skin pieces indicates presence of true tannins
2. Gelatin Test:
Sample solution + 1% Gelatin solution in 10% Sodium Chloride
Precipitate’s indicates presence of true tannins or pseudo tannins.
3. Test with FeCl3:
Sample solution + FeCl3 solution.
Blue, Black, Green Violet precipitate or color.
(Indicates presence of true or pseudo tannins)
4. Phenazone Test:
Aqueous extract of drug sample + Sodium Acid Phosphate
Filtrate + Phenazone 2%
Blue colored precipitate indicates presence of true or pseudo tannins
Heat, Cool & Filter
5. Match – Stick Test*:
Deep match stick in the plant extract, dry + conc. HCl.
The wood of match stick turns to pink or red color
6. Test with Vanillin HCl:
Sample Solution + Vanillin in HCl
Red precipitate indicates presence of true or pseudo tannins
Warm it on the flame
Complex amorphous product of more or less solid
char. which on heating gets soften then melt
Produced & stored in schizogenous or
On incision it exudes
Amorphous mixture of vol. oils, oxygenated product
of terpene & carboxylic acids found as exudations
from the trunk of various trees
Transparent or translucent solid, semi-solid or liq.
Large no. of C atoms
Heavier than water
Insol. Water, sol. – alcohol, vol.oil, fixed oil, chloral
hydrate & non polar org. sollvents like benzene or
Hard, electrically non-conductive
When heated, soften – melt
Contain org.acid, alcoholl, esters, & neutral resins
It constitute a wider range of natural products of
diverse chemical nature which are very much
essential products for proper functioning of
Also termed – accessory food factors
Absence or depletion - specific deficiency
Necessary for normal growth & maintenance of
life in animals & human – vit.
Not furnish energy – build body str.
Vit. B complex, C & P – water sol.
Vit. A, D, E, & K – lipid sol.
Vit of B grp. – thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinamide –
Vit. A – diterpanoid
Vit. D – steroidal skeleton
Vit. C – lactone
Vit. B12 (cynocobalamine) – cobalt complex
Vit. P – flavanoid comp. - rutin
Vit. C – affinity with sugars – enolic form 3-oxo-L-
Vit. K1 – 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1-4-napthoquinone
Vit. Differ from one another in physical property –
water sol. vit - non toxic
fat sol. vit - more toxic on large dose
No Vit Const. Source uses
Shark liver oil
Epithelia & retina
Shark liver oil
Human skin -
Ca & P balance
3 E Tocopherol Wheat, barley,
No Vit Const. Source uses
4 K phytomenadione Alfaalfa
6 C Ascorbic acid Citrus fruits,
Hrm or chemical messengers or plant growth
regulators secreted by endocrine or ductless glands
Valuable – therapeutically
Chemically diverse in nature
Insulin, corticotropin, thyrotropin, oxytocin,
vasopressin – polypeptide
Gonadotropin – water sol glycoprotien
Thyroxin – I2 containing benzenoid
Seed treatment to achieve early growth
Quality improvement like protein level and amino
acid balance, etc.
Plant tissue culture tech.
Enhancing production of secondary plant
metabolite used as a drug
Insulin – diabetes
No Hrm Characters Source
1 Gonadotropin water sol
Pittary gland of
man, horse, sheep
2 corticotropin polypeptides Pittary gland
3 thyrotropin Protein combined
octapeptides Pittary gland
5 Thyroxin I2 containing comp. Thyroid gland
6 Insulin Polypeptide linked
Islet of langerhans
Penicillin – alexander fleming – antimicrobial
activity of penicillium notatum
Inhibitory/killing – growth microbe – little concn
Produced by - fermentation, semi-synthetic or
Inhibition of protein synthesis
Inhibition of cell wall formation
Disruption of DNA metabolism
Alteration in cellur memb. function
No. Class Source Uses
penicillium G, F, k
2 cephalosporin Der. of
acid, eg. cephalexin
3 Tetracyclines Eg. Chlortetra
bac. & gram
Class of natural product with diverse & potent
Produce in trace amount in prostate gland tissue
Human seminal fluid – high concn
Physiologically active essential fatty acids
Smooth muscle contraction
Natural prostaglandins – der. of prostanoic acid,
unsaturated hydroxylated fatty acids
Involve in several function of body right from pain
& inflammation, B.P. to food intake
Proteins that serve as a biological catalyst for
metabolic & chemical reaction in the normal
Based on action
Catalysts – due to its specificity, efficiency,
versality & cellular control
Play vital role in function of cells & activities of
Show max. activity – 35-40oC
Inactive at 0oC & beyond 65oC get denatured
Sol – water, dil. alcohol,
Ph – direct effect on their action
Enzymatic activity reduced by formaldehyde, free
iodine, heavy metals & tannins
Catalyse specific range reaction
Efficient under optimal condition
Hydrolases – catalysis of hydrolytic reaction
Transferases - transfer chemical groups from one
molecule to another.
Oxidoreductases - catalyse oxidation and
Lyases - Addition or removal of groups to double
Isomerases - catalyse intramolecular
Synthetases(ligase) – condensation of two
molecules coupled with cleavage of pyro-
phosphatebond of ATP or similar triphosphate.
Proteolytic enz. – for digestion of protein
lypase: digest lipid
Amylase: digest carbohydrate
No Drug B.S. Type uses
Amylolytic Digestion of
2 pepsin Glandular layer
hog, sus scrofa
proteolytic Conversion of
3 pancreatin Pancreas of
hog, sus scrofa
proteolytic Digestion aid
4 papain Latex of unripe
fruit of papaya,