We already know about this things as discussed by my group mates the previous meetings… but what you might not know is that the total volume of our hydrosphere as shown in the screen…
Renewable means itself. It can be replenished and back to its natural state., but like the other resources they are renewed but these resources become critical and most unlikely useable because they are being polluted…
These are the most popular water resources that we know… but just like in the previous slide., rivers and lakes are at its lowest, we find these water resources to be only .3% of the total volume of the hydrosphere…
These ground waters are also divided into many segments, most of them are found far a way from the surface for reach, and also waters from the surface to reach it. It takes years and even centuries for surface water to reach he ground water to fill it….The natural outputs are the springs and underground rivers reaching the sea.
We really can use frozen water, but to take at least a bucket of fresh water from it, it would take more energy and money… but in some part of Alaska, they use these water from ice through the water runoff, or ice from mountains melted and brought down to the mainstreams or rivers…
I heard also that in some part of Saudi they really do extract fresh water from the sea, through this process, desalination… if you'd like to find out more, please do a research,.
Open weather app and compare weather and climate.
Just like what I shown you from the weather app, weather affects the daily availability of water, if there was a typhoon most likely there will be so much water, but it will be risky for drinking, dams will collect it and it will be treated first before use, while in climate, it talks abut the average and expected weather, the government then facilitate the water resource and it will be there task to manage… like el Niño, they know there will be droughts, that’s why they will control the dams to lower their outputs for future use.Water scarcity It talks about the availability and the sanitation of water.
Population talks about demand, or the economic scarcitySanitation is the pollution or the effects of it.Climate change is our task to conserve.
As you can see these are the sources of water pollution, which also affects the quality of water and its cleanliness or sanitation.
Read last animation for explanation
As you can see in the diagram the effects of point sources and non-point sources, the eutrophication and hypoxia.
Marine debris are seen in the usual fresh water environment, and marine pollutions and the entries of marine debris and point and non-point sources, either chemically or physical pollution, which are directed to pollute the ocean or the seas…
Among the pollution of water, sanitation is also considered in the governance of water towards its scarcity, of Couse when pollution occurs so does the sanitation or the water quality is affected, here are some infections…
To combat these pollution and sanitation issues, government do actions and…. Read on!!!As you can see, after the sewage from houses are gathered they are treated in so many processes before it can be used again… or can be usable for consumption…. Speaking of consumption, here is the safe drinking act… see, from Delaware water or treated sewage water, its treated again for drinking, before it can be distributed in to houses…
Uses of water not just household also includes… read on!!!
Off Couse, we can use water anyway we like but, to be more human… or wit care, we should also save… for the ever decreasing amount of sustainable water for the ever growing population… here are some… and remember the water restriction….. Reduce your water use..
By: James Prae Liclican
Covers 70% of the Earths surface.
97% is salt water.
3% is fresh water
Water like any other Resources
But 2% of the total Fresh water
is frozen and only 1% remains
sustainable and are mostly
found under ground
Are sources of water that are
useful to humans.
Water demand already exceeds
supply in many parts of the
world and as the world
population continues to rise, so
too does the water demand.
The uses of water includes
agricultural, industrial, household,
recreational and environmental
activities. all of these require fresh
Fresh water is renewable resource
just like soil and air. The world is
supplied by clean and fresh water
and it is decreasing. Water is one
of our most critical resources, but
around the world it is under
Surface waters can be used by
Men but the usefulness of it
depends on some factors
found in rivers, lakes or
fresh of the water depends
Quantitywater wetlands. on
the storage capacity of the lakes,
wetlands and artificial reservoirs
It is naturally replenished
Quality depends on the
by precipitation and naturally lost
permeability of the soil,
through the discharge to
the runoff characteristics of the
the oceans, the precipitation
land, the timing ofevaporation, evapotrans
and local evaporation rates.
piration and sub-surface seepage.
All of these factors affect the
usefulness of the water
Sub-surface water or Groundwater
is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks.
The natural input to sub-surface water is the
seepage from the surface water. The natural
outputs from sub-surface water are springs and
seepage to the oceans
Several schemes have
been proposed to
make use of icebergs
as a water source,
however to date this
has only been done for
Glacier runoff is
considered to be
Desalination is an
artificial process by
which saline water
water) is converted
to fresh water.
Water Governance In Africa.
Water governance is defined by the political, social,
economic and administrative systems that are in place,
and which directly or indirectly affect the use,
development and management of water resources and
the delivery of water service delivery at different levels of
society. Importantly, the water sector is a part of
broader social, political and economic developments
and is thus also affected by decisions outside of the
Other illustrations of
WATER IS AFFECTED BY
WEATHER AND CLIMATE.
Water Scarcity In the Society
By The annual evaporation and precipitation of
water water to meet the demand.
Economic Scarcity is the
Lack of safe access to fresh water.
Quantity or Economic Scarcity
Quality or Physical scarcity.
Governance of Water in utilizing
the precious amount of water
resource and finding more water
resource to sustain the society.
Physical scarcity is the limited
access of the society to clean
1. Population-The population is ever
growing, so does the need of clean fresh
2. Sanitation-Pollution affects the overall
cleanliness of the bodies of water.
3. Climate Change-People need to take
action by making a change, by
Developments (nonpoint sources)
Sources of water pollution
•A phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments
as dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen
dissolved in the water) becomes reduced in
concentration to a point detrimental to aquatic
organisms living in the system.
•Oxygen depletion can be the
result of a number of factors
including natural ones, but is of
most concern as a consequence
of pollution and eutrophication in
which plant nutrients enter a
river, lake, or ocean,
phytoplankton blooms are
increase in chemical nutrients
— compounds containing
nitrogen or phosphorus — in
an ecosystem, and may occur
on land or in water. However,
the term is often used to mean
the resultant increase in the
productivity (excessive plant
growth and decay), and
further effects including lack of
oxygen and severe reductions
in water quality, fish, and other
kill beneficial sea grasses, use up
Eutrophication- is the increase in chemical
Too much nutrients means more food for plants to
grow and in time more decay or decomposition,
which will again mean to more nutrients which will
not suitable a phenomena occurring in water
Hypoxia- is for animal populations.
environment where oxygen is being depleted.
Nitrogen oxides from autos
and smokestacks; toxic
chemicals, and heavy
metals in effluents flow
into bays and estuaries.
Toxic metals and
oil from streets and
parking lots pollute
adds nitrogen and
viruses from sewers
and septic tanks
beds and close
of fertilization from
lawns adds nitrogen
Sediments are washed into waterways,
choking fish and plants, clouding
waters, and blocking sunlight.
Run off of pesticides, manure, and
fertilizers adds toxins and excess
nitrogen and phosphorus.
Excess nitrogen causes explosive
growth of toxic microscopic algae,
poisoning fish and marine mammals.
Chemicals and toxic metals
contaminate shellfish beds,
kill spawning fish, and
accumulate in the tissues
of bottom feeders.
promote growth of plankton
and sea grasses, and support fish.
Sedimentation and algae
overgrowth reduce sunlight,
oxygen, and degrade habitat.
•Human-created waste that has
deliberately or accidentally become
afloat in a lake, sea, ocean or
waterway. Oceanic debris tends to
accumulate at the centre of gyres and
on coastlines, frequently washing
aground, when it is known as beach
•Plastic bags, balloons, buoys, rope,
medical waste, glass bottles and
plastic bottles, cigarette lighters,
beverage cans, Styrofoam, lost
fishing line and nets, and various
wastes from cruise ships and oil rigs
are among the items commonly
•Entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial,
agricultural and residential waste, or the spread of invasive
•Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution
often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff
and wind blown debris.
•Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which
are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of
which are either deposit or filter feeders.
•Toxins are concentrated upward
(bio magnification) within ocean food chains.
Spills from oil tankers and
Ejection of sulphur dioxide,
dioxide and carbon dioxide gases into
the atmosphere from exhaust
Discharge of cargo residues from bulk
carriers can pollute ports, waterways
Noise pollution that disturbs natural
•Water from ballast tanks can spread
harmful algae and other invasive
•The ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's
oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
•Human activities such as land-use changes, the
combustion of fossil fuels, and the production of
cement have led to a new flux of CO2 into the
•Dissolving CO2 in seawater also increases the
hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in the ocean, and
thus decreases ocean ph.
Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the
1700s and the 1990s.
•Surface runoff can be generated
either by rainfall or by the melting of
snow or glaciers.
•It is the water flow which occurs when soil
is infiltrated to full capacity and excess
water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources
flows over the land. This is a major
component of the water cycle.
•When runoff flows along the ground, it can
pick up soil contaminants such as
petroleum, pesticides (in particular
herbicides and insecticides), or fertilizers
that become discharge or nonpoint source Runoff flowing into a
storm water drain.
•The rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of
water caused by human influence.
•A common cause is the use of water as a coolant by
power plants and industrial manufacturers.
•Warm water typically decreases the level of dissolved
oxygen in the water . The decrease in levels of DO can
harm aquatic animals.
•May also increase the metabolic rate of aquatic animals,
as enzyme activity, resulting in these organisms
consuming more food.
Urbanization and Surface Run Off
¨ Urbanization increases surface runoff,
by creating more impervious surfaces
such as pavement and buildings, that
do not allow percolation of the water
down through the soil to the aquifer. It
is instead forced directly into streams
or storm water runoff drains, where
erosionndsiltationan be major
problems, even when flooding is not.
Increased runoff reduces groundwater
recharge, thus lowering the
and making droughts worse, especially
for farmers and others who depend on
•Occurs when water
•Malaria and dengue
are among the main
dangers of stagnant
water, which can
become a breeding
ground for the
Here are some of the
actions by the
around the world…
Clean water act of 1972
Regulates the discharge of
Industrial facilities and farms.
Regulates Sewage treatment and
maintains the physical, chemical
and biological integrity of water
Safe Drinking act 0f 1974
Regulates Plumbing for distribution
and regulated the Drinking Water
Agricultural: It is estimated that 69% of worldwide
water use is for irrigation, with 15-35% of irrigation
withdrawals being unsustainable. Aquaculture is a small
but growing agricultural use of water.
•Industrial: It is estimated that 15% of worldwide water
use is industrial. The distribution of industrial water usage
that is varies widely, but as a whole is lower than
Uses of water
Household: It is
estimated that 15% of
worldwide water use is
for household purposes.
These include drinking
water, bathing, cooking,
environmental water use is
also a very small but growing
percentage of total water use.
• Recreational water: use
is usually a very small but
growing percentage of
total water use.
Recreational water use is
mostly tied to reservoirs.
Saving water tips.
Brushing Teeth and Washing Dishes
• DO NOT keep water running while brushing your teeth/ doing
If Its Yellow, Let it Mellow. If Its Brown, Flush it Down
• Some people are bothered by this, but it is essential. Every time
you flush the toilet, you waste 10 gallons of water.
• Bath time is no longer Fun time. It wastes an unnecessary amount
of water. an average shower uses 1/5 the amount of water that is
needed for a bath!
Using the Toilet as a Garbage Can
• Do Not Do This! Throw out everything in a garbage can, even if it
is tempting to just throw it in the toilet.
• Only use hot water when absolutely necessary. Hot water uses a
lot more energy, and it isn’t always necessary
Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth.
Check your faucets and toilets for leaks.
Take shorter showers.
Anemé Malan, email@example.com, www.statssa.gov.za. For African water profile
Weather app for windows 8 modern: presentation of weather and climate, world and Philippines
Slideshare for powerpoint and word files used as data basis resource
WWF understanding water risks pdf file used as basis and picture resource
Wikipedia water problems search string
Enjoy the rest of the