Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Global problems


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Global problems

  1. 1. GLOBAL PROBLEMS WATER By: James Prae Liclican
  2. 2. WATER Covers 70% of the Earths surface. 97% is salt water. 3% is fresh water Water like any other Resources are Renewable. But 2% of the total Fresh water is frozen and only 1% remains sustainable and are mostly found under ground
  3. 3. WATER RESOURCES Are sources of water that are useful to humans. Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world and as the world population continues to rise, so too does the water demand. The uses of water includes agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. all of these require fresh water. Fresh water is renewable resource just like soil and air. The world is supplied by clean and fresh water and it is decreasing. Water is one of our most critical resources, but around the world it is under threat.
  4. 4. WATER RESOURCES Surface waters can be used by Surface water Men but the usefulness of it depends on some factors  are found in rivers, lakes or fresh of the water depends Quantitywater wetlands. on the storage capacity of the lakes, wetlands and artificial reservoirs It is naturally replenished  Quality depends on the by precipitation and naturally lost permeability of the soil, through the discharge to the runoff characteristics of the the oceans, the precipitation land, the timing ofevaporation, evapotrans and local evaporation rates. piration and sub-surface seepage. All of these factors affect the usefulness of the water
  5. 5. Sub-surface water or Groundwater is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. The natural input to sub-surface water is the seepage from the surface water. The natural outputs from sub-surface water are springs and seepage to the oceans
  6. 6. Frozen Water Several schemes have been proposed to make use of icebergs as a water source, however to date this has only been done for novelty purposes. Glacier runoff is considered to be surface water.
  7. 7. Desalination Desalination is an artificial process by which saline water (generally sea water) is converted to fresh water.
  8. 8. Water Governance In Africa.  Water governance is defined by the political, social, economic and administrative systems that are in place, and which directly or indirectly affect the use, development and management of water resources and the delivery of water service delivery at different levels of society. Importantly, the water sector is a part of broader social, political and economic developments and is thus also affected by decisions outside of the water sector. Other illustrations of Water Governance
  9. 9. WATER IS AFFECTED BY WEATHER AND CLIMATE. Water Scarcity In the Society By The annual evaporation and precipitation of water water to meet the demand. Economic Scarcity is the Lack of Lack of safe access to fresh water. Quantity or Economic Scarcity and the Quality or Physical scarcity. Governance of Water in utilizing the precious amount of water resource and finding more water resource to sustain the society. Physical scarcity is the limited access of the society to clean water
  10. 10. Causes of Water scarcity 1. Population-The population is ever growing, so does the need of clean fresh water. 2. Sanitation-Pollution affects the overall cleanliness of the bodies of water. 3. Climate Change-People need to take action by making a change, by conservation!
  11. 11. Water scarcity Pollution and sanitation
  12. 12. Rural home s NONPOINT SOURCES Croplan d Animal feedlot Urban streets Factor y Suburban Developme nt Sources of water pollutions are: Agricultural Activities (non-point sources) Housing Developments (nonpoint sources) Industrial Facilities (point-sources) Waste water treatment plant Point source s WATER POLLUTION Sources of water pollution
  13. 13. Hypoxia Eutrophication An •A phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments as dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen dissolved in the water) becomes reduced in concentration to a point detrimental to aquatic organisms living in the system. •Oxygen depletion can be the result of a number of factors including natural ones, but is of most concern as a consequence of pollution and eutrophication in which plant nutrients enter a river, lake, or ocean, phytoplankton blooms are encouraged. increase in chemical nutrients — compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus — in an ecosystem, and may occur on land or in water. However, the term is often used to mean the resultant increase in the ecosystem's primary productivity (excessive plant growth and decay), and further effects including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality, fish, and other animal populations. kill beneficial sea grasses, use up Eutrophication- is the increase in chemical nutrients… Too much nutrients means more food for plants to grow and in time more decay or decomposition, which will again mean to more nutrients which will not suitable a phenomena occurring in water Hypoxia- is for animal populations. SANITATI POLLUTION ON environment where oxygen is being depleted.
  14. 14. Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks; toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries. Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; sewage adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Urban sprawl Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds and close beaches; runoff of fertilization from lawns adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Closed beach Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight. Farms Run off of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus. Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxic microscopic algae, poisoning fish and marine mammals. Closed shellfish beds Oxygen-depleted zone Toxic sediments Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders. Healthy zone Clear, oxygen -rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish. Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, oxygen, and degrade habitat.
  15. 15. Marine Debris •Human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally become afloat in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and on coastlines, frequently washing aground, when it is known as beach litter. •Plastic bags, balloons, buoys, rope, medical waste, glass bottles and plastic bottles, cigarette lighters, beverage cans, Styrofoam, lost fishing line and nets, and various wastes from cruise ships and oil rigs are among the items commonly found. Pollution Marine Pollution •Entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, or the spread of invasive organisms. •Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff and wind blown debris. •Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. •Toxins are concentrated upward (bio magnification) within ocean food chains.
  16. 16. Ship Pollution     Spills from oil tankers and tanker chemical s Ejection of sulphur dioxide, dioxide and carbon dioxide gases into nitrogen the atmosphere from exhaust fumes. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. Noise pollution that disturbs natural •Water from ballast tanks can spread harmful algae and other invasive species. Ocean Acidification •The ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. •Human activities such as land-use changes, the combustion of fossil fuels, and the production of cement have led to a new flux of CO2 into the atmosphere. •Dissolving CO2 in seawater also increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in the ocean, and thus decreases ocean ph. Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s.
  17. 17. Surface Runoff Thermal Pollution •Surface runoff can be generated either by rainfall or by the melting of snow or glaciers. •It is the water flow which occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources flows over the land. This is a major component of the water cycle. •When runoff flows along the ground, it can pick up soil contaminants such as petroleum, pesticides (in particular herbicides and insecticides), or fertilizers that become discharge or nonpoint source Runoff flowing into a storm water drain. pollution. •The rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. •A common cause is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. •Warm water typically decreases the level of dissolved oxygen in the water . The decrease in levels of DO can harm aquatic animals. •May also increase the metabolic rate of aquatic animals, as enzyme activity, resulting in these organisms consuming more food.
  18. 18. Urbanization and Surface Run Off ¨ Urbanization increases surface runoff, by creating more impervious surfaces such as pavement and buildings, that do not allow percolation of the water down through the soil to the aquifer. It is instead forced directly into streams or storm water runoff drains, where erosionndsiltationan be major a c problems, even when flooding is not. Increased runoff reduces groundwater water table recharge, thus lowering the and making droughts worse, especially for farmers and others who depend on water wells. Water Stagnation •Occurs when water stops flowing. •Malaria and dengue are among the main dangers of stagnant water, which can become a breeding ground for the mosquitoes that transmit these diseases.
  19. 19. Waste Water Viral Infections Bacterial Infections Protozoan Infections Parasitic Infections SANITATION
  20. 20. Here are some of the most popular actions by the Governments around the world… Clean water act of 1972 Regulates the discharge of Industrial facilities and farms. Regulates Sewage treatment and maintains the physical, chemical and biological integrity of water Safe Drinking act 0f 1974 Regulates Plumbing for distribution and regulated the Drinking Water treatment Process.
  21. 21. Agricultural: It is estimated that 69% of worldwide water use is for irrigation, with 15-35% of irrigation withdrawals being unsustainable. Aquaculture is a small but growing agricultural use of water. •Industrial: It is estimated that 15% of worldwide water use is industrial. The distribution of industrial water usage that is varies widely, but as a whole is lower than agricultural use. Uses of water
  22. 22. Household: It is estimated that 15% of worldwide water use is for household purposes. These include drinking water, bathing, cooking, sanitation, and gardening. Environmental: Explicit environmental water use is also a very small but growing percentage of total water use. • Recreational water: use is usually a very small but growing percentage of total water use. Recreational water use is mostly tied to reservoirs.
  23. 23. Saving water tips. Brushing Teeth and Washing Dishes • DO NOT keep water running while brushing your teeth/ doing the dishes. If Its Yellow, Let it Mellow. If Its Brown, Flush it Down • Some people are bothered by this, but it is essential. Every time you flush the toilet, you waste 10 gallons of water. Bath time! • Bath time is no longer Fun time. It wastes an unnecessary amount of water. an average shower uses 1/5 the amount of water that is needed for a bath! Using the Toilet as a Garbage Can • Do Not Do This! Throw out everything in a garbage can, even if it is tempting to just throw it in the toilet. Hot Water • Only use hot water when absolutely necessary. Hot water uses a lot more energy, and it isn’t always necessary Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth. Check your faucets and toilets for leaks. Take shorter showers.
  24. 24. Data resource Anemé Malan,, For African water profile Weather app for windows 8 modern: presentation of weather and climate, world and Philippines Slideshare for powerpoint and word files used as data basis resource WWF understanding water risks pdf file used as basis and picture resource Wikipedia water problems search string
  25. 25. Enjoy the rest of the day!!! THANKS FOR YOUR COOPERATION!!!