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  1. 1. Sowing the Seeds of Self: A Socio-Pragmatic Penetration of the Web Artefact Pär J. Ågerfalk Uppsala University Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre Jonas Sjöström Jönköping International Business School Linköping University
  2. 2. Open innovation Web 2.0 Users—from passive consumers to active producers (content providers) Network effects Trust your customers as co-developers Open Source Software (OSS) From ideological volunteer movement to serious commercial alternative
  3. 3. Motivation What motivates people to give away their intellectual property for free? The signalling incentive Ego gratification Career concerns Lerner, J., and Tirole, J. (2002) “Some Simple Economics of Open Source,” The Journal of Industrial Economics, 50(2), pp. 197-234.
  4. 4. Identity Identity requires “both an intense Kierkegaardian total commitment to some cause or person that discloses a new world for an individual and a Hegelian working out of that commitment so that others recognize that new world as making more sense than their former world, so that they see the individual who brought it about as a leader and that new world as their world.” Flores, F. (1998) “Information Technology and the Institution of Identity: Reflections since Understanding Computers and Cognition,” Information Technology & People, 11(4), pp. 352–372.
  5. 5. Corporate and personal identity Strong personal identity The signalling incentive Strong commitment that others can relate to and appreciate Corporations can tailor their Web presence Strong corporate identity attracts people
  6. 6. What about integrity? Last year, AOL released search data of more than 650,000 users. Although actual user names were replaced with random numbers, all the search terms of single users were possible to track and by using these search terms it was possible to track down an individual. Apparently, No. 4417749 conducted hundreds of searches over a three-month period and eventually the data trail led to Thelma Arnold, a 62- year-old widow in Lilburn, GA, who confirmed the searches were indeed hers. The New York Times, August 9, 2006
  7. 7. Technological give offs Give offs The often non-verbal signs that help to situate and verify what we say Often unintentional Arguably, Thelma Arnold “gave off” a number of incidental traces Essential action v. Incidental action Goffman E (1959) “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,” Doubleday: Garden City, New York. Dietz, J. L. G. (2003) “The Atoms, Molecules and Fibers of Organizations,” Data & Knowledge Engineering, 47(3), pp. 301–325.
  8. 8. The user interface Designers User Interface Interpret What can be done action (action repertoire ) possibilities Interpret What others say business (prerequisites ) Other business actors messages as communicators Create A business actor What I say business as communicator (result ) messages & interpreter Other business actors What I want to do next Navigate as interpreters (retrieval or movement ) Sjöström, J. and Goldkuhl, G. (2004) “The Semiotics of User Interfaces: A Socio-Pragmatic Perspective,” In Virtual, Distributed and Flexible Organisations: Studies in Organisational Semiotics, Liu, K. (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands
  9. 9. Essential action at 0 of 7 people found the following review helpful: Suspicious reader, May 8, 2004 Reviewer: A reader No points, no correctness, no validation, no value! What the hell is this book for? Is it just a manifestation that free software is bad? Comment | Was this review helpful to you? (Report this) 29 of 30 people found the following review helpful: Balanced and business-focused, March 26, 2002 Reviewer: Mike Tarrani quot;www.tarrani.comquot; (Deltona, FL USA) - See all my reviews This may be the perfect book about open source software because it places open source within the context of business value and does not promote it as the great panacea that characterize the message of far too many books on the subject. […]
  10. 10. Incidental action at # Host Explanation Purpose Performer Agency 1 The request is Verify host Browser On behalf of forwarded to Google’s safety Plugin: Google user safe browsing service. toolbar 2 The request to get a Request action Browser: User On behalf of web page is sent to the from server action user Amazon web server. 3 [...] Requests for images are Request images Browser On behalf of sent to another Amazon from server user web server. 4 Multiple requests are Verify host Browser On behalf of sent to Google’s safe safety Plugin: Google user browsing service. toolbar 5 [...] A request is sent to Espionage Browser: On behalf of some advertisment Webb Amazon host. application 6 [...] A request is sent to Espionage Browser: On behalf of some advertisment Webb Amazon host. application 7 [...] A request is sent to Contribute to Browser On behalf of Google’s page ranking page ranking Plugin: Google user service. toolbar 8 A request is sent to Espionage Browser: On behalf of some advertisment Webb Amazon host. application
  11. 11. Conclusions – 4 principles Communicative navigation Navigation actions are communication actions with social consequences Identity cultivation Multiple interests with implications for the gathering and storing of information about both essential and incidental actions Reflective delegation Users may unknowingly delegate communicatively oriented tasks to the IT artefact Maintained intentionality Users’ awareness of their action responsibilities and commitments may eventually fade—from essential to incidental
  12. 12. That’s all folks Questions?