1Énergies renouvelables | Production éco-responsable | Transports innovants | Procédés éco-efficients | Ressources durable...
2©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France3As a function of battery usage inAs a functio...
3©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France5OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss model...
4©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France7AMESim Library of Electric StorageSystems Mod...
5©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France9Empirical capacity loss modeling (2/2)Capacit...
6©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France11Aging Model Validation (1/2)PHEV Duty cycle ...
7©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France13OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss mode...
8©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France15Simulations of PHEV Battery pack Lifetime (2...
9©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France17OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss mode...
10©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France19The impact of vehicle usage strategies on t...
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LMS French Users Conference 2013 - Li-ion qging Modeling and battery pack sizing

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LMS French Users Conference 2013 - Li-ion qging Modeling and battery pack sizing

  1. 1. 1Énergies renouvelables | Production éco-responsable | Transports innovants | Procédés éco-efficients | Ressources durables©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - FranceAging modeling for advancedLi-ion battery pack sizing andmanagement for HEV/EVthrough AMESim simulationplatformEric PRADA and Martin PETITElectrochemistry and Materials DepartmentIFPEN©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France2Industrial ContextAs LiAs LiAs LiAs Li----ion batteries are more and more deployed forion batteries are more and more deployed forion batteries are more and more deployed forion batteries are more and more deployed fortransportation applications, assurances of lifetime andtransportation applications, assurances of lifetime andtransportation applications, assurances of lifetime andtransportation applications, assurances of lifetime andreliability are essential.reliability are essential.reliability are essential.reliability are essential.LiLiLiLi----ion systems lifetime prediction is still an issue forion systems lifetime prediction is still an issue forion systems lifetime prediction is still an issue forion systems lifetime prediction is still an issue forbattery engineers and automotive makers becausebattery engineers and automotive makers becausebattery engineers and automotive makers becausebattery engineers and automotive makers becauseof multiple and complex aging mechanisms andof multiple and complex aging mechanisms andof multiple and complex aging mechanisms andof multiple and complex aging mechanisms andmultiple chemistries (NCA, LFP, NMC, LTO...)!multiple chemistries (NCA, LFP, NMC, LTO...)!multiple chemistries (NCA, LFP, NMC, LTO...)!multiple chemistries (NCA, LFP, NMC, LTO...)!Illustrations PSA & Renault CarsWhat is the typical battery usage? How do I size the battery pack?What is the typical battery usage? How do I size the battery pack?What is the typical battery usage? How do I size the battery pack?What is the typical battery usage? How do I size the battery pack?How long will it last? Warranty 5 years, 6 years, 10years?How long will it last? Warranty 5 years, 6 years, 10years?How long will it last? Warranty 5 years, 6 years, 10years?How long will it last? Warranty 5 years, 6 years, 10years?What is the impact of usage on the battery lifetime?What is the impact of usage on the battery lifetime?What is the impact of usage on the battery lifetime?What is the impact of usage on the battery lifetime?Is the chosen LiIs the chosen LiIs the chosen LiIs the chosen Li----ion technology a good choice?ion technology a good choice?ion technology a good choice?ion technology a good choice?......?......?......?......?
  2. 2. 2©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France3As a function of battery usage inAs a function of battery usage inAs a function of battery usage inAs a function of battery usage inan electrified vehicle, one canan electrified vehicle, one canan electrified vehicle, one canan electrified vehicle, one candistinguish two aging modes :distinguish two aging modes :distinguish two aging modes :distinguish two aging modes :CYCLING & CALENDAR distribution fordifferent vehicles (Source, Magna)CYCLING ModeCYCLING ModeCYCLING ModeCYCLING ModeBattery is cycled in charge/dischargeBattery is cycled in charge/dischargeBattery is cycled in charge/dischargeBattery is cycled in charge/discharge(I=I(I=I(I=I(I=Ich/dchch/dchch/dchch/dch)))) / Driving Mode/ Driving Mode/ Driving Mode/ Driving ModeCALENDAR ModeCALENDAR ModeCALENDAR ModeCALENDAR ModeBattery is stored (I = 0 A)Battery is stored (I = 0 A)Battery is stored (I = 0 A)Battery is stored (I = 0 A) //// Parking ModeParking ModeParking ModeParking ModeHow to define Li-ion batteries aging? (1/2)CYCLING & CALENDAR modesare combined during the lifetime for different vehicles©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France4How to define Li-ion batteries aging? (2/2)Batteries are characterized by two macroscopic parameters :Batteries are characterized by two macroscopic parameters :Batteries are characterized by two macroscopic parameters :Batteries are characterized by two macroscopic parameters :Internal Resistance R (Internal Resistance R (Internal Resistance R (Internal Resistance R (ΩΩΩΩ)))) PowerPowerPowerPower (W)(W)(W)(W)Nominal Capacity CNominal Capacity CNominal Capacity CNominal Capacity Cnomnomnomnom (Ah)(Ah)(Ah)(Ah) EnergyEnergyEnergyEnergy (Wh)(Wh)(Wh)(Wh)Battery aging leads to a degradation of theBattery aging leads to a degradation of theBattery aging leads to a degradation of theBattery aging leads to a degradation of thesystem performances :system performances :system performances :system performances :Rise of Resistance RRise of Resistance RRise of Resistance RRise of Resistance R Power lossPower lossPower lossPower lossReduction of cell capacity CReduction of cell capacity CReduction of cell capacity CReduction of cell capacity C Energy lossEnergy lossEnergy lossEnergy lossSpotnitz et al. , JPS 72 (2006) 113EOL criterion #Closs = -20% CnomCapacity fade curve is impacted by operating stress factorsCapacity fade curve is impacted by operating stress factorsCapacity fade curve is impacted by operating stress factorsCapacity fade curve is impacted by operating stress factors (T,(T,(T,(T, ΔΔΔΔDOD, SOC, I)DOD, SOC, I)DOD, SOC, I)DOD, SOC, I)tEOLSystems simulations can help understand the impact of stress factorsSystems simulations can help understand the impact of stress factorsSystems simulations can help understand the impact of stress factorsSystems simulations can help understand the impact of stress factorsand usage strategies on the battery life but requires advancedand usage strategies on the battery life but requires advancedand usage strategies on the battery life but requires advancedand usage strategies on the battery life but requires advancedelectroelectroelectroelectro----thermal battery models integrating aging predictionthermal battery models integrating aging predictionthermal battery models integrating aging predictionthermal battery models integrating aging prediction
  3. 3. 3©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France5OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss model development withinthe Electric Storage Library on AMESimII. Model experimental validationIII. Simulations study for PHEV battery pack lifetime :Impact of usage strategies and V2G capabilityIV. Conclusions and Perspectives©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France6OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss model development withinthe Electric Storage Library on AMESimII. Model experimental validationIII. Simulations study for PHEV battery pack lifetime :Impact of usage strategies and V2G capabilityIV. Conclusions and Perspectives
  4. 4. 4©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France7AMESim Library of Electric StorageSystems Models (Rev. 12)ESS models on AMESim Rev 12ESS models on AMESim Rev 12ESS models on AMESim Rev 12ESS models on AMESim Rev 12Generic Modelsfor BatteriesandUltracapacitorsValidated models (Ni-MH,Li-ion, EDLC) of realindustrial storage systems!Battery Assitant Tool :Battery Assitant Tool :Battery Assitant Tool :Battery Assitant Tool :Generic model calibration toolGeneric model calibration toolGeneric model calibration toolGeneric model calibration toolUser can model its battery systemsUser can model its battery systemsUser can model its battery systemsUser can model its battery systemswith own datasetswith own datasetswith own datasetswith own datasetsSafety ControlUnit (SCU) forBMS securityfunctions©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France8Empirical capacity loss modeling (1/2)Aging model coupled with an ElectroAging model coupled with an ElectroAging model coupled with an ElectroAging model coupled with an Electro----thermal RC Model from ESSthermal RC Model from ESSthermal RC Model from ESSthermal RC Model from ESSLibrary Revision 12Library Revision 12Library Revision 12Library Revision 12ICdtdSOCres361=Dynamic Electro-thermalEquivalent circuit modelfrom ES Library (Rev 12)Empiricial Capacity lossmodel accounting for theimpact of Temperature (T),Current Intensity (I) andSOC (Rev13) (LFP/C)ISOCCresTa TcellIVcellSOH( ) ( ) ( )( )tQCtCtSOH totlossnomres,100100 −==StateStateStateState----OfOfOfOf----Health : SOHHealth : SOHHealth : SOHHealth : SOHDischarge RestHEV Duty CycleRestQQQQloss,totloss,totloss,totloss,tot is the state variable to be computedis the state variable to be computedis the state variable to be computedis the state variable to be computed
  5. 5. 5©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France9Empirical capacity loss modeling (2/2)Capacity loss during storageCapacity loss during storageCapacity loss during storageCapacity loss during storage (1)(1)(1)(1) ::::( )− − −=CalzCalaCaltotlossCalaCalCaltotlossRTEBQRTESOCBzdtdQ11,,,,expexpCapacity loss during constant current cyclingCapacity loss during constant current cyclingCapacity loss during constant current cyclingCapacity loss during constant current cycling (2)(2)(2)(2): (: (: (: (Constant ChargeConstant ChargeConstant ChargeConstant Charge))))),,,,,( ,,CycCycCycaCyctotlossBEzTIfdtdQα=( ) ( )( )tQCtC totlossnomres ,100100−=Total Capacity Loss,Total Capacity Loss,Total Capacity Loss,Total Capacity Loss, QQQQloss,totloss,totloss,totloss,tot and Residual Capacity,and Residual Capacity,and Residual Capacity,and Residual Capacity, CCCCresresresres( )( )>==hCIanddtdIiffromcomputedfromcomputeddtdQnomtotloss1021,Model Parameters (7)Model Parameters (7)Model Parameters (7)Model Parameters (7)zzzzCalCalCalCal, E, E, E, Ea,Cala,Cala,Cala,Cal, B, B, B, BCalCalCalCalzzzzCycCycCycCyc, E, E, E, Ea,Cyca,Cyca,Cyca,Cyc, B, B, B, BCycCycCycCyc,,,, ααααCycCycCycCycParameters are calibrated with Calendar tests and conventionalCharge/Discharge Cycling tests©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France10OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss model development withinthe Electric Storage Library on AMESimII. Model experimental validationIII. Simulations study for PHEV battery pack lifetime: Impactof usage strategies and V2G capabilityIV. Conclusions and Perspectives
  6. 6. 6©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France11Aging Model Validation (1/2)PHEV Duty cycle at 45PHEV Duty cycle at 45PHEV Duty cycle at 45PHEV Duty cycle at 45°°°°CCCCThe current intensity sollicitation is representative of a PHEV dailyThe current intensity sollicitation is representative of a PHEV dailyThe current intensity sollicitation is representative of a PHEV dailyThe current intensity sollicitation is representative of a PHEV dailymission profile including storage, driving cycles and rechargemission profile including storage, driving cycles and rechargemission profile including storage, driving cycles and rechargemission profile including storage, driving cycles and rechargeDriving cyclesDepletingModeChargingModeStorageModeSimulation vs ExperimentsSimulation vs ExperimentsSimulation vs ExperimentsSimulation vs Experiments©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France12HEV duty cycles and impulses impact on battery lifetimeHEV duty cycles and impulses impact on battery lifetimeHEV duty cycles and impulses impact on battery lifetimeHEV duty cycles and impulses impact on battery lifetime (Savoye et al.)(Savoye et al.)(Savoye et al.)(Savoye et al.)Good results until SOH = 80% within the calibration rangeLimits of the approach near EOL and for power fade correlationNeed of more complex physics-based models also developed at IFPENAging Model Validation (2/2)
  7. 7. 7©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France13OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss model development withinthe Electric Storage Library on AMESimII. Model experimental validationIII. Simulations study for PHEV battery pack lifetime: Impactof usage strategies and V2G capabilityIV. Conclusions and Perspectives©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France14Simulations of PHEV Battery pack Lifetime (1/3)Impact of usage strategy : How to monitor the storage SOC of a PHEV?Impact of usage strategy : How to monitor the storage SOC of a PHEV?Impact of usage strategy : How to monitor the storage SOC of a PHEV?Impact of usage strategy : How to monitor the storage SOC of a PHEV?Strategy 1: (Classic Usage)Strategy 1: (Classic Usage)Strategy 1: (Classic Usage)Strategy 1: (Classic Usage)The Battery is recharged atThe Battery is recharged atThe Battery is recharged atThe Battery is recharged atthe end of the daily missionthe end of the daily missionthe end of the daily missionthe end of the daily missionprofile. It is stored at theprofile. It is stored at theprofile. It is stored at theprofile. It is stored at the"CHARGED" state"CHARGED" state"CHARGED" state"CHARGED" stateSOC = 90%SOC = 90%SOC = 90%SOC = 90%Strategy 2: ("JustStrategy 2: ("JustStrategy 2: ("JustStrategy 2: ("Just----InInInIn----Time")Time")Time")Time")The Battery is rechargedThe Battery is rechargedThe Battery is rechargedThe Battery is rechargedjust before the dailyjust before the dailyjust before the dailyjust before the dailymission profile (Justmission profile (Justmission profile (Justmission profile (Just----InInInIn----Time). It is stored at theTime). It is stored at theTime). It is stored at theTime). It is stored at the"DISCHARGED" state"DISCHARGED" state"DISCHARGED" state"DISCHARGED" stateSOC = 30%SOC = 30%SOC = 30%SOC = 30%Impact of "Classic Charging" vs "Just-In-Time Charging" scenarioChargingModeChargingMode
  8. 8. 8©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France15Simulations of PHEV Battery pack Lifetime (2/3)Battery Pack Lifetime depends on the vehicle usageBattery Pack Lifetime depends on the vehicle usageBattery Pack Lifetime depends on the vehicle usageBattery Pack Lifetime depends on the vehicle usageLowering the storage SOC reduces the aging (for this LiLowering the storage SOC reduces the aging (for this LiLowering the storage SOC reduces the aging (for this LiLowering the storage SOC reduces the aging (for this Li----ion Technology)ion Technology)ion Technology)ion Technology)Lowering the temperature T reduces the aging as wellLowering the temperature T reduces the aging as wellLowering the temperature T reduces the aging as wellLowering the temperature T reduces the aging as wellImpact of storage SOC on a Daily MissionImpact of storage SOC on a Daily MissionImpact of storage SOC on a Daily MissionImpact of storage SOC on a Daily MissionSimulations are performed at 15Simulations are performed at 15Simulations are performed at 15Simulations are performed at 15°°°°C, 25C, 25C, 25C, 25°°°°C, and 35C, and 35C, and 35C, and 35°°°°C until SOH = 80%C until SOH = 80%C until SOH = 80%C until SOH = 80%Simulation ResultsSimulation ResultsSimulation ResultsSimulation Resultsx 2,2©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France16Simulations of PHEV Battery pack Lifetime (3/3)Impact of usage strategy : Is V2G technology able to extend battery life?Impact of usage strategy : Is V2G technology able to extend battery life?Impact of usage strategy : Is V2G technology able to extend battery life?Impact of usage strategy : Is V2G technology able to extend battery life?(1) Kempton et al.,(1) Kempton et al.,(1) Kempton et al.,(1) Kempton et al., J. Power Sources,144 (2005) 268J. Power Sources,144 (2005) 268J. Power Sources,144 (2005) 268J. Power Sources,144 (2005) 268----279279279279Towards optimal profiles design to extend battery life andimprove energy production management to/from the grid!Simulation ResultsSimulation ResultsSimulation ResultsSimulation Results12,78 yStrat 115,05 yStrat 2 14,6 yStrat 3V2G could extend batterylifetime in this simulation.Home to Work trip = H WWork to Home trip = W HHHHH WWWW HHHH WWWWWWWW HHHH WWWW HHHH
  9. 9. 9©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France17OUTLINEI. Electro-thermal capacity loss model development withinthe Electric Storage Library on AMESimII. Model experimental validationIII. Simulations study for PHEV battery pack lifetime :Impact of usage strategies and V2G capabilityIV. Conclusions and Perspectives©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France18Conclusions and Perspectives (1/2)A dynamic capacity loss model is developed for Li-ion batteriesand is implemented into AMESim software and coupled with anelectro-thermal model of the Electric Storage library Revision 12(for a LiFePOLiFePOLiFePOLiFePO4444/C/C/C/C technology).The aging model is calibrated on calendar and conventionalcycling tests and accounts, within the calibration range, for theimpact of :Temperature, TState of Charge, SOCCurrent intensity for constant current profiles, I (for charge only,dynamic current is accounted for through temperature activation)The model is validated on :PHEV duty cyclesDynamic HEV profiles
  10. 10. 10©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France19The impact of vehicle usage strategies on the battery packlifetime has been explored by simulation. Lowering the SOCduring storage of Li-ion batteries could extend the lifetime ("Just-In-Time" charging could be a good solution).The impact of V2G is discussed as well. Extension of batterylifetime is expected through V2G technology in this caseFuture work will deal with the development of a generic multi-physics (electrochemical, thermal, mechanical) and multi-chemistry aging model for Li-ion technologies to extendprediction capabilitiesConclusions and Perspectives (2/2)Join the future AGIL(ES)² Consortium* launched byIFPEN on this topic!* AGIL(ES)² : AGing modeling of Industrial Li-ion Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems©2011-IFPEnergiesnouvellesPRADA et al. - LMS Conference - May 2013 - France20Thank you for your attentionThank you for your attentionThank you for your attentionThank you for your attentionFeel free to contact usFeel free to contact usFeel free to contact usFeel free to contact us for any questions andfor any questions andfor any questions andfor any questions andfor the upcoming AGIL(ES)² Consortium*!for the upcoming AGIL(ES)² Consortium*!for the upcoming AGIL(ES)² Consortium*!for the upcoming AGIL(ES)² Consortium*!eric.prada@ifpen.freric.prada@ifpen.freric.prada@ifpen.freric.prada@ifpen.fr+33 4 37 70 23 52+33 4 37 70 23 52+33 4 37 70 23 52+33 4 37 70 23 52valerie.sauvant@ifpen.frvalerie.sauvant@ifpen.frvalerie.sauvant@ifpen.frvalerie.sauvant@ifpen.fr+33 4 37 70 26 85+33 4 37 70 26 85+33 4 37 70 26 85+33 4 37 70 26 85* AGIL(ES)² :* AGIL(ES)² :* AGIL(ES)² :* AGIL(ES)² : AGAGAGAGing modeling ofing modeling ofing modeling ofing modeling of IIIIndustrialndustrialndustrialndustrial LLLLiiii----ionionionion EEEElectrochemicallectrochemicallectrochemicallectrochemical EEEEnergynergynergynergy SSSStoragetoragetoragetorage SSSSystemsystemsystemsystems

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