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# Mesics lecture 4 c operators and experssions

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### Mesics lecture 4 c operators and experssions

1. 1. Operators and Expressions www.eshikshak.co.in
2. 2. Introduction• An operator indicates an operation to be performed on data that yields a new value.• An operand is a data items on which operators perform operations.• C provides rich set of “Operators” – Arithmetic – Relational – Logical – Bitwise www.eshikshak.co.in
3. 3. Introduction www.eshikshak.co.in
4. 4. Properties of Operators• Precedence – Precedence means priority. – When an expressions contains many operators, the operations are carried out according to the priority of the operators. – The higher priority operations are solved first. – Example • 10 * 5 + 4 / 2 • 10 + 5 – 8 * 2 / 2 www.eshikshak.co.in
5. 5. Properties of Operators• Associativity – Associativity means the direction of execution. – When an expression has operators with same precedence, the associativity property decides which operation to be carried out first. a) Left to Right : The expression evaluation starts from the left to right direction Example : 12 * 4 / 8 % 2 48 / 8 % 2 6%2 0 b) Right to Left : The expression evaluation starts from right to left direction Example : X = 8 + 5 % 2 X=8+1 X=9 www.eshikshak.co.in
6. 6. Priority of Operators and their clubbing• Each and every operator in C having its priority and precedence fixed on the basis of these property expression is solved.• Operators from the same group may have different precedence and associativity.• If arithmetic expression contains more operators, the execution will be performed according to their priorities. www.eshikshak.co.in
7. 7. Priority of Operators and their clubbing• When two operators of the same priority are found in the expression, the precedence is given from the left most operators. x=5*4+8/2 (8 / ( 2 * ( 2 * 2 ) ) ) 2 1 1 2 3 3 www.eshikshak.co.in
8. 8. Comma and Conditional Operator• It is used to separate two void main() or more expressions. {• It has lowest precedence clrscr(); among all the operators• It is not essential to printf(“%d %d”, 2+3, 3-2); enclose the expressions } with comma operators within the parenthesis. OUTPUT :• Following statements are valid 5 1  a = 2, b = 4, c = a + b;  ( a=2, b = 4, c = a + b ); www.eshikshak.co.in
9. 9. Conditional Operator (?:)• This operator contains condition followed by two statements and values.• It is also called as ternary operator.• Syntax : Condition ? (expression1) : (expression2);• If the condition is true, than expression1 is executed, otherwise expression2 is executed www.eshikshak.co.in
10. 10. Conditional Operator (?:)• Example : void main() { clrscr(); printf(“Maximum : %d”, 5>3 ? 5 : 3) }OUTPUT : Maximum : 5 www.eshikshak.co.in
11. 11. Conditional Operator (?:)• Example : void main() { clrscr(); printf(“Maximum : %d”, 5>3 ? 5 : 3) }OUTPUT : Maximum : 5 www.eshikshak.co.in
12. 12. Conditional Operator (?:)• Example : void main() { clrscr(); 5 > 3 ? printf(“True”) : printf(“False”); printf(“%d is ”, 5>3 ? : 3) }OUTPUT : Maximum : 5 www.eshikshak.co.in
13. 13. Arithmetic Operator• Two types of arithmetic operators – Binary Operator – Unary Operator Operators Unary Binary Ternary www.eshikshak.co.in
14. 14. Arithmetic Operator• Binary Operator – An operator which requires two operator is know as binary operator – List of Binary OperatorsArithmetic Operator Operator Explanation Examples + Addition 2+2=4 - Subtraction 5–3=2 * Multiplication 2 * 5 = 10 / Division 10 / 2 = 5 % Modular Division 11 % 3 = 2 (Remainder 2) www.eshikshak.co.in
15. 15. Arithmetic Operator• Unary Operator – The operator which requires only one operand is called unary operator – List of unary operator are Operator Description or Action - Minus ++ Increment -- Decrement & Address Operator Sizeof Gives the size of the operator www.eshikshak.co.in
16. 16. Unary Operator - Minus• Unary minus is used for indicating or changing the algebraic sign of a value• Example int x = -50; int y = -x;• There is no unary plus (+) in C. Even though a value assigned with plus sign is valid. www.eshikshak.co.in
17. 17. Increment (++) and Decrement (--) Operator• The ++ operator adds value one to its operand.• X = X + 1 can be written as X++;• There are two types ++ increment operator base on the position are used with the operand. www.eshikshak.co.in
18. 18. Pre-increment (i.e. ++x)int x =5, y;y = ++x;printf(“x = %dn y = %d”, ++x, y);OUTPUT : x = x + 1;x=7 y = ++x;y=6 y = x; www.eshikshak.co.in
19. 19. Post-increment (i.e. ++x)int x =5, y;y = x++;printf(“x = %dn y = %d”, x++, y);OUTPUT : y = x;x=7 y = x++;y=6 x = x + 1; www.eshikshak.co.in
20. 20. Pre-decrement (i.e. --x)int x =5, y;y = --x;printf(“x = %dn y = %d”, --x, y);OUTPUT : x = x - 1;x=3 y = --x;y=4 y = x; www.eshikshak.co.in
21. 21. Post-decrement (i.e. ++x)int x =5, y;y = x--;printf(“x = %dn y = %d”, x--, y);OUTPUT : y = x;x=7 y = x--;y=6 x = x - 1; www.eshikshak.co.in
22. 22. sizeof operator• The sizeof operator void main() gives the bytes { occupied by a variable. int x = 12;• i.e. the size in terms of float y = 2; bytes required in printf(“size of x : %d”, sizeof(x)); printf(“nsize of y :%d”, sizeof(y)); memory to store the value. }• The number of bytes OUTPUT : occupied varies from sizeof x : 2 variable to variable sizeof y : 4 depending upon its data type. www.eshikshak.co.in
23. 23. ‘&’ Operator• The ‘&’ returns the address of the variable in a memory. Address int x = 15 2040 printf(“%d”,x); Value 15 Variable X printf(“n%u”,&x); www.eshikshak.co.in
24. 24. Relational Operator• These operators are used to distinguish two values depending on their relations.• These operators provide the relationship between two expressions.• If the relation is true it returns a value 1 otherwise 0 for false. www.eshikshak.co.in
25. 25. Relational OperatorOperator Description or Action Example Return Value > Greater than 5>4 1 < Less than 10 < 9 0 <= Less than or equal to 10 <= 10 1 >= Greater than or equal to 11 >= 5 1 == Equal to 2 == 3 0 != Not Equal to 3 != 3 0 www.eshikshak.co.in
26. 26. Assignment Operator• Assigning a value to a variable is very sample. int x = 5 Assignment Operator = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= >>>= &= ^= !=int x = 10;printf(“x = %dn”,x += 5); // x = x + 5; O/P x = 15 www.eshikshak.co.in
27. 27. Logical Operators• The logical operator between the two expressions is tested with logical operators.• Using these operators, two expressions can be joined.• After checking the conditions, it provides logical true(1) or false(0) status.• The operands could be constants, variables and expressions. www.eshikshak.co.in
28. 28. Logical OperatorsOperator Description or Action Example Return Value && Logical AND 5 > 3 && 5 < 10 1 || Logical OR 8 > 5 || 8 < 2 1 ! Logical NOT 8 != 8 0i. The logical AND (&&) operator provides true result when both expressions are true otherwise 0.ii. The logical OR (||) operator true result when one of the expressions is true otherwise 0.iii. The logical NOT (!) provides 0 if the condition is true otherwise 1. www.eshikshak.co.in
29. 29. Bitwise Operator• C supports a set of bitwise operators for bit manipulation Operators Meaning >> Right Shift << Left Shift ^ Bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) ~ One’s Complement & Bitwise AND | Bitwise | www.eshikshak.co.in
30. 30. void main() two bits means the inputted number is to be divided by 2 s where Shifting of{ s is the number of shifts i.e. in short y = n/2s int x, y; Where n = number and s = the number of position to be shift. clrscr(); For example as Thethe program keyword (x) ; print(“Read per Integer from scanf(“%d”, &x); // input value for x = 8 Y = 8 / 22 = 2 2 x>>2; y=x; printf(“The Right shifted data is = %d”, y); www.eshikshak.co.in}
31. 31. void main() three bits left means the number is multiplied by 8; in short Shifting of{ y = n * 2s where n = number int x, y; s = the number of position to be shifted clrscr(); Asprint(“Read The Integer from keyword (x) ; per the program scanf(“%d”, &x); // input value for x = 2 Y=2*2 3 x<<=3; y=x; printf(“The Right shifted data is = %d”, y); www.eshikshak.co.in}
32. 32. void main(){ int a, b, c; clrscr(); printf(“Read the integers from keyboard ( a & b ) :”); scanf(“%d %d”, &a, &b); c = a & b; printf(“The answer after ANDing is (C) = %d”, c);}OUTPUT :Read the Integers from keyboard (a & b) : 8 4The Answer after ANDing is (C) = 0 www.eshikshak.co.in
33. 33. Table of exclusive ANDX Y Outputs0 0 00 1 01 0 01 1 1 www.eshikshak.co.in
34. 34. Binary equivalent of 8Binary equivalent of 4After executionC=0Binary equivalent of 0 www.eshikshak.co.in
35. 35. void main(){ int a, b, c; clrscr(); printf(“Read the integers from keyboard ( a & b ) :”); scanf(“%d %d”, &a, &b); c = a | b; printf(“The answer after ORing is (C) = %d”, c);}OUTPUT :Read the Integers from keyboard (a & b) : 8 4The Answer after ORing is (C) = 12 www.eshikshak.co.in
36. 36. Table of exclusive ORX Y Outputs0 0 00 1 11 0 11 1 0 www.eshikshak.co.in
37. 37. Binary equivalent of 8Binary equivalent of 4After executionC = 12Binary equivalent of 0 www.eshikshak.co.in