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Positioning And Orientation In Indoor Environments Using Camera 2003


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Positioning And Orientation In Indoor Environments Using Camera 2003

  1. 1. Presented by, Pradeep Thomas Thundiyil M.Tech 1 st Sem DCN November 1, 2009
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><li>System Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Working </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>System Extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  3. 3. Objective <ul><li>To help individuals with Cognitive Impairments navigate in Indoor Spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing directory information related to the current location. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  4. 4. Cognitive Impairment ? <ul><li>Concentration Difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetfulness </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>The act of pointing the camera forms the query into information about the building and sends them to building server. </li></ul><ul><li>The server processes the cell phone camera image and matches detected landmarks from the image to a building. </li></ul><ul><li>The system calculates camera location and dynamically overlays information directly on the cell phone image. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  6. 6. November 1, 2009
  7. 7. Concept <ul><li>Determining landmarks in the cell phone image and matching them to previously cached landmarks in the environmental space. </li></ul><ul><li>By matching enough landmarks the camera pose can be precisely computed and thereby accurately overlay information onto the display. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  8. 8. System Overview <ul><li>Image processing System: Locates landmarks and compares them to the buildings floor plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Building Server: Holds floor plan data and provides the computation cycles for extracting the landmarks and performs the matching. </li></ul><ul><li>WI-FI Connection: Client and Server communicates through a WI-FI connection. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  9. 9. Working <ul><li>Extracts the relevant features in the image. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the location estimate to select the search area in the floor plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Finds the correspondence between the image features and the building’s floor plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Computes the Camera pose. </li></ul><ul><li>Returns information overlay for display on the phone client. </li></ul>November 1, 2009 Working Steps
  10. 10. System Diagram <ul><li>System diagram for calculating camera pose and overlaying information on a camera-phone image. Three input sources generate the augmented image in a five-step process. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  11. 11. Implementation November 1, 2009
  12. 12. Feature Detection <ul><li>Locating the features in the camera phone image. </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Shift Method for segmenting the image. </li></ul><ul><li>System traces edge of the segment and identifies the corners using a “Cornerity Metric”. </li></ul><ul><li>These points are ready to be matched with the floor plan. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  13. 13. <ul><li>The mean shift method is a popular method for a wide variety of applications: video tracking, image filtering, clustering and image segmentation. </li></ul>Mean Shift Method November 1, 2009 A geometrical feature detection system which is to be used for data acquisition and pre-processing, segmentation and landmark extraction and characterisation. Cornerity Metric
  14. 14. Segmentation & Corner finding results <ul><li>a). System first segments </li></ul><ul><li>the hallway image, then traces the floor’s edge and locates the corners. Corners marked with yellow circles are candidates for matching to floor plan features. </li></ul><ul><li>b). The X marks the cell phone’s estimated location on the floor plan and the red dots marks the feature points. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  15. 15. Feature Matching <ul><li>Image features must be matched to the floor plan features. </li></ul><ul><li>A potential set of points in the floor plan are chosen to match. </li></ul><ul><li>Location System provides a rough location estimate that becomes the centre for the region to be tested. </li></ul><ul><li>RANSAC approach is used to determine correspondence from the two sets of features and two points along the lines are chosen. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  16. 16. RANSAC Algorithm <ul><li>RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) is a re-sampling technique that generates candidate solutions by using the minimum number observations (data points) required to estimate the underlying model parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm: </li></ul><ul><li>1: Select randomly the minimum number of points required to determine the model parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>2: Solve for the parameters of the model. </li></ul><ul><li>3: Determine how many points from the set of all points fit with a predefined tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>4: If the fraction of the number of inliers over the total number points in the set exceeds a predefined threshold re-estimate the model parameters using all the identified inliers and terminate. </li></ul><ul><li>5: Otherwise, repeat steps 1 through 4 (maximum of N times). </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  17. 17. Results of the point-correspondence algorithm in the Computer Science Building. (a) Numbers label the detected points on the image and the corresponding matched points on the floor plan. (b) The floor plan is warped into the image space and overlaid on the original image. This example has 10 image points and 32 map points and completes matching in about 4 seconds. November 1, 2009
  18. 18. Augmenting Images <ul><li>While the system finds the correspondence between the image floor plan landmarks, it simultaneously solves for both the camera location and its orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Application can leverage the increased location accuracy and camera orientation when determining what information to display. </li></ul><ul><li>They can use the mapping between the image and floor plan to overlay information on the camera image. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  19. 19. Feasibility Analysis <ul><li>Speed and Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>System can accurately complete an entire cycle from taking a picture on the phone to displaying an augmented image in approximately 10 seconds using a standard 2.8 GHz computer and processing in Java. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of 30 cms. </li></ul><ul><li>Image transfer over WI-FI - 1 sec </li></ul><ul><li>System Processing - 9 secs </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation - 1.5 secs </li></ul><ul><li>Feature Correspondence - 2 to 6 secs </li></ul><ul><li>Image Augmentation - 0.5 sec </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  20. 20. Changes in floor material, reflective floors and structures like catwalks causes problems. People or clutter in the hallways causes problems in detecting features. Environments with low contrast difference between floors and walls. November 1, 2009 Limitations Examples that pose problems for Segmentation.
  21. 21. System Extensions <ul><li>System is fast enough, but further improvements can be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Better Feature Detection would reduce the no: of matches and speed up the algorithm. </li></ul><ul><li>Performing some processes on the phone reduces amount of data and the time needed for the transfer. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  22. 22. Conclusion & Future Works <ul><li>The current system’s limitations in handling the full range of environment can be solved by improving the feature detection and matching. </li></ul><ul><li>Results can be improved by using more sophisticated image comparison algorithms. </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerometers can also help in improving accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>The system is a simple, low cost navigation assistant to provide a low cognitive load interface on a user’s standard camera phone. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Hile. H, Borriello. G. “ Positioning and Orientation in Indoor Environments Using Camera Phones” Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, Volume 28, Issue 4, July-Aug. 2008, Pages: 32-39. </li></ul><ul><li>G. Fritz, C. Seifert, and L. Paletta, “ A Mobile Vision System for Urban Detection with Informative Local Descriptors ,” Proc. 4th IEEE Int’l Conf Computer Vision Systems (ICVS 06), IEEE CS Press, 2006, pp. 30 </li></ul><ul><li>William A. Hoff, Khoi Nguyen , “ Computer vision-based registration techniques for augmented reality” Proceedings of Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XV , SPIE Vol. 2904, Nov 18-22, 1996, Boston, MA, pp. 538-548. </li></ul><ul><li>Nishkam Ravi, Pravin Shankar, Andrew Frankel, Ahmed Elgammal and Liviu Iftode, “ Indoor Localization Using Camera Phones ”. </li></ul>November 1, 2009
  24. 24. Thank You..! November 1, 2009