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Advertisement: History, Techniques and Impacts

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This Slide show narrates the history of advertisements and traces out their impacts and explains the techniques followed in the preparation of advertisements. I made this presentation for the students of I year M A English on 11th January 2010. I hope to improve this presentation in near future.

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Advertisement: History, Techniques and Impacts

  1. 1. By Xavier Pradheep Singh M. S. Advertisements Impacts, Norms and Responsibilities
  2. 2. Note:- <ul><li>This presentation is also available at my website http://sites.google.com/site/xavierpradheepsingh </li></ul><ul><li>So just listen carefully to understand how advertisements work. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Definition of Ads </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  4. 4. Advertisement <ul><li>A form of mass communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners to take some action </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding </li></ul><ul><li>A paid form of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor is identified </li></ul><ul><li>Makes message reach large audience of potential consumers </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  5. 5. Advertisement <ul><li>Includes the name of a product or service and how it could benefit the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Involves repetition of an image or product name to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, billboards or direct mail </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  6. 6. Product A product is anything that is offered to a market and that might satisfy a want or need 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  7. 7. Brand A brand is a name used to identify and distinguish a specific product, service or business 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  8. 8. History of Advertising <ul><li>From the beginning till today </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  9. 9. In the beginning <ul><li>Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another ancient advertising form </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  10. 10. In the middle ages <ul><li>In the Middle Ages, the common people were unable to read </li></ul><ul><li>Signs that said cobbler or tailor used an image associated with their trade such as a boot or a suit </li></ul><ul><li>The vegetable shop-keepers used street callers to announce the whereabouts of fruits and vegetables in the markets </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  11. 11. Printing <ul><li>Printing and reading made advertising to include handbills </li></ul><ul><li>In the 17th century advertisements appeared in weekly newspapers in England </li></ul><ul><li>These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books, newspapers and medicines </li></ul><ul><li>False advertising and so-called &quot;quack&quot; advertisements became a problem which ushered in the regulation of advertising content </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  12. 12. Edo period advertising in Japan. The advertising flier from 1806 is for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan . Display in the Edo Tokyo Museum. 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  13. 13. 19 th century <ul><li>In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  14. 14. Advertising Agency <ul><li>In 1840 Volney Palmer established a predecessor to advertising agencies in Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency Havas to include advertisement brokerage </li></ul><ul><li>At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>N. W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  15. 15. Women in Ads <ul><li>Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman for a soap product </li></ul><ul><li>It featured a couple with the message &quot;The skin you love to touch&quot; </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  16. 16. &quot;Drink Coca-Cola 5¢&quot;, an 1890s advertising poster showing a woman in fancy clothes (partially vaguely influenced by 16th- and 17th-century styles) drinking Coke. The card on the table says &quot;Home Office, The Coca-Cola Co. Atlanta, Ga. Branches: Chicago, Philadelphia 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  17. 17. A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia Britannica 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  18. 18. Radio Ads <ul><li>In 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations and included: schools, clubs and civic groups. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  19. 19. Sponsorship Programmes <ul><li>Each individual radio program was sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. </li></ul><ul><li>Later radio station owners started earning more money by selling sponsorship rights to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  20. 20. In 1960s <ul><li>In the1960s, advertising adopted a modern approach which produced unexpected creative messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes </li></ul><ul><li>This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Its archetype was William Bernbach. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  21. 21. Cable Television <ul><li>The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television particularly MTV </li></ul><ul><li>MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC , Home Shopping Network , and ShopTV Canada . </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  22. 22. Internet <ul><li>Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the &quot;dot-com&quot; boom of the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  23. 23. Online Advertising <ul><li>In the 21st century, a number of websites including the search engine Google , started a change in online advertising </li></ul><ul><li>They emphasized contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate users </li></ul><ul><li>This has led to an increasing trend of interactive advertising. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  24. 24. Guerrilla Marketing <ul><li>A recent advertising innovation </li></ul><ul><li>involves unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  25. 25. 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  26. 26. Guerrilla Marketing <ul><li>This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects an increasing trend of interactive and &quot;embedded&quot; ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and various innovations utilizing social network services such as MySpace. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  27. 27. Types of Advertisements <ul><li>Billboard advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile billboard advertising </li></ul><ul><li>In-store advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Covert advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrities </li></ul><ul><li>Billboard advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile billboard advertising </li></ul><ul><li>In-store advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Covert advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrities </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  28. 28. Television Advertisement <ul><li>The most effective mass-market advertising format </li></ul><ul><li>TV networks charge high prices for commercial airtime during popular TV events </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. </li></ul><ul><li>More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. Virtual product placement is also possible. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  29. 29. Infomercials <ul><li>A long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. </li></ul><ul><li>Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  30. 30. Radio advertising <ul><li>A form of advertising via the medium of radio </li></ul><ul><li>Radio advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. </li></ul><ul><li>Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. </li></ul><ul><li>the obvious limitation of being restricted to sound </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  31. 31. Print advertising <ul><li>Advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. </li></ul><ul><li>This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. </li></ul><ul><li>A form of print advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  32. 32. Online advertising <ul><li>A form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  33. 33. Billboard advertising <ul><li>Large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. </li></ul><ul><li>Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>However, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  34. 34. 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  35. 35. Mobile billboard advertising <ul><li>truck- or blimp-mounted billboards or digital screens </li></ul><ul><li>These can be dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, or they can be specially-equipped cargo trucks. </li></ul><ul><li>The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. </li></ul><ul><li>Some billboard displays are static, while others change. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-day, and long-term campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sporting events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store openings and similar promotional events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big advertisements from smaller companies </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  36. 36. 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  37. 37. In-store advertising <ul><li>In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters, eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  38. 38. 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  39. 39. Covert advertising <ul><li>Also Known as guerrilla advertising </li></ul><ul><li>A product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, in a film, the main character can use a brand. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  40. 40. 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  41. 41. Celebrities <ul><li>Using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  42. 42. <ul><li>The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. </li></ul><ul><li>One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Tiger Woods </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  43. 43. How to Prepare an Advertisement? <ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  44. 44. The Audience <ul><li>Target Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find who is target audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housewives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educated men </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retired Persons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Different Personalities </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  45. 45. The Message <ul><li>Depends on the primary reaction you expect from the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Three primary reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To feel / experience an emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To think, understand and remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To do something </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  46. 46. To feel / experience an emotion <ul><li>Show what people love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriotism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother and Child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puppies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandpa and grand child </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  47. 47. To feel / experience an emotion <ul><li>Use music </li></ul><ul><li>Use emotional stories </li></ul><ul><li>Look for inspiration from the news / history </li></ul><ul><li>Use emotional themes, style & mood </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  48. 48. Consider emotional approach <ul><li>When the product or service has an emotional demension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg.: Perfume, Fashion, Cosmetics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the product category is crowded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg.: Shampoo, Soap, Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When you can build a brand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg.: McDonalds, Coke, Sony </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  49. 49. To Think, Understand, Remember <ul><li>Consider attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Be Specific and detailed </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  50. 50. To do something <ul><li>Define what action you want from the viewers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click to a website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call to order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit a store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail a form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think of what you will offer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Save 50% if you order today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free CD with video </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  51. 51. Elements in Advertisements <ul><li>Jingles </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Animations </li></ul><ul><li>Humour </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Showing Cute Things </li></ul><ul><li>Associating Ideas </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  52. 52. Jingles <ul><li>A memorable slogan, set to an engaging melody, mainly broadcast on radio on television commercials. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate sustained appeal which may remain in the minds of television viewers long after the span of the advertising campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these ad jingles or catch-phrases may take on lives of their own, spawning gags or &quot;riffs&quot; that may appear in other forms of media, such as comedy movies or television variety shows, or in written media, such as magazine comics or literature. </li></ul><ul><li>These long-lasting advertising elements may therefore be said to have taken a place in the pop culture history of the demographic to which they have appeared. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  53. 53. Music <ul><li>Music creates the necessary emotion in the minds of the viewers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airtel Music by A. R. Rahman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TATA Docomo – Friendship Express </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World Space Satellite Radio By A. R. Rahman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chennai Silks - Songs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leo Coffee – Traditional Music </li></ul></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  54. 54. Humour <ul><li>Humour makes people remember the advertisement. They will like to see it again. </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  55. 55. Emotional Stories <ul><ul><li>Surf Excel – Rosy miss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian Paint – Pongal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airtel - Grandpa and Grand Son </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  56. 56. Curiosity <ul><li>Allirani Nahai Thangama? Pithalaiya? </li></ul><ul><li>Barani Mega Kolusu </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  57. 57. Animation <ul><li>The pictures can vary from hand-drawn traditional animation to computer animation. </li></ul><ul><li>By using animated characters, an advertisement may have a certain appeal that is difficult to achieve with actors or mere product displays. </li></ul><ul><li>An animated advertisement can be very long-running, several decades in many instances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minto fresh </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  58. 58. Cute things <ul><li>Children, Puppies etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vodafone – Happy to Help </li></ul></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  59. 59. Associating Ideas <ul><li>Tamilnadu’s Special - Aircel </li></ul><ul><li>100% Purity and Naturalness – VVD Hair Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Pepsodent – Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Hamam - Honest </li></ul>01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh
  60. 60. Thank You 01/17/10 Xavier Pradheep Singh

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