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Chapter 4 plants secondary metabolites

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Chapter 4 plants secondary metabolites

  1. 1. ALKALOID
  2. 2. DEFINATION  Alkaloid is defined as organic products of natural or synthetic origin which are basic in nature, and contain one or more nitrogen atoms, normally of heterocyclic nature, and possess specific physiological actions on human or animal body, when used in small quantities.
  3. 3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  Colorless, crystalline solid with sharp melting point.  Some alkaloids are amorphous gum while other like coniine, nicotine are liquid in nature.  Some alkaloid are color in nature, eg. Betanidine shows red color Berberine shows yellow color  Salt of most alkaloid are soluble in water. free bases are insoluble in water and their salts are very sparingly soluble in organic solvent.
  4. 4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES continue…  Quaternary bases are only water soluble  Pseudo and proto alkaloid give higher solubility in water.  Solubility and salts of alkaloid is useful in pharmaceutical industry for extraction  They give color ppted with halogenated compound
  5. 5. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Basic in rxn Turns to be neutral or acidic when adjacent functional groups are electron withdrawing like amide grp. Salt formation with inorg. Acid – their decomposition during their storage Contain 1 or more N In natural form – exist either in free state as amine or as salt with acid or alk. N-oxide
  6. 6. IDENTIFICATION OF ALKALOIDS The different reagents are 1) DRAGENDORFF’S REAGENTS: (potassium bismuth iodide solution) giving reddish brown ppts. 2) MAYER REAGENT: (polassium mercuric iodine solution) giving cream colored ppts. 3) WAGNER REAGENT: (iodine potassium iodide solution) yielding reddish brown ppts. 4) HAGER REAGENT: give yellow ppts with picric acid.
  7. 7. 7 Types of alkaloid A) Biosynthetic classification B) Chemical classification a) True alkaloid b) Proto alkaloid c) Pseudo alkaloid C) Taxonomical classification D) Pharmacological classification
  8. 8. 8 A) Biosynthetic classification eg . 1) Indole alkaloids - Tryptophan 2) Piperidine alkaloids - Lysine 3) Imidazole alkaloid - Histidine 4) Phenylethyl amine - Tyrosine alkaloids
  9. 9. 9 1) True alkaloid On the basis of Heterocyclic ring they are also known as Heterocyclic alkaloids. They are toxic in nature. They contain heterocyclic nitrogen which is derived from amino acids They are basic in nature. 2) Pseudo alkaloids: They include mainly steroidal & terpenoid alkaloid & purines. They are not derived from amino acids. eg. Conessine, caffeine B) Chemical classification
  10. 10. 10 3) Protoalkaloids They are also known as biological amines Or amino alkaloids. They are simple amines in which the “Nitrogen” Is not in a heterocyclic ring. eg. Colchicine, ephedrine
  11. 11. 11 Chemical classification
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. GLYCOSIDES
  15. 15. They are the organic compounds occurring most abundantly in plants that yields sugar & non sugar substances on enzymatic or acid hydrolysis. sugar part called Glycon Non-sugar part called Aglycon Glycoside Glycon + Aglycon Glycosides are named on basis of source of glycoside ending with “in” e.g. Digoxin, Prunasin, Salicin etc… DEFINATION
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION Glycosides are acetals or sugar ethers formed by interaction of –OH group each of aglycon & glycon part with loss of water molecules. Biologically glycosides involved in regulatry,protective & sanitory function in plant. •Chemistry Stereochemically, Two types of glycosides 1) α-glycoside 2) β-glycoside This both glycosides are obtained by passing dry hydrogen chloride to methyl alcohol.
  17. 17. α –methyl glycoside hydrolysis α –glucose+methyl alcohol β – methyl glycoside hydrolysis β –glucose+methyl alcohol If, sugar is glucose called Glucosides Other sugars called Glycosides • Properties * Colorless * Crystalline or amorphous solid * Soluble in water & alcohol * Insoluble in ether & chloroform * Optically active usually levorotatory
  18. 18. CLASSIFICATION OF GLYCOSIDES Glycosides can be classified as per different way on the basis following 1) Nature of sugar 2) Therapeutic action 3) Glycosidic linkage 4) Chemical nature of aglycon
  19. 19. Based on nature of sugar According to nature of glycon part present called as Glucosides if glucose present Pentoside if pentose(arabinose) Rhemnoside if rhemose present Rhemnoglucoside if rhemnose+glucose Cardiac glycoside if digitoxose,digitalose, cymarose present
  20. 20. Based on therapeutic action Cardiotonic glycoside : Digitalis Strophanthus Laxative : Seena Cascara Aloe Anti ulcer : Liquorice Anti-inflammatory : Dioscorea Liquorice Expectorant : Quillaia Liquorice Brain tonic : Ginseng
  21. 21. Based on glycosidic linkageClassified as per the linkage formed between aglycon & glycon part. 1) C-glycoside In this glycoside sugar is directly attach to carbon atom. Glycon –OH+HC-Aglycon glycon-C- aglycon+H2O This glycoside not hydrolyse by heating with acids /alkalies but hydrolyse with FeCl3 e.g. Anthraquinone glycoside such as cascaroside from cascara Aloin from aloe
  22. 22. 2) O-glycoside In this type glycoside, sugar is combined with phenol or –OH group of aglycon. Glycon-OH + OH-Aglycon Glycon-O- Aglycon+H2O They hydrolyzed by treatment with acid or alkali into aglycon & sugar. e.g. Seena Rhubarb
  23. 23. 3) S-glycoside In this ‘S’ from –SH group of aglycon is combined with sugar containing –OH group. Glycon-OH+HS-aglycon Glycon-S- Aglycon+H2O e.g. Isothiocynate glycosides such as sinigrin from Black mustard 4) N-glycoside In this glycoside ‘N’ from –NH group of aglycon is attached to sugar containing –OH group. Glycon-OH +HN-Aglycon Glycon-N- Aglycon+H2O e.g. Nucleosides & Some enzyme
  24. 24. Based on chemical nature of aglycon 1) Anthracene glycosides e.g. Seena Aloe Rhubarb Cascara Specific test: a) Brontrager’s test: Power drug + Extracted with water + Filtered extract + Made alkaline with caustic soda or ammonia Aqueous layer show pink, red or violet color
  25. 25. 2) Sterol or cardiac glycoside Aglycon part of this glycosides are steroidal moiety.They are either C23 or C24 due to either five or six membered lactone ring respectively. Two type of cardiac glycoside a) Cardinolides e.g. Strophanthus Thevatia Digitalis b) Bufadinolides e.g. Squill
  26. 26. Specific tests: a) Cardinolides: 1) Baljet test: 2) legal test: b) Bufadinolides: 1) Liebermann buchard’s test: c) Desoxy sugar: 1) Killer killiani test: Powered drug + Na-picrate Yellow to orange color Powder+pyridine+ Na-nitroprusside + Shake & filter + Filtrate make alkaline Pink to red color Drug+ glacial acetic acid+drop of Fecl3 + Add H2So4 which forms lower layer Reddish brown color at junction of two liquid & upper layer become bluish green rug+D CHCl3 + Equal volume of acetic anhydride + 1to2 drops of conc. H2SO4 Green color
  27. 27. 3)Saponin glycosides In this glycoside the aglycon part shows the soap like or froth like effect. Two types of this glycosides a) Steroidal saponins (Tetracyclic saponin): e.g. Dioscorea Shatavari b) Pentacyclic saponins: e.g. Sarsaparila Liquorice Quillia Senega Brahmi
  28. 28. Specific test: a) Foam test: b) Hemolytic test: Drug powder + water + Shake properly Foam production Powder solution + Blood sample Hemolysis of RBCs
  29. 29. 4) Cynogenetic glycosides They are also called as CYNOPHORE GLYCOSIDES due to presence of hydrocyanic acid in aglycon moiety. e.g. Bitter almond Wild cherry bark Linseed Specific test : a) Grignard reaction or Na-picrate test: b) Drug +aqueous mercuric nitrate Filter paper strip soak in 10%picric acid +10%Na2co3 + This Na-picrate paper contact with moist drug Filter paper change to brick red Metallic mercury formed
  30. 30. 5) Isothiocynate glycosides They also called as GLUCOSINOLATE COMPOUND. e.g. Mustard c) Dip filter paper strip in guaiacum resin & CuSO4 + Expose it to freshly cut surface of drug Blue stain is produced 6) Flavanol glycosides They are phenyl benzo-γ-pyrone derivative occurs as flavone, flavonol, flavonone, isoflavonones, isoflavones etc. e.g. Kampherol Ginkgo Quercetin
  31. 31. Specific test: a) Shinoda test: Drug powder+5ml 95% ethanol + Few drops of conc. HCl + 0.5gm magnesium tanning Pink color b) Residue + lead acetate Yellow color c) Residue + Excess amount of NaOH Yellow color Addition of acid decolorize
  32. 32. 7) Coumarins & Furanocoumarins glycosides Coumarins are derivative of benzo-α-pyrone. Furanocoumarins is found by fusion of furan ring to coumarins at either 6 & 7 position or 7 & 8 position which is responsible for the action of drug. e.g. Visnaga Psoralea Ammi manjus Specific test: a) Aromatic smell b) Alcoholic solution on alkalization Blue or green Fluorescence Coumarin
  33. 33. 8) Aldehyde glycosides e.g. Vanilla pods 9) Phenol glycosides e.g. Bearberry 10) Steroidal glyco-alkaloids e.g. Solanum 11) Glycosidal bitter & miscellaneous glycosides e.g. Picrorhiza Quassia Chirata Kalmegh
  34. 34. Aglycone / sugar Chemical test Examples 1. Anthraquinones i. Microsublimation test ii. Brontrager’s test iii. Modified borntrager’s test Senna, Aloe, Rhubarb, Cascara 2. Cardiac glycoside: a) Cardenlolides b) Bufedienolides c) Desoxy sugar i. Baljet test ii. Legal test Liebermann Burchard’s test keller-killiani’s test Digitalis, Nerium, Thevetia Scilla Digitalis, Nerium, Thevetia, scilla 3. Cyanogenetic Grignard reaction (sodium picrate test) Bitter almond, Wild cherry bark, linseed Identification Tests Of Glycosides. . .
  35. 35. Aglycone / sugar Chemical test Examples 4. Flavonoids Shinoda’s test Rue 5. Saponins i. Foam production ii. Haemolytic Zone iii. Libermann’test (for Triterpenoid) Gokhru, Liquorices Sataveri, Quillaia bark 6. Coumarins Florescence in alkali media Psoralea 7. Reducing sugar Fehling’s test Honey, Agar, Acacia, Tragacanth, Alginates
  36. 36. 36 VOLATILE OIL
  37. 37. 37 VOLATILE OIL  Definition: “The Volatile oils ” a collective term, implying the preparation of vegetable and animal extracts according to the rules of the art, or rectification and separation.  Chemistry of volatile oils;  They evaporated when exposed to air at temperature of 15.5 to 16.50c, so they are called as “Ethereal oils.”  They represent essence Or Active constituents of plant, Hence they are also known as “Essential oils.”  Chemically, they are derived from terpenes and their Oxygenated compounds.
  38. 38. Properties Diffusing readily into air at R.T. Sol. in alcohol, ether, other org. solvents Slightly miscible with water & lighter than water Most of them are optically active Detected by smell rec. Liable to deterioration especially resinification & peroxide formation Solid essential oil – stearoptene Liquid essential oil - eleoptene
  39. 39. 39 IDENTIFICATION TESTS □ Identification tests 1. Thin section + alcoholic sol. of sudanIII – red colour 2. Thin section + drop of tincture alkane – red colour  Separate volatile oil from distillate and perform following tests. a) Filter paper is not permanently stained with volatile oil. b) Solubility test : Volatile oil are soluble in alcohol, ether… and insoluble in water.  It is also two type identify 1) PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 2) CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  40. 40. 40  Following physical properties of the volatile oils are generally important for the quality control.  Boiling point.  Refractive index.  Optical rotation.  Specific gravity.  Freezing point.  Solubility characteristics. 1) PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  41. 41. 41 2) CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS  Manily,following physicochemical method of analysis, such as:  UV-Visible spectroscopy,  IR-spectroscopy,  NMR-spectroscopy,  GC-spectroscopy,  HPLC-analysis,  MASS-spectroscopy,  HPTLC
  42. 42. Classification 1)Alcohol volatile oil Peppermint, cardamom, coriander 2) Aldehyde volatile oil Lemon grass oil, lemon peel, orange peel 3) Ester volatile oil Gaultheria, lavender, mustard 4) Hydrocarbon volatile oil Turpentine, black papper
  43. 43. 5) Ketone volatile oil Caraway, spearmint, camphor 6) Oxide volatile oil Chenopodium - Anthelmintic Eucalyptus - counter irritant 7) Phenolic ester volatile oil Fennel - stimulant, carminative Nutmeg - stimulant, carminative 8) Phenol volatile oil Clove, thyme
  44. 44. Terpenoids
  45. 45. Found in all vol.oils of plant & animal origin Colourless liq. Or solids Pleasant smell & flavour Insol. – water Sol. – alcohol, org. solvents, & fixed oils Readily vol. in steam Most are optically active Contain 1 or more double bond – form additive comp. with halogen, nitrosyl chloride, nitrosyl bromide Oxidised by oxidising agent
  46. 46. Uses Perfumery, cosmetic, soaps, foods, p’cal & beverage industry Therapeutically – antiseptic, stimulant, carminative, diuretic, anthelmintic, analgesic, antirheumatic, aromatic, counter-irritant Insect-repellent, insecticides, pesticides & deodorants
  47. 47. 47 Classification of terpenoids Sr.no Name of the class No of isoprene units Molecular Formula 1 Hemiterpene or isoprene 1 C5H8 2 Monoterpene or terpene 2 C10H16 3 Sesquiterpenes 3 C15H24 4 Diterpenes 4 C20H32 5 Triterpenes 6 C30H48 6 Tetraterpenes or Carotonoids 8 C40H64 7 Pentaterpene 9 C50H80 8 Polyterpenes or rubber n (c5H8)n
  48. 48. 48 1) Monoterpenoid Limonene, geraniol 2) Sesquiterpenoids eg. farnesol, cadinene 3) Diterpenoids eg. Bixin, crocetin 4) Triterpenoids eg. Squalene,sterol,asiatic acid 5) Caroteniod Vitamin – A 6) Polyterpenoids eg. Solanesol, tobacco
  49. 49. 49 Depending upon type & ring reported in Terpenoids, they are named as, 1) Acyclic terpenoids – open chain 3) Bicyclic terpenoids – two ring 4) Tricyclic terpenoids – three ring 2) Monocyclic terpenoids – one ring
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. Tannin
  52. 52. DEFINITION: Tannins are complex high molecular, weight, organic, non nitrogenous, polyphenolic substances. They have tanning properties and give Goldbeater’s skin test positive. They are widely distributed in plants. SOLUBILITY: They are soluble in water, dilute alkalies, alcohol, glycerol and acetone; sparingly soluble in other organic solvents.
  53. 53.  CHEMISTRY:  Tannins combine with protein of animal hide, prevent their decay and convert them into leather. This property is called Tanning property and hence the name ‘tannins’.  The aqueous solution of tannins is acidic in reaction and astringent in taste.  With ferric salts they give green, blue, violet or black colour or precipitates.  They give precipitates with antipyrine, gelatin and glycosides.  They also give precipitates with heavy metal and alkaloids and hence is used in case of heavy metal and alkaloid poisoning as an antidote.
  54. 54. 54 Classification of Tannin 1) Hydrolysable Tannin Gallic acid or ellagic acid eg. Myrobalans, bahera, amla, arjuna Gallic acid dry distillation Pyragallol Hydrolysable Tannin hydrolysis 2) Condensed Tannin 1) Hydrolysable Tannin 3) Pseudo Tannin
  55. 55. 55 Condensed tannin dry distillation Catechu They are found in ashoka bark, coffee, pale & black catechu 3) Pseudo Tannin They don't obey to goldbeater’s test. eg. Chlorogenic acid in coffee & nuxvomica, ipecacuanhic acid in ipecacuanha & catechin in cocoa. 2) Condensed Tannin It is also known as non hydrolysable or Phlobatannins or Proanthocyanidins.
  56. 56. DISTRIBUTION OF TANNINS: Tannins are widely distributed in the plants. They contribute mainly in the protective function in the bark and wood. Roots & Rhizome: Male fern Bark : Cinchona, Arjuna, Acacia, Ashoka, Cinnamon Leaf: Tea, Uncaria Fruit: Amla, Bahera, Myrobalans Seed: Coca, Areca Wood: Acacia
  57. 57.  IDENTIFICATION OF TANNINS: Continue... 1. Gold Beater’s Skin Test: Gold Beater’s Skin – it is themembrane prepared from intestine of ox. Test-Sample solution + Pieces of Gold Beater’s Skin wait for five minutes and wash+HCL wash Add 1% Ferrous Sulphate Brown or Black color on skin pieces indicates presence of true tannins 2. Gelatin Test: Sample solution + 1% Gelatin solution in 10% Sodium Chloride Precipitate’s indicates presence of true tannins or pseudo tannins.
  58. 58. 3. Test with FeCl3: Sample solution + FeCl3 solution. Blue, Black, Green Violet precipitate or color. (Indicates presence of true or pseudo tannins) 4. Phenazone Test: Aqueous extract of drug sample + Sodium Acid Phosphate Filtrate + Phenazone 2% Blue colored precipitate indicates presence of true or pseudo tannins Heat, Cool & Filter
  59. 59. 5. Match – Stick Test*: Deep match stick in the plant extract, dry + conc. HCl. The wood of match stick turns to pink or red color 6. Test with Vanillin HCl: Sample Solution + Vanillin in HCl Red precipitate indicates presence of true or pseudo tannins Warm it on the flame
  60. 60. Resins
  61. 61. Definition Complex amorphous product of more or less solid char. which on heating gets soften then melt Produced & stored in schizogenous or schizolysigenous glands On incision it exudes
  62. 62. Properties  Amorphous mixture of vol. oils, oxygenated product of terpene & carboxylic acids found as exudations from the trunk of various trees  Transparent or translucent solid, semi-solid or liq.  Large no. of C atoms  Heavier than water  Insol. Water, sol. – alcohol, vol.oil, fixed oil, chloral hydrate & non polar org. sollvents like benzene or ether  Hard, electrically non-conductive  When heated, soften – melt  Contain org.acid, alcoholl, esters, & neutral resins
  63. 63. Classification 1. Acid resins  High mo.wt. eg. Abietic acid  Test: 1.(CH3CO)2 + H2SO4 purple colour 2.pet.ether + copper acetate --- bright green colour Eg. Colophony: abietic acid myrrh: commiphoric acid 2. Ester resins  Contain esters  Benzoin: benzoate  Storax: cinnamyl cinnamate
  64. 64. 3. Resin alcohols  Contain complex alcohol of high mo.wt.  Balsam of peru: peru resinotannol Some other type of resins Oleo resin  Homogenous mix. of resins & oils eg. capsicum Oleo-gum resin  Homogenous mix. of vol. oil, gum & resins eg. Asafoetida, guggul
  65. 65. Natural drug containing resins Ginger – zinziber officinalis – gingerol – aromatic, carminative, motion sickness Capsicum – C. annum – capsaicin – stomachic, counter-irritant, rheumatism Turmeric – curcuma longa – curcuminoids – anti-inflammatory, spice Asafoetida – ferula foetida – resin, gum vol.oil – carminative, nervine stimulant Myrrh – commiphora molmol – commiphoric acid – antiseptic, stimulant
  66. 66. Glyco-resins/glycosidal resins  Known as convolvulacea resin. Low mo.wt. fatty acid, sugar & higher fatty acid eg. jalap Balsam resins  Contain benzoic acid/cinnamic acid eg. Balsam of tolu, peru Resenes  Complex natural subs.  Chemically inert  Neither form any salt not get hydrolysed  Eg. colophony
  67. 67. Vitamins
  68. 68. It constitute a wider range of natural products of diverse chemical nature which are very much essential products for proper functioning of human organism. Also termed – accessory food factors Absence or depletion - specific deficiency disease Necessary for normal growth & maintenance of life in animals & human – vit.
  69. 69. Properties: Not furnish energy – build body str. Vit. B complex, C & P – water sol. Vit. A, D, E, & K – lipid sol. Vit of B grp. – thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinamide – heterocyclic Vit. A – diterpanoid Vit. D – steroidal skeleton Vit. C – lactone Vit. B12 (cynocobalamine) – cobalt complex Vit. P – flavanoid comp. - rutin
  70. 70. Vit. C – affinity with sugars – enolic form 3-oxo-L- gulofuranolactone Vit. K1 – 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1-4-napthoquinone Vit. Differ from one another in physical property – solubility water sol. vit - non toxic fat sol. vit - more toxic on large dose
  71. 71. No Vit Const. Source uses 1 A A1 A2 Diterpenoid Retinol dehydroretinol Codliver oil Shark liver oil Epithelia & retina deficiency Night blindness 2 D D2 D3 D4, 5,6 Ergocalciferol cholecalciferol 22,dihydro ergosterol Shark liver oil Human skin - sunlight Ca & P balance Deficiency causes rickets 3 E Tocopherol Wheat, barley, soyabean
  72. 72. No Vit Const. Source uses 4 K phytomenadione Alfaalfa Tomato Blood clotting 5 B1 B2 B12 Thiamin, Riboflavin Cynocobalamine Rice, cereals, yeast Deficiency causes beri beri 6 C Ascorbic acid Citrus fruits, amla Anti oxidant Deficiency causes scurvy
  73. 73. Hormones
  74. 74. Hrm or chemical messengers or plant growth regulators secreted by endocrine or ductless glands of animals Valuable – therapeutically Properties: Chemically diverse in nature Insulin, corticotropin, thyrotropin, oxytocin, vasopressin – polypeptide Gonadotropin – water sol glycoprotien Thyroxin – I2 containing benzenoid
  75. 75.  affect the morphological structure and/or physiologival processes of plant in low concn.  plant growth ragulator  Native (endogenous)  Synthetic (exogenous)  Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene  Regulate cell enlargement  Cell division  Cell differentiation  Organogenesis  Senescences  Dormancy
  76. 76. Seed treatment to achieve early growth Root development Quality improvement like protein level and amino acid balance, etc. Plant tissue culture tech. Enhancing production of secondary plant metabolite used as a drug Insulin – diabetes
  77. 77. No Hrm Characters Source 1 Gonadotropin water sol glycoprotien Pittary gland of man, horse, sheep 2 corticotropin polypeptides Pittary gland 3 thyrotropin Protein combined with carbohydrate Pittary gland 4 oxytocin vasopressin octapeptides Pittary gland 5 Thyroxin I2 containing comp. Thyroid gland 6 Insulin Polypeptide linked by disulphide Islet of langerhans of pancreas
  78. 78. Antibiotics
  79. 79. Penicillin – alexander fleming – antimicrobial activity of penicillium notatum Inhibitory/killing – growth microbe – little concn Produced by - fermentation, semi-synthetic or synthetic method Properties Inhibition of protein synthesis Inhibition of cell wall formation Disruption of DNA metabolism Alteration in cellur memb. function
  80. 80. No. Class Source Uses 1 Penicillins Natural senisynthetic penicillium notatum penicillium G, F, k Ampicillin, amoxicillin Effective against gram positive bac. 2 cephalosporin Der. of cephalosporinic acid, eg. cephalexin gram positive bac. 3 Tetracyclines Eg. Chlortetra cycline, doxycycline Effective against gram positive bac. & gram negative bac.
  81. 81. Prostaglandins
  82. 82. Class of natural product with diverse & potent biological activity Produce in trace amount in prostate gland tissue Human seminal fluid – high concn Synthetically produce
  83. 83. Properties Physiologically active essential fatty acids Smooth muscle contraction Natural prostaglandins – der. of prostanoic acid, unsaturated hydroxylated fatty acids Uses Involve in several function of body right from pain & inflammation, B.P. to food intake
  84. 84. Enzymes
  85. 85. Proteins that serve as a biological catalyst for metabolic & chemical reaction in the normal body Based on action 1. endoenzymes 2. exoenzymes
  86. 86. Properties: Catalysts – due to its specificity, efficiency, versality & cellular control Play vital role in function of cells & activities of org. Show max. activity – 35-40oC Inactive at 0oC & beyond 65oC get denatured Sol – water, dil. alcohol, Ph – direct effect on their action Enzymatic activity reduced by formaldehyde, free iodine, heavy metals & tannins Catalyse specific range reaction Efficient under optimal condition
  87. 87. Classification Hydrolases – catalysis of hydrolytic reaction Transferases - transfer chemical groups from one molecule to another. Oxidoreductases - catalyse oxidation and reduction reactions Lyases - Addition or removal of groups to double bonds Isomerases - catalyse intramolecular rearrangements Synthetases(ligase) – condensation of two molecules coupled with cleavage of pyro- phosphatebond of ATP or similar triphosphate.
  88. 88. Proteolytic enz. – for digestion of protein lypase: digest lipid Amylase: digest carbohydrate
  89. 89. No Drug B.S. Type uses 1 Diastase (amylase) Human saliva Digestive tract Amylolytic Digestion of starch 2 pepsin Glandular layer of fresh stomach of hog, sus scrofa proteolytic Conversion of protein – peptone, proteose 3 pancreatin Pancreas of hog, sus scrofa proteolytic Digestion aid for starch, fats, proteins 4 papain Latex of unripe fruit of papaya, carica papaya proteolytic Meat tenderiser, clarification

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