3. BASIC ROUTINE FINISHES
4. SPECIAL FINISHES
5. FINISHES FOR APPEARANCE
a) HEAT SETTING
• In a restricted sense, it is the term used for a series of
processes to which all bleached, dyed, printed and certain grey
fabrics are subjected before they are put on the market
• It includes the final treatment of every kind of fabric made
from every kind of fibre.
• The aim of textile finishing is to render textile goods fit for
their purpose or end use.
• In a broad sense, it covers all the processes which the fabric
undergoes after leaving the loom or the knitting machine.
THE TECHNIQUES OF
FINISHING DEPENDS UPON
1. Nature of the fabric.
2. The physical properties of the fabric.
3. The end use of the material.
4. Receptivity of the fabric to various finishing operations.
5. Susceptibility to chemical modifications
Tentering is the mechanical straightening and drying of
For woven fabrics the tenter establishes the relationship
between warp and filling yarns.
Properly tentered fabrics will be straight or on-grain.
A tenter frame holds the fabric between two parallel chains.
The chains spread apart to the desired fabric width, move with
the fabric through finishing or drying units, and release the
fabric to be rolled or folded onto cylinders.
The fabric is held horizontally between two chains.
Tentering is applied to fabrics at several different times during the
overall finishing operation.
When tentering follows the application of finishing compounds that
are designed to help produce easy care fabrics.
Fabrics are tentered following bleaching and scouring and many other
finishing operations; thus this process is used frequently during the total
The fabric is held horizontally between two chains.
• Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread that
gives fabric a lustrous appearance.
• The process is applied to materials like cotton or hemp.
• Mercerization alters the chemical structure of the cotton fiber.
• The structure of the fiber changes from alpha-cellulose to beta-
• Mercerizing results in the swelling of the cell wall of the
• This causes increases in the surface area and reflectance, and
gives the fiber a softer feel.
THE EFFECT OF
• Improve luster.
• Increased ability to absorb dye.
• Improved reactions with a variety of chemicals.
• Improved stability of form.
• Improved strength/elongation.
• Improved smoothness.
• To give luster or glaze the fabric.
• To give soft and smooth surface to the fabric.
• To give silk like appearance.
• To decrease the air permeability.
• To flatten the slobs.
•In general calender usually have 2 to 7 rollers with more
common being the 3 bowl calender.
•Textile calender are made with alternate hard steel and elastic
•The elastic bowls are made from either compressed paper or
compressed cotton, however a lot of modern calender are
made with a covering which is usually nylon 6
Wool and wool blend fabrics are subjected to a series of
routine finishes that are specific to that fabric. This includes
carbonizing, Crabbling, Decanting and fulling.
1) Carbonizing is the process by which vegetable matter
found in wool fiber is removed.
2) To remove all foreign matter found with wool fiber during
the carding process when making wool or wool blend yarns.
Thus, remaining foreign matter is removed by carbonizing.
3) This finishing process involves the immerssion of the wool
fabric in a solution of sulfuric acid.
4) The acid and heat react to convert the vegetable matter to
carbon, which is easily removed by a final scouring and if
5)The process must be carefully controlled to prevent fiber
damage, and it cannot be used on blends.
6) Carbonizing is the important step in the manufacture of
7) It may or maynot be used on woolens, depending on the
type of fabric.
3) This finishing process involves the
immerssion of the wool fabric in a
solution of sulfuric acid.
4) The acid and heat react to convert the
vegetable matter to carbon, which is easily
removed by a final scouring and if
1) Silk fabrics may be given a finish called weighting.
2) To make heavy of stiff silk fabrics, manufacturers resort
to adding substances, usually metallic salts.
3) It is the natural absorbency characteristic of silk fiber that
makes this finishing process feasible.
4) If weighting is overdone silk fabrics tend to crack and
split during use and care.
5) Although weighted silk has body and density
6) The fabrics are not as durable for they are sensitive to
damage by sunlight, perspiration, and Deodarants.
Silk filaments are unwound from the cocoons in a manufacturing plant
called a filature. Several cocoons are placed in hot water to soften the
Gum and the surface are brushed lightly to find the end filaments. These
ends are collected ,threaded through a guide and wounded onto wheel
called a reel ,hence the process is called as reeling .
As the fibers are combined and pulled on to the reel, twist can be inserted
to hold the filament together. The operation is called Throwing and the
resulting yarn is called thrown yarn .Fibers may be thrown in a separate
operation ,but the process remains basically identical .
The sericin ,the gum that holds the filament together remains on the fiber
during the reeling and throwing ,it is removed after these step by a
process called Degumming
FINISHES FOR APPEARENCE
• HEAT SETTING
Heat Sensitive or thermoplastic , fibres are frequently given a heat setting
finish to ensure a stable fabric or to create special shapes and designs in
fabric-is used to build specific characteristics in those fibers so they
become permanent features .Any fabric of heat sensitive fibers and
blends in which heat sensitive fiber are a part can be heat set .
One of the most important reason for heat setting is to reduce or
eliminate stretch or shrinkage of the fabric .The heat setting operation
produces a fabric that will change its size in normal use and care
.Another important characteristics is to build resiliency so that the fabric
returns to shape and tends to be an essay care item .Heat setting can be
used to build planned creases, pleats and surface designs such as
Heat setting is durable providing the consumer does not exceeds the heat
setting temperature during its using and caring process .It is most
important to prevent the product from reaching the temperature used for
heat setting ;if such should happen the product would assume whatever
shape it has taken at that time .
Care during laundering and deying are important as wrinkles can be
formed in the end use items of washing and drying temperature are
higher than the temperature used for heat setting the time for exposure to
the high temperature was longer than the time required for the original
heat-setting operation .
But without heat setting the thermoplastic (heat sensitive )fibers would
not be as attractive and would tend to shrinl badly when exposed to
normal care processes.
• Embossed fabrics have three dimensional designs.
• Calendars used for embossing may have two to three rolls.
• Embossing that involves use of resins or heat sensitive fibers
are easy to care.