ICAR JRF/SRF STUDY MATERIAL
Dr. Prakashkumar Rathod
Assistant Professor and I/C Head
Dept. of Veterinary & A.H Extension Education
Veterinary College, Bidar (Karnataka)
Latin word which means Ex-out, Tensio- Stretch
Word was coined in Cambridge university(1853)
which means stretching or educating the rural masses
Education is a process where a person changes his
behaviour in a desirable way which includes
knowledge skill and attitude
Types of Education according to Comb & Ahmad
(1974)- Informal, formal and non-formal
Informal education is a life long process which every
person acquires and accumulates knowledge, skill,
attitudes and insides from daily experiences to
environment at home, work place, play etc.
Formal education is highly institutionalized,
chronologically graded and hierarchy structured
education system spawning lower primary schools to
upper reaches of university
Non formal education is organized systematic
education activity carried on outside the framework
of formal system to provide selected type of learning
to particular sub-groups in the population of adults
and children Ex- Dairy Ext, Agri Ext
Nature of Extension Education
Extension/ Non formal
Starts with theory & ends with practical.
Starts with practicals & ends in theory
Students study subjects.
Farmers study problems.
fixed curriculum offered.
No fixed curriculum or course of study
Class attendance is compulsory.
Participation is voluntary.
Teaching is mainly vertical.
The teacher has more
It is rigid.
Teaching is mainly horizontal.
lessThe teacher has a large & heterogeneous
It is flexible.
It has all pre-planned & pre-decidedIt has freedom to develop programmes
locally based on needs & interests.
It is more theoretical.
It is more practical & intended for
immediate application in the solution of
Objectives of extension education
Development of the people or destination man
To bring desirable changes in the quality of life of the
target group by helping them to change their attitude,
knowledge, skill and resources (both natural and man
made) like land, pasture, water, livestock, equipment etc in
a right way.
Objectives are expressions of the ends towards
which our efforts are directed.
This could be done by;
Bringing about a desirable changes in the knowledge,
attitude and skill.
Assisting livestock farmers to realize their needs and
Types of Objectives
Fundamental objectives (All inclusive):
E.g. Overall development of individuals
General objectives (Functions of extension): More
definite then fundamental objectives and are directly
associated with extension services.
E.g. To increase the milk production in a village
Specific or Working objectives: state directly and
specifically what is to be done.
Difference or gap between ‘what is’( Available) and
‘what ought to be’( Desirable).
This gap can be narrowed by using science and
2. Research Stations – Scientists
3. Educational Institutions – Teachers
4. Extension Education
5. Farmers – Information - Scientists
Philosophy of Extension Education
Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom, a body of general
principles or laws in a field of knowledge.
According to Mildred Horton- 4 principles
1.The individual is supreme in a democracy
2. The home is the fundamental unit in a civilization
3. The family is the first training group of the human race
4. The foundation of any permanent civilization must rest on
the partnership of man and land ( nature).
According to Ensminger (1961)
1. It is an educational process. Extension wants to change
the knowledge, attitudes, understanding and skill of the
2. Extension is working with men, women, youths, boys and
girls to answer their needs and their wants. Extension is
teaching people what to want and ways to satisfy their
3. Extension is “helping people to help themselves.”
4. Extension is working on the basis of learning by doing and
seeing is believing.
5. Extension wants development of individuals, their leaders,
their society and their world as a whole.
6. Extension is working together to expand the welfare and
happiness of the people.
7. Extension is working in harmony with the culture of the
8. Extension is a two-way channel process.
9. Extension is a continuous educational process.
Principles of extension education
The specific guidelines or the base for any decision making
process or initiating an action. It is universal truth under
varied conditions and circumstances.
Widely accepted principles of extension education are:
Principle of interest & need
Principle of cultural difference
Principle of participation
Principle of adaptability
The grass roots principle of organization
The leadership principle
7. The whole-family principle
8. Principle of co-operation
8. 9. Principle of satisfaction
10. The evaluation principle
Extension Education Approaches/Systems
Uses teaching methods for educating people
Emphasize on communication of information about
innovative technical problems to improve quality of family
and community life
Referred as conventional or classical model
Closely related to institutionalized training for basic skills
Best Ex: T&V system of Benor
Cooperative self help approach
Rural transformation through change of attitude
Response to expressed needs of the people
Building of local institutions
Integrated development approach
Emphasize to coordinate different agencies under a single
Scope of Extension Education
It includes all activities of rural development.
Increasing efficiency in agricultural production.
Increasing efficiency in marketing, distribution
and utilization of agricultural inputs and outputs
Conservation, development and use of natural resources.
Proper farm and home management
Better family living.
Community and rural development.
Improving public affairs for all round development.
Extension Educational Process
Involves 5 interlinked stepssituation analysis
formulation of objectives
deciding the content and teaching methods
outcome evaluation and impact analysis and
feedback and reconsideration
Elements of Teaching-Learning Situation
Steps in Extension Teaching
As per Wilson &Galup (1955)
Land Grant Colleges
The Morrill Act of 1862
Establishment of at least one college in each state
Objective to teach agriculture and the mechanical arts
without excluding other scientific and classical studies.
The money from the sale of federal land -very insufficient.
Lack of qualified teachers and textbooks and the
suspicion of "book learning" among farmers
In 1890 - second Morrill Act
Provided funds to sustain these colleges
Research - Hatch Act of 1887.
Created an experiment station at every land-grant
The 4-H Programme
Aims to provide educational training for youth aged 5-19
through project work, leadership and citizenship
programs, and numerous educational activities.
Head - managing, thinking
Heart - relating, caring
Hands - giving, working
Health - being, living
The 4-H Pledge
I pledge my head to clearer thinking,
my heart to greater loyalty,
my hands to larger service,
and my health to better living,
for my club, my community, my country, and my world.
Servants of India Society
Gopal Krishna Gokhale, 1905 at Mayapur Village, Madras
Rabindra Nath Tagore, 1921 Kaligram Pargana, West
Aimed at making villagers self reliant and helping people
to develop their own resources.
Kanya Kumari district in Tamil Nadu
Dr. Spencer Hatch, 1921,YMCA
5 sided programme – Spiritual, Mental, Physical, Economical
and Social development
F.L Brayne, Deputy Commissioner of the Gurgaon
district Haryana, 1927- Village Guide concept
Baroda Rural Development Project
Raja Sir T. Madhav Rao, a minister of state of Baroda
Started Rural Reconstruction Centres (RRCs) in 1932
Rural Reconstruction Project
Started by Mahatma Gandhi -Sevagram, 1936
Firka Development Scheme
Madras Province, 1943- For the economic
development of villages by promoting khadi and
Refugee Rehabilitation Project- Started in 1943 and
became fully operational in 1948
Mazdoor Manzil – aimed at self sufficiency for the
rural cum urban township.
Etawah Pilot Project
Etawah, Uttar Pradesh in 1948 -Albert Mayor
Intensive all-round development work in a compact
area- Forerunner of the CD Project
multipurpose concept of village level worker
The Community Development Project(1952)
As a result of the Grow-More-Food Enquiry Committee
Report and the successful experience of the Etawah
New programme, India & U.S.A under the Technical Cooperation Programme Agreement
55 Community Development Projects - on 2
October,1952 for three years.
Starting with 55 Community Development Projects in
1952, the entire country was covered with the
Community Develpoment Programme by 1963.
Block is the unit of planning and development.
Community Development Project (1952)
55 Community Development Projects - 25,260
villages and a population of 6.4 millions
300 villages covering 400-500 sq. miles and
a population of about 2 lakhs
Each project area divided into 3
100 villages and a population of 60,000 to
Each block divided into groups of 5-10 villages
Each group of villages
Population of 6,000 to 7,000 and one
Study of human/individual in society/environment
Sociology is the study of human relationships.
In Latin, Socius means companion and In Greek, logos
means scientific study
Auguste Comte-Father of Sociology.
Rural sociology: Focuses on man living in rural areas.
Urban sociology: Focuses on man living in urban areas.
Tribal sociology: Focuses on man living in tribal areas.
Differentiation of Societies is based on
Contact with nature
Size of the community
Density of population
Homogeneity of population
Standard of living
Sociology:Terms and Concepts
Community- continuos geographical area, sense of
belonging, sharing common values, norms, interests
Socialization-Process of conducting in socicety
Social System- set of interrelated units
Social Stratification- hierarchically arranged strata in
Social Mobility- movement of people among strata
Social InteractionAssociation-organizing for fulfilling common interests
Institution- crystallized mechanisms/ways in which
society meets its needs through social structures
Major Institutions In Rural Society
CULTURE: Complex which includes knowledge,
belief, art, mortals, law, customs and other capabilities
and habits acquired by the people as member of the
Can be either materialistic (house, food, clothing)
or non-materialistic ( family, caste, education)
Traditional Culture –Indigenous knowledge/practice
Ethnocentrism- Considering own culture superior
Cultural Lag- Lagging behind of one culture with
Value- what people consider valuable/desirable
Beliefs- Mental convictions about something
Social Role – Expected behavious of one member of
society in relation to others (Ascribed or achieved)
Social Control- Pattern of influence by society
Social Norms- Established behavioral pattern
Folkways- Informal rules of behaviour/ no punishment
Mores – Socially acceptable behaviour/ May be
Laws –Legal and political enforcement
Social Groups- Collection of 2/more people having
Types of Social Groups
Primary and secondary groups
Formal and informal groups
In group and out group
Involuntary and voluntary group
Delegate and reference group
Small size often < 20- 30
Personal and intimate relationship
Impersonal and aloof
More face to face communication
Permanency for long time
Temporary period of time
Ex: Family, group of close friends
Cooperative, Society, Council
Social Change and its factors
Leader and leadership
Types of Leaders
Democratic, Autocratic and Laissez Faire
Formal leader and Informal leader
Professional leader and Lay leader
Operational , Popularity leader and Prominent leader
Elected , Selected and Nominated leader
Selection/Identification of leaders
Group observer method.
Key informant technique. Self-designating technique.
Sociometry- Most common method